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at night. Chickweed is a good substitute for which communicates to it much of the lustre and spinach or greens, although generally little regarded general appearance of coffee. It is then handexcept as a troublesome weed, or gathered only by picked, to remove chips of wood, stones, &c., and is the poor to make poultices, for which it is very reduced to powder, and sold separately as chicory useful, or for feeding cage-birds, which are very powder, or is added to ordinary ground-coffee, and fond of its leaves and seeds. A number of is sold as a mixture. Chicory contains a good deal species of a nearly allied genus, Cerastium, also of sugar, but otherwise does not serve to supply the bear the name of Chickweed, or Mouse-ear Chick- animal economy with any useful ingredient. It weed, and the name is occasionally given to other gives off a deep brown colour to water when an plants, either botanically allied, or of somewhat infusion is made, and hence its main use in coffee. similar appearance.

Some people dislike the taste of chicory, and when Chiclana, a pretty town of Andalusia, Spain, largely used, it has a tendency to produce diarrhæa; 12 miles SE. of Cadiz, with a notable bull-ring and but many people prefer to use coffee mixed with vineyards. Its mineral baths are much frequented. chicory owing partly to the taste it communicates, Pop. 11,627.

but mainly to the appearance of strength which it Chiclayo, a town of Peru, 12 miles SE. of gives to the coffee. See ADULTERATION. Lambayeque, is the centre of a valuable sugar

Chief, in Heraldry, an ordinary consisting district. Pop. 11,325.

of the upper part of the field cut

off by a horizontal line. It is Chic'opee, a post-village of Hampden county, generally made to occupy one-third Massachusetts, on the east bank of the Connecti

of the area of the shield.

cut River, 4 miles N. of Springfield, with manu.
locks. Pop. 5000; of the township, including the in the upper part of the shield.
factures of cottons, bronze cannon, cutlery, and expression in chief ' means not on

a chief, but that the charge is borne
large manufacturing village of Chicopee Falls,

Chief-justice. (1885) 11,528 ; (1890) 14,050.

See JUSTICE In Chief.

Chicory, or SUCCORY (Cichorium), a genus of
Compositæ (sub-order Liguliflora), with few species,

Chiem-See, a lake of Upper Bavaria, the all herbaceous perennials, with spreading branches largest in the country, lies about 40 miles SE. of and milky juice, natives of Europe and West Asia. Munich, at an elevation of 1650 feet above the sea,

The Common

with a length of 12 miles, a breadth of 7, and a Chicory or Suc- greatest depth of 512 feet. It has three islands; its cory (C. Inty surplus water is discharged by the Alz into the bus) is wild in

Inn. The lake is famous for its fish; and a small England and steamer plies on it, although the primitive dugmost parts of out canoes are still its characteristic craft. Europe, grow Chië'ri, a town of Northern Italy, 12 miles SE. ing in

way. of Turin by rail, with some fine churches, and silk, sides, borders cotton, and linen manufactures. Pop. 9494. of fields, &c.

Chie'ti, an archiepiscopal city of Italy, It has a long beautifully situated on a hill near the Pescara, 69 carrot-like miles E. of Aquila by rail, and only 8 from the

root, externally Adriatic. It has a fine Gothic cathedral, a lyceum, 6

of a dirty or

and a theatre, and manufactures cloth and silk. brownish - Pop. (1881) 12,273. Chieti was built on the site yellow colour, of the ancient Teate of the Romans, many of the and white with remains of which are still visible. In 1524 St in. The stem

Gaetano founded here the order of the Theatines. rises 1 to 3 feet, the leaves re

Chiff-chaff (Sylvia hippolais ), a small species sembling those

of warbler, of very wide distribution. It is common of the dan in the south of Europe, and arrives in Britain in delion; the early spring as a summer visitor, but does not reach flower heads

Scotland. Its general colour is brown; the under

are sessile, ax- parts lighter. It is a very sprightly little bird ; Chicory (Cichorium Intybus): illary, large (1

but its song consists merely of a frequent repetition a, single flower; b, a separate floret. to 13 inch),

of two notes resembling syllables chiff-chaft. and beautiful,

It is also called the Lesser Pettychaps. Phyllo. generally blue, more rarely pink or white. Chicory scopus tristis is sometimes called the Siberian Chiffis pretty extensively cultivated, both in England chats

. See WHITETHROAT. and on the continent of Europe, as also in Cali- Chigi, a princely Italian family, whose founder fornia, for its roots, while its herbage is good food

was Agostino Chigi (died 1512), of Siena, who in for cattle. The blanched leaves are sometiines used Rome became banker to the popes, and was noted as a salad, and are readily procured in winter by for his pomp and encouragement of art. See placing the roots in a box with a little earth in a Cugnoni's Agostino Chigi il Magnifico (Rome, cellar. To this genus belongs also the Endive (q.v.). 1881).- A descendant, Fabio CHIGI, Occupied the

Chicory has been used as a substitute for coffee, papal throne as Alexander VII. (1655–67). ---FLAVIO
or to mix with coffee, for at least a century. The CHIGI, born in 1810, was till 1848 in the papal
roots are pulled up, washed, cut into small pieces, guard, and then became Bishop of Mira in partibus,
and dried on a kiln, which leaves a shrivelled mass nuncio at Munich, and till 1873 at Paris, and died
not more than one-fourth the weight of the original a cardinal, 15th February 1885. The head of the
root. It is then roasted in heated iron cylinders, family is Prince of Campagnano and Duke of
which are kept revolving as in coffee-roasting, during Ariccia, and is also hereditary marshal of the
which it loses 25 to 30 per cent. of its weight, and Conclave.
evolves at the same time a disagreeable odour, Chignecto Bay, an inlet at the head of the
resembling burned gingerbread. An improvement Bay of Fundy, in British North America. It
to the chicory during roasting is the addition of separates Nova Scotia from New Brunswick, is 30
2 lb. of lard or butter for every cwt. of chicory, | miles long and 8 broad, and has an isthmus of only




14 miles in width between it and Northumberland and there are numerous rivers. The state is better Strait, in the Gulf of St Lawrence.

adapted for stock-raising than for agriculture; Chignon (Fr., originally the ‘nape of the the fertile districts are mainly confined to the neck'), a general term for the long back hair of valleys and river-courses. Cotton is grown in the women when gathered up and folded into a roll on

south. The silver-mines were for centuries among the back of the head and neck. Padded and the richest in Mexico, and though many are now powdered, it was a common mode of the 18th abandoned, mining is still the chief industry. The century; in 1866 it reappeared, and with the state is traversed by the Mexican Central Railway. generous assistance of false hair attained such - The capital, Chihuahua, 225 miles S. of El Paso ungraceful proportions as by 1875 brought about its by rail, rises like an oasis in the desert, among dismissal.

roses and orange-groves. It is well built, with Chigoe, or JIGGER (Sarcopsylla penetrans), a

broad, clean streets, an imposing cathedral (1717genus of flea, somewhat smaller than the familiar 89), a mint, aud an aqueduct 3 miles long, and is Pulex, and without its jumping legs.

It is an

the centre of considerable trade with Texas. American pest, found for about 30 degrees on each

Founded in 1691, it had in the 18th century 80,000 side of the equator, but especially abundant in the inhabitants. Pop. (1880) 12,116. West Indies and in the north of South America. Chikislar, a small port in Russian Turkestan, It is found also in the West African coast region. on the eastern shore of the Caspian, north of the

mouth of the Atrek.

Chilblains are localised inflammations of the skin which occur in cold weather, and affect the parts farthest from the centre of the circulationviz. the hands and feet, more rarely the ears or nose. They are at first bright red, but as they disappear assume a purplish tinge. Sometimes they break and give rise to ulcers, which are slow to heal. They occur most frequently in young people, affect women more often than men, and are gener

ally associated with weak health and a sluggish Chigoe (Sarcopsylla penetrans):

circulation. They are often extremely irritable a, male ; b, gravid female..

and painful, especially when the affected part has

been chilled, and is quickly warmed again. In One of its many names—the 'sand-flea'-indicates their treatment, regard must be had to the general its favourite haunt among sand. It seems always health ; good feeding, exercise, and tonics should to keep near the abodes of men. The males and be prescribed. It is very important that tight immature females live like other fleas on chance shoes, gloves, garters, and bracelets should be bites, and relish of course the blood of animals as avoided ; and that the affected parts should be well as of man. It is the impregnated female which warmly covered when exposed to the open air. is the chief trouble. Like many other animals it Locally, when the skin is whole, some stimulating seeks a safe and quiet breeding-place. This is agent answers best; tincture of iodine, spirit of found under the skin of animals, on the feet or camphor, or mustard applied moist and rubbed till under the toe-nails of man. There the minute it dries. If the skin be very tender, collodion creature swells up enormously, attaining under the painted over it is useful, Broken cuilblains should

Peruvian Respiratory communication with the outer world is kept up by an air-hole at the posterior end. In less Child. For various subjects connected with than a week the eggs are ready to be liberated, for children, see Birth, FETUS, FOUNDLING, INFANT, the larvae are not parasitic. The mother-animal MAN; for legal standing, see PARENT AND CHILD, has meanwhile undergone a marked degeneration, INFANT, MINOR, PUPIL, GUARDIAN, INHERITthe internal organs being much squeezed and ANCE, TUTOR; and for child-stealing, see ABDUCatrophied by the growth of the ova. The entrance of the female chigoe is marked by a tingling and itching sensation, but if the development be ballad editors, was born in Boston, Massachusetts,

Child, FRANCIS JAMES, the most learned of allowed quietly to proceed no evil results seem

February 1, 1825. He graduated at Harvard in to follow. Pressure and premature attempts to

1846, and was an instructor there for some time in isolate the intruder may, however, lead to ulcera

the department of mathematics, and afterwards in tion. Its evil effects seem to have been exaggerated.

that of rhetoric. After a year or two spent in When the development of eggs has been completed, Europe, he was in 1851 appointed to the chair of the entire animal with its progeny may be gently Rhetoric at Harvard, which he exchanged in 1876 removed, and in this operation the West Indian

for that of Anglo-Saxon and Early English Literanegresses are experts. Washing with tobacco

ture. His first work was Four Öld Plays (1848); juice is also resorted to, and the leaves are some

but more important were his annotated edition times pressed on the feet as a preventive.

of Spenser (5 vols. Boston, 1855), and of the Chigwell, a village of Essex, on the border of English and Scottish Ballads (8 vols. Boston, 1857Hainault Forest, 13 miles NE. of London. 59), in a great American series of British Poets.' * Maypole Inn' is familiar to readers of Barnaby | The latter was at once recognised as the best Rudge; and it has a grammar-school, founded by collection of English ballad poetry-a place which Samuel Harsnet, Archbishop of York, in 1629, and it will lose only on the completion of the great improved and enlarged since 1871 at a cost of comparative collection by the same editor (already £10,000. Penn was a pupil. Pop. of parish (1861) 5 parts, Boston, 1882–88). This may be accepted 2676 ; (1881) 5431.

as the final work on its subject, as it contains Chihuahua, the largest state of Mexico, all the versions and variants collected from all bounded on the N. and NE. by New Mexico and sources, while the introductions to each ballad are Texas, has an area of 83,746 sq. m., and a pop. masterpieces of luminousness and learning. An (1882) of 225,25). In the east is the Bolson édition de luxe in form, and singularly free from Mapimi, a vast desert of sand and alkali plains ; typographical and other errors, this work will conin the south and west the surface is mountainous, l tinue to be indispensable to all serious students of

on lint.





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popular poetry. Professor Child also contributed successive year: 95, 147, 258, 284 ; total, 784. some valuable notes to Hales and Furnivall's Total of convictions for cruelty : 9, 16, 29, 54; reprint of Bishop Percy's folio manuscript (1867– total, 108. Night's lodgings atřorded to children 68). His invaluable «Observations on the Lan- brought to the society's shelter : 779, 1768, 2906, guage of Chaucer and Gower,' forming two papers 3017; total, 8470. Meals given to the children in the Memoirs of the American Academy, and sheltered : 2294, 5010, S834, 7936 ; total, 24,074. reprinted in part i. of Ellis's Early English Pro- All this has been accomplished with an income nunciation (1869), reveal a marvellously intimate averaging for the four years under £1450 per knowledge of Middle English grammar.

With all this, the need of additional Child, SIR JOSIAH, writer on commerce, was

legislation has become more and more urgent. A born in 1630, the second son of a merchant of

further improvement in the law of evidence is London. He himself made a fortune of £200,000 required. It has already been enacted that a as a navy victualler at Portsmouth and a director

child's simple statement, judged intrinsically true, of the East India Company. In 1678 he was made

can be received, though the age has not been a baronet, and he died 2żd June 1699. His prin; wife cannot give evidence against her husband of

reached for the understanding of an oath. But a cipal work is Brief Observations concerning Trade and the Interest of Money (1668); a 3d edition

his drunken midnight cruelty to their child which (1690), much enlarged, is entitled A New Dis- she alone has witnessed, though a mother's course of Trade, and has as an appendix, “A small evidence is legally admissible if she is not married Treatise against Usury.' In this work he explains to her child's father. State protection should be his plans for the relief and employment of the poor,

as freely accorded to the lives and limbs of including the substitution of districts or unions for children as, through the Court of Chancery, it is

afforded to their property. parishes, and the compulsory, transportation of

By the Dangerous paupers to the colonies. —His brother, SIR JOHN

Performances Act perilous actions may be proChld, was governor of Bombay, where he died,

hibited, but there is no stated authority to put 4th February 1690.

the law in operation. This benevolent work for Child (born FRANCIS), LYDIA MARIA, American police have not the sufficiency of time, resource,

children is indeed essentially a special work, and the author, born in Medford, Massachusetts, in 1802,

and special training which its full discharge republished her first novel in 1821, and in 1828 married David Lee Child (1794-1874), a journalist, with

quires. Municipal corporations should be emwhom she edited the Anti-slavery Standard in New powered to regulate as in America what is called York in 1843–44. She was a conspicuous champion the like.

street peddling,' as of evening newspapers and of the slaves, for whom she published an Appeal in

The hours, varying with the season of

the year, in which it may be carried on at all, and 1833 ; the principal of her numerous other works

the ages of the boys and girls who may be engaged are novels, the best of them relating to early New

in it, should be fixed and enforced. Once give the England history, and an ambitious but inaccurate

necessary powers, and many present evils will work on the history of religion (1855). She died

cease.-For the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 20th October 1880.

Childermas, or HOLY INNOCENTS' DAY (28th
December), is observed by the Church of Rome

Childs, GEORGE WILLIAM, born in Baltimore, with masses in commemoration of the children Maryland, 12th May 1829, became clerk in a bookkilled by Herod. It was long considered unlucky store in Philadelphia, and by 1850 was already to marry or to begin any work on this day, and head of a publishing firm, which soon became from Fenn's Letters we learn that the coronation of famous. In 1864 he became proprietor of the King Edward IV. was put off till the Monday, Public Ledger newspaper. He is distinguished for because the preceding Sunday was Childermas beneficence. He it was who placed a memorial Day. Innocents' Day is also å red-letter festival window in Westminster Abbey to Cowper and of the Church of England.

George Herbert, and erected a monument to Leigh


Hunt at Kensal Green.
perience has proved that defenceless children, even Chili (written CHILE by its own citizens), one
within the range of our boasted civilisation, are of the republics of South America. It is situated
not infrequently grossly maltreated by parents, on the west coast, and may be described as a long
their natural protectors, and that therefore special strip of territory lying between the summit of the
legislation is necessary to secure their proper Andes and the Pacific Ocean, extending from about
treatment. To ameliorate the condition of child the 18th parallel of south latitude to the southern
dren has therefore entered largely into the scope extremity of Tierra del Fuego. Boundaries : N. by
of modern legislation.

The Factory Acts (q.v.), Peru, E. by Bolivia and Argentine Republic, W. the Education Acts, the Reformatory and Indus- and S. by the Pacific Ocean. By recent treaties trial Schools Acts, the Criminal Law Amend the territory of Chili has been considerably exment Act, and the Dangerous Performances Act tended. After the war with Bolivia and Peru are all evidence of this fact. The operations of (1879-81), Chili acquired the coast between 23° and the recently formed Societies for the Prevention of 25° S. claimed by Bolivia, and annexed the Perufecelty to Children show in the strongest light the vian province of Tarapacá. She also occupies


to few years since this special agency was introduced the payment of a war-indemnity by Peru. In the among us. The first societies of the kind were south the disputed claims of Chili and Argentina to established in the United States. That in New Patagonia have been settled by Chili taking all York was the earliest

, as it is the largest and territory and islands south of the 52d parallel and most intluential.

Liverpool in 1883, and London west of 68° 30' W. This includes the larger portion in 1884, followed this example, and now, by means of Tierra del Fuego. The Strait of Magellan is by of other local societies, or of local aid commit- treaty considered neutral. The length of Chili is tees atliliated to the London society, the work about 2500 English miles. Its breadth varies they have undertaken is rapidly spreading. The from 40 to 200 miles. The Andes extend in two London Society has published the following state parallel lines throughout nearly the entire length ment of its work during the first four years of its of the country. Between these two ranges of the existence-i.e. from October 1884 to țarch 1888 Cordillera' there is a central valley or tableland

Number of cases undertaken in each | which attains its greatest breadth between 33° and

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40° S. The streams in the north are of little ls. 6d. per day, but are allowed a patch of land to importance, being mostly, shallow brooks, which, cultivate for themselves. Since the acquisition of after a short course, are licked up by the thirsty the territory of the Araucanian Indians in 1881 the land; in the south they are larger and more government has been anxious to attract European numerous, although most are navigable for only emigrants, but British adventure in that direction a few miles. The principal are the Maipu, which has been deprecated. There is practically no waters the valley of Santiago; the Máule; the demand for English mechanics, and the manufac. Biobio (q.v.), the largest river in the country; the tures, properly so called, are confined to copperCauten, or Rio Imperial; the Bueno; and the smelting, sugar-refining, tanning, brewing, manu; Callecalle, or Rio de Valdivia (100 miles), the factures of soap and candles, biscuits, boots and most important, of all, because of the sheltered shoes, woollens, flax, and nitrates. A special harbour at its mouth. In the south are also many effort is being made to introduce new manufacturing deep lakes, such as Llanquihue (30 miles long by industries which will be protected by tariff. 22 broad) and Ranco (32 miles by 18). Mineral The established religion of Chili is Roman waters, chiefly saline and sulphureous, are abun-Catholic, but public opinion is now very liberal, dant; the principal spa is at Chillan (q.v.). The and other religions are tolerated. Education remost important islands are those constituting the ceives much attention. By statistics of 1886 there province of Chiloé (q.v.); Juan Fernandez (q.v.) were 862 state schools, with a staff of 1232 teachers, also belongs to Chili. Owing to its great extension having 78,810 scholars on the books; there were from north to south, Chili comprises regions of also 532 private schools, with 27,860 scholars. very different nature and climate.

The north pro

In 1887 the state schools had increased by 88, and vinces, Tarapacá, Atacama, and part of Coquimbo the pupils by 2552. Government proposed in 1888 are arid, rainless districts, where the principal to spend $3,500,000 in the erection of additional industry is mining and extraction of saltpetre. school-houses. There is a first-class university at The middle and southern provinces-viz. Acon- Santiago, and a lyceum in every provincial capital. cagua, Valparaiso, Santiago, Colchagua, Curicó, The language spoken in Chili is Spanish, but with Talca, Linares, Máule, Nuble, Concepcion, Arauco, many local words of Indian origin. Biobio, and Valdivia, are agricultural and viti- The value of imports in 1887 was $48,630,862, cultural, and have also valuable coalfields. The and of exports $59,549,958; a third of the imports Patagonian region is densely wooded and sparsely and two-thirds of the exports were British, the inhabited by a few Indians. The climate of Chili German and French trade being next in importis temperate. In the north it is moderately hot Mineral products represented five-sixthis of and rainless, but banks of clouds always hang over- the total exports.

The chief articles of export head, and heavy dew falls at night. In the south were nitrate and iodine, copper, silver, gold, manit is dry for about eight months of the year, and ganese, hides, wool, wheat, and barley. The rainy the other four. The temperature is remark- principal imports were cotton, woollen, and jute ably even and pleasant, and always cool at nights. goods, iron, hardware, coal, machinery, timber, The south wind blows fiercely during many days rice, sugar, earthenware, cement, paper, beer, of summer dry and cold ; the north wind brings glassware, kerosene, tallow, matches, tea and heat, tempest, and rain ; other winds are unknown. coflee. In Southern Chili generally the land is poor and The railway system of Chili is well developed. of hardly any value for agriculture, which, indeed, A government broad-gauge line runs from Valpais carried on in a very primitive fashion ; but the raiso to Santiago, crossing the coast-range of the soil of the valleys, where large herds of cattle Andes, and thence southwards through the central graze, is very fertile. Vines, also, grow well on valley to Concepcion, and through Araucania towards the hillsides, and the wines of the country are Valdivia, making a total length of about 1500 superseding in Chili the French red wines. The miles. A branch from the Valparaiso and Santiago Andes are almost everywhere visible, covered with line also runs to Santa Rosa at the foot of the perpetual snow. The highest peak is Aconcagua, Andes, from which a line is now in progress, to 22,867 feet. The average height of the great range unite with the Argentine railway system, viâ the is 8000 feet. There are many volcanic peaks, Uspallata Pass, which it will cross at the elevation mostly extinct. Amongst these inay be mentioned of 9843 feet above sea-level by means of a tunnel Tupungato, Descabezada, Chillan, Osorno, Villa 64 miles in length. When this is finished there Rica, &c. Chili is subject to frequent shocks will be a through communication from the Pacific to of earthquake, and occasionally to destructive the Atlantic Oceans, and by many it is argued that terremotos. The most notable of these recorded this will be the shortest route from England to the was in 1822, when the coast near Valparaiso was Australian colonies. The length of the railway thrown up permanently between 3 and 4 feet : from Valparaiso to Buenos Ayres will be 880 miles. this elevation extended over 100,000 sq. m. In In the northern provinces there are several mineral 1835 Concepcion and Talcahuano were destroyed by railways belonging to English companies. One of a fearful earthquake which produced disaster all these, the Antofagasta, is now being prolonged to over the southern provinces. In 1868 Iquique was Bolivia. destroyed by a shock which was felt more in the The financial position of Chili is satisfactory, and northern districts, and again in 1875.

its credit stands higher than that of any other The population of Chili according to the census South American state, as is proved by the fact of 1885 was 2,524,476. After making allowance for that it has been able to borrow money in the the new territories acquired, it is computed that this London market at the rate of 4} per cent. per is an increase of 352,813 since the preceding census of

At the end of 1887 the foreign debt 1875, or about 17 per cent. The number of foreign amounted to about $40,100,000, and the internal residents increased from 26,635 to 40,000 during debt, including forced paper currency in circulation, that period. The natives of Chili are a mixture of to $48,335,071. The revenue for 1888 was stated Spanish with the Araucanian Indians. In the at $39,000,000, and the expenditure $39,615,770, upper classes the race has been kept more purely but in this was included a large number of extraSpanish than in any other South American country. ordinary expenses, so that in reality there would The working-classes are laborious and docile, be, as in several preceding years, à considerable but it cannot be said that there is as yet any surplus. An idea of the progress of the country effectual protection for property. Wages are still may be formed from the fact that the customs

On estates labourers receive about I revenue, which in 1856 amounted to $4,147,298, in


Very low.




The gov.

1866 to $3,053,416, and in 1876 to $7,422,791, in 1886 president was General Blanco Encalada. reached $23,416,346. The current money of Chili ernment was unsettled until 1847, and in 1851 there previous to the late war was gold and silver and was an attempted revolution. In 1864 Chili gave à restricted bank-note issue which stood at par. Peru very valuable support in her war with Spain. The necessities of the government caused an issue Valparaiso was bombarded by the Spaniards in of inconvertible paper notes which subsequently 1866. In 1879 Chili declared war against Bolivia, fell to a serious depreciation. The par value of a . and immediately thereafter against Peru, with dollar is equal to 5 francs or a little over 48d.,

but which Bolivia was allied. For a time the Peruvian its value in exchange during the war with Peru fleet kept the Chilians in check, but in August was as low as 16d. Its value in 1888 was about 1879 a Peruvian ironclad was captured by Chilian 26d. Owing to this circumstance it is difficult to men-of-war. After this Peruvian towns were bomform an exact estimate in sterling of the exports barded, and their other war-ships captured. Finally and imports.

Elaborate statistics are regularly Lima was taken by storm on 21st June 1881. The published by the government.

The values are Chilians occupied "Lima and Callao until October arrived at by official valuation, which is not always 30, 1883, when a treaty of peace was signed. By in proportion to the real value. Government | this a portion of Peruvian territory (see above) was accounts are also still kept as though the dollar ceded to Chili. On January 1, 1891, the Chilian was equivalent to 48d. The foregoing statistics congress issued a manifesto declaring the president, must therefore be modified in view of these con- José Manuel Balmaceda, guilty of malefeasance in ditions.

office and appointing his successor.

A civil war The constitution of Chili is republican and based followed. upon that of the United States. Every citizen is See Sir Horace Rumbold, Le Chili (Paris, 1877); entitled to a vote who can read and write and prove Robiano, Chili (Paris, 1882); Ochsenius, Chile, Land that he earns $150 or upwards a year, and is und Leute (Leip. 1884); Boyd, Chili and the Chilians twenty-one years of age if married, or twenty-five if during the War (1881); Clements R. Markham, The single. The president is appointed by a body of

War between Chili and Peru (1883); Lord Cochrane, electors chosen by the people. His term of oflice is

Concerning Chili, in the Fortnightly Review (1884); the five years, and his salary $18,000

Historia General by Arana (Valparaiso, 4 vols. 1863), per

The annum.

and that by Rosales ( 1878). cabinet consists of six ministers—viz. of Finance, the Interior, Foreign Affairs, War, Commerce and Public

Chiliasm. See MILLENNIUM. Works, and of Justice, Public Worship, and Instruc

Chili Nettle. See LOASACEÆ. tion. The Council of State consists of five members Chillan, capital of the Chilian province of nominated by the president, and six appointed by Nuble (area, 3556 sq. m. ; pop. in 1885, 149,871), congress. The legislature is composed of two was formerly, an important centre of the Jesuit chambers-viz. the Deputies, about 100 in num- missions, but is now only of interest for its commerber, being in proportion of one to 20,000 inhabit-cial activity. Close by, however, romantically, ants; and the Senate, numbering one to every five situated on the slope of the extinct volcano of deputies. Deputies must have an income of at Chillan (9445 feet), are the Baños de Chillan, with least $500, and senators of $2000. The elections bathing establislıments, which are in high repute are conducted with considerable fairness, but as among persons sufering from gout, rheumatism, the majority of the representatives chosen have dyspepsia, and cutaneous diseases. Pop. of Chillan, come from the ranks of a few leading families, 16,000. Chili has been well described as “an aristocratic Chillesford Beds. See PLIOCENE. republic.' This state of affairs, however, has Chilli. See CAPSICUM. brought excellent results, as the Chilian government has long had a deservedly high reputation for

Chillianwalla, a village of the Punjab, 5 ability and integrity.

miles from the east bank of the Jhelum, and 85

miles NW. of Lahore. It was the scene of an History. The name Chili is supposed to be derived from an ancient Peruvian word signify

indecisive but sanguinary battle during the second ing “snow.' The northern portion, as far as the

Sikh war, 13th January 1849, and is the site of an river Máule, formed part of the dominions of

obelisk erected to the memory of the British officers the Incas of Peru. The southern was held by

and men who fell in the engagement. the valiant Araucanians, the only aboriginal race

Chillico'thé, capital of Ross county, Ohio, which was not subdued by the Spaniards, and pleasantly situated on the Scioto River and on the Which until a few years ago maintained their Ohio Canal, 50 miles S. of Columbus by rail. It independence against the Chilians. The first

has manufactures of paper, leather, farming imple. European to land in Chili was the Portuguese ments, &c., and was from 1800 to 1810 the capital discoverer Magellan, after his famous voyage

of the state. Pop. (1880) 10,938 ; (1890) 11,288. through the strait which now bears liis name. He Chillingham, a village in the north of Northlanded at Chiloé in 1520. After the conquest of

umberland, on the river Till, 8 miles SW. of BelPeru by Pizarro, an expedition was made to Chili ford. To the south is Chillingham Castle, seat of from that country overland under the leadership of the Earl of Tankerville, built in the reign of Diego de Almagro in 15:35. This expedition pene. Edward III. In the park, as at Cadzow, are pretrated as far as the Rio Clano, but returned un

served a herd of wild white cattle. See CATTLE. successful. Another was sent under command of Chillingworth, WILLIAM, one of the greatest Pedro Valdivia in 1540, which succeeded in annex- of English controversial theologians, was born at ing the territory as far as the river Maipu. Sant- Oxford in 1602, the son of a prosperous citizen, iago, the capital, was founded by Valdivia in 1542. who afterwards became mayor. Laud, then Fellow During the colonial period the governors of Chili of St John's College, was his godfather. In 1618 were appointed by the viceroys of Peru. In 1810 he became a scholar of Trinity College, and in a revolt against the Spanish power broke out, in 1628 was elected to a fellowship in his college, which Don Bernardo O'Higgins, son of one of the Aubrey's story that he acted here as

a kind last viceroys of Peru, but a native of Chili, played a of spy for Laud rests on Sir William Davenant's conspicuous part, and finally became the first dicta- dubious authority alone, and may safely be tor of the new republic. The conflict between the neglected. His great parts soon secured him Spanish troops and the republican army continued the intimacy of Sir Lucius Carey, afterwards until 1826, when peace was definitely settled, and Lord Falkland, John Hales of Eton, and Gilbert Chili left to govern itself. The first constitutional | Sheldon, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury;

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