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and Juis restless intellect soon turned to the ques. only, is the religion of Protestants.' The great tion of chief interest at that time in his university principles of religion, and everything of faith —the controversy between the Church of England essential to salvation, are herein clearly revealed and the mother Church of Rome. The arguments patent to the right reason' and judgment of of an able Jesuit, known by the name of John
Religious certitude can thus be Fisher, at length convincing him of the necessity reached by every honest mind, from the plain of an infallible living judge in matters of faith, he interpretation of the Bible, which is necessarily embraced the Romish communion with an in- itself intelligible and sufficient, without need of credible satisfaction of mind.' In 1630 he went to any medium to transfer it or judge to interpret Douay, and here being urged to write an account it. Indeed, the measure of the responsibility of of the motives of his conversion, a fresh examina- faith is just the measure of the clearness and simtion of the whole questions at issue, and a series of plicity of the divine revelation. Scripture and the letters from Laud, at length brought him from candid mind acting together, under the quickening doubt of the soundness of his recent conclusions to grace of God and the guidance of the Holy Spirit, a complete renunciation. But although he had are thus the sole factors of religious certitude, become convinced that the claims of the Church of which is necessarily based on rational personal Rome to an infallible judgment on matters of faith conviction. The simplest creed is the best creed, had no real foundation, le adhered alone to Scrip- and the only possible basis on which to reconstruct ture as interpreted by the light of reason, and for the divided church is such a simple, assured, and a time declined to take orders in the Church of accepted religious minimum as the apostles' creed, England, regarding her Articles as themselves a withi full freedom to individual opinion in every. needless'imposition on men's consciences.' Mean- thing supplementary and unessential. For why, time he had become involved in a succession of he asks, should men be more rigid than God? controversies with John Lewgar, a Catholic con- Why should any error exclude any man from the vert; Floys, a Jesuit, who went under the name of Church's communion, which will not deprive him Daniel; and White, the author of Rushworth’s of eternal salvation?' It may be that Chilling. Dialogues. His papers in answer to these mere worth's ideas carried out would have made any preliminary studies for the great work that was to kind of church polity or even successive organised follow—are contained in bis Additional Dis- religious life impossible, but at least they would courses, published in 1687. Another Jesuit, known have preserved something perhaps quite as precious as Edward Knott, having blished in 1630 his – -an intellectual conception of toleration
that Charity Mistaken, dc., which was answered by Dr would have saved England years of misery and Christopher Potter, provost of Queen's College in blood; and which need not necessarily have Oxford in 1633, rejoined in 1634 with Mercy and eliminated also the religious enthusiasm of the Truth, dc. This second book Chillingworth under- individual, together with his confidence in the took to answer, and with that view retired to the absolute infallibility of his own opinions. quiet of Lord Falkland's house and library at The reasoning throughout the great work of Great Tew in Oxfordshire. Meantime, Knott | Chillingworth is marked by strong and clear hearing of his intention, hastened to take an unfair intellect; singularly simple but direct and straightadvantage of his antagonist, by an attempt to pre- forward style, warming at times into a suppressed judice the public mind beforehand. In 1636 he but vehement eloquence, and informed throughout issued in a forty-two page pamphlet a series of mere with an honesty, an earnestness, and, above all, a scurrilous insinuations, the main drift of which fairness but rare in controversial literature. Locke, was that Chillingworth was a Socinian, whose in his Thoughts concerning Reading and Study for opinions tended to the overthrow of all super- a Gentleman, commends the constant reading of natural religion no less than of Catholic doctrine. Chillingworth, who, by his example, will teach both At length, in 1637, appeared Chillingworth's famous perspicuity and the way of right reasoning better book, The Religion of Protestants a safe Way to than any book I know.' Chillingworth left little Salvation ; or an Answer to a Booke entitled Mercy besides his masterpiece-nine sermons, the Addiand Truth, &c. This great work suffers from its tional Discourses’ already referred to, and a brief being necessarily to some extent an answer to a fragment on the apostolical institution of episcopacy now completely forgotten book, and being thereby forming the whole. The rest of his life is soon weighted with a great mass of extraneous matter. told. At length he found himself able to give a Indeed, it is only after the author has demolished general assent to the Articles, and in July 1638 he the arguments of his temporary antagonist that was made Chancellor of Salisbury, with the prehe is at liberty to follow the unembarrassed | bend of Brixworth in Notts annexed, and soon course of his own thought, and it is evident that after master of Wigstan's Hospital in Leicester. only a writer of consummate talent could so have In 1640 he was elected proctor to convocation by surmounted the disadvantages of such a form, as the Chapter of Salisbury. At the outbreak of the to make a book of enduring interest and value. Civil War he accompanied the king's forces, Yet it is all this and more, for we have here not though his heart sank within him to see publicans only a masterly demonstration of the sole authority and sinners on the one side, against scribes and of the Bible in the essential matters relating to Pharisees on the other.' He was with the royal salvation, but an assertion of the free right of the army before Gloucester, where, we are told, he individual conscience to interpret it, laid down devised an engine for purposes of assault after the once for all with perfect confidence and fullest pattern of the old Roman testudo. At Arundel plainness - the freedom of religious opinion and the Castle he was taken ill, and when the garrison surright to toleration for honest difference of opinion rendered to Waller, being too ill to be carried to placed on its true basis, and this two centuries London, was ged in the bishop's palace at and a half ago. The great question at issue is Chichester, where he died, 30th January 1643. His that of the basis of religious certitude, or “the last hours were pestered by the ill-timed and cruel means whereby the truths of revelation are con- exhortations of one Cheynell, an ignorant and veyed to our understanding,' whether this is to rabid Puritan preacher, who, at his burial in rest on the infallible authority of the Church, Chichester Cathedral, llung a copy of the noblest or ultimately on the authority of the Scriptures theological treatise of the age into the grave, that alone.
it might rot with its author and see corruption.' Here Chillingworth's conclusion is, in his own The Chillingworthi Novissima, &c. (1644), in which oft-quoted words : “The Bible, I say, the Bible / this Westminster divine did such dishonour to
himself, is one of the most melancholy monuments now serves a secondary one. A member of the that exist of fanatical and unchristian bigotry: House of Commons cannot resign his seat unless It was Chillingworth’s fate to be assailed with disqualified either by the acceptance of a place of 'great asperity and reproaches all his life, and honour and profit under the crown, or by some throughout to be misunderstood by blind Papist other cause. Now, the stewardship of the Chiltern and blind Puritan alike.
Hundreds is held to be such a place, and it is conSee the Life by Des Maizeaux (1725), and that by Rev. sequently applied for by, and granted, usually as a Thomas Birch, prefixed to his edition of the works (1742). matter of course, to any member who wislies to Of these the best edition is that published at Oxford in resign, though it has been refused in a case of 3 vols. in 1838. See chapter v: (vol. i.) of the late bribery. As soon as it is obtained, it is again rePrincipal Tulloch's Rational Theology in England in the signed, and is thus generally vacant when required Seventeenth Century (2 vols. 1872).
for the purpose in question. When the Chiltern Chillon, a celebrated castle of Switzerland, at Hundreds are not vacant, however, the same purthe eastern end of the Lake of Geneva, l! mile pose is served by the stewardship of the manors of SSE. of Montreux. It stands on an isolated rock, East Hendred, Nortlıshead, and Hempholme. The 22 yards from the shore, and connected therewith by practice of granting the Chiltern Hundreds for the a bridge, though the strait between them is dry. purpose above described began only about the Dating perhaps from the 8th century, it seems to year 1750; the gift lies with the Chancellor of the have been partly rebuilt in 1238, by Amadeus IV. Exchequer. of Savoy, and it long served as a state prison.
Chimära, a fire-breathing monster, described Here for six years (1530-36) Bonivard (q.v;) by Homer as having a lion's head, a goat's body, endured the captivity inmortalised by Byron's and the tail of a dragon. In Hesiod's account a Prisoner of Chillon (1821). Among the thousands daughter of Typhaon and Echidna, she devastated of names inscribed on the pillars of the dungeon Lycia until killed by Bellerophon. Gigantic carvings are those of Byron, Georges Sand, and Victor of the chimæra on rocks have been found in Asia Hugo. The castle is now used as a magazine for Minor, representing the monster as a lion, out of military stores.
the back of which grow's the neck and head of a Chiloé, the insular province of Chili, consists of goat. It is frequently depicted on shields as a the island of that name on the west coast, which is heraldic charge. The name is used figuratively as separated from the mainland by a narrow strait on a word denoting any monstrous or impossible conthe N., and by a gulf 30 miles wide on the E., and ception, theunnatural birth of the fancy– Tennyson's has a length of 115 miles, and an extreme breadth chimeras, crotchets, Christmas solecisms. of 43 miles, and of a number of neighbouring islets, Chimara, a genus of cartilaginous fishes, and mostly uninhabited ; total area, 3980 sq. m.; pop. type of a distinct order, Holocephali, which is often (1885) 73,420, almost all Indians living on the ranked along with the sharks and rays, or Elasmoprincipal island. Chiloé proper is hilly in the branchs. The chief distinctions are the presence interior, and everywhere covered, except imme- of a fold of skin covering the (4) gill-clefts, the diately along the shores, with nearly impassable nakedness of the skin, the fusion of the upper jaw forest. The climate is mild and not unhealthy, to the skull, the separation of anal, urinary, and although inordinately wet. The Indians belong to
genital apertures. There are no “spiracles, nor a subdivision of the Araucanian family; they are 'spiral-valve.' Except in the above particulars, a gentle and honest race, mostly engaged in fishing and a few others of a more technical nature, the and in lumbering, timber being at present the members of this small order agree witlı the ordinary chief export from the island, although immense Cartilaginous Fishes (q.v.). There are only two deposits of coal have been reported. The capital, living genera—Chimæra and Callorhynchus. The Ancud, on the north coast, has a good harbour, best-known species of chimara (C. monstrosa) is but is meanly built ; it is the seat of a bishop, and often called the King of the Herrings, and is has a population of 6000.
occasionally taken in herring-nets in British seas. Chilog'natha, Chilop'oda. See MYRI
Chiltern Hills, the southern part of the low chalk range which runs north-east, about 70 miles, from the north bend of the Thames, in Oxfordshire, through Bucks and the borders of Herts and Beds. In Oxford, Herts, and Beds the Chiltern Hills are 15 to 20 miles broad, and the highest point is near Wendover (950 feet). In his sketch of John Hampden's home, Mr Green paints finely the quiet undulations of the chalk country, billowy heavings and sinkings as of some primeval sea suddenly hushed into motionlessness, soft slopes of gray grass or brown-red corn falling gently to dry bottoms, woodland flung here and there in masses over the hills. A country of fine and lucid air, of
Chimæra monstrosa. far shadowy distances, of hollows tenderly veiled by mist, graceful everywhere with a flowing unac- It is found on the coasts of Europe and Japan, in centuated grace, as though Hampden's own temper North Atlantic, and at the Cape of Good Hope. had grown out of it.'
In the United States it is called Sea Cat. It is Chiltern Hundreds. In former times the an ugly fish, seldom over 3 feet in length, of a beech-forests which covered the Chiltern Hills whitish colour, spotted with brown above. The were infested with robbers, and in order to restrain males have clasping organs; the large eggs are them it was usual for the crown to appoint an inclosed in a leathery case. The C. Colliei is found officer, who was called the Steward of the Chiltern on the west coast of North America ; and the C. Hundreds. The hundreds in question (see HUN- Affinis on the coast of Portugal. In the other DRED) are those of Bodenham, Desborough, and genus, Callorhynchus, in the South Pacific, the Stoke, in Buckinghamshire. The stewardship, snout bears an appendage, and the tail is not symwhich has long ceased to serve its primary purpose, metrical as in the above, but slightly shark-like.
Chimaphila. See WINTER-GREEN.
bedrooms are smaller. In the late Gothic and Chimboraʼzo, a conical peak of the Andes, in
Elizabethan styles the chimneys are amongst the Ecuador, 20,517 feet above the sea, but only about
most striking features of the design, being carried 11,000 above the level of the valley of Quito, to the up in lofty and highly ornamented stalks, frenorth. The ‘silver bell’of perpetual snow and quently built in bri glacier was long erroneously regarded as the loftiest
In modern times the external appearance of mountain not only in America but in the whole chimneys has been greatly neglected, to the sad world. From 1745, when La Condamine ascended disfigurement of our houses, but a better taste is as high as 16,730 feet, numerous only partially
now beginning to prevail. In successful attempts had been made to scale the one direction, however, modern mountain before Whymper in 1880 twice reached chimneys have received a great the summit.— The peak gives name to the province development in connection of Chimborazo, to the south, with an area of 5523 with furnaces and steam-en
In order to create a sq. m., and a pop. (1885) of 90,782, exclusive of the gines. uncivilised Indians.
draught, and so cause the fire Chimere, a bishop's upper robe, to which the these chimney-stalks are car
to burn with intense heat, lawn-sleeves are attached. That of Anglican ried to a great height. The bishops is of black satin, that of English Roman
difference of pressure of the Catholics is of purple silk.
atmosphere between the top Chimes. See BELL.
and bottom, added to the lightChimney, a flue constructed in the thickness ness of the air caused by the of a wall or in a separate stalk' for the purpose of heat, acts as the motive power carrying off the smoke from a fireplace or furnace. to the ‘draught, which thus The heated air being lighter than the atmosphere increases with the height of which maintains the fire, presses the smoke up
the stalk. Amongst the wards, and rises with a rapidity proportioned to the highest existing chimneys may difference in weight, assuming that the chimney is
be mentioned the following: of proper construction and size. It has been found (1) the Townsend shaft, Port in practice that a diameter of from 9 inches to 12 Dundas, . Glasgow, which is inches is suitable for the fireplaces of ordinary 468 feet in total height, and rooms, but in the case of kitchens and other large has a diameter of 32 feet at fires a greater width is required. In olden times it base, and 13 feet 4 inches at was usual to build fireplaces of great size, with very top; weight, about 8000 tons. Chimney, Thornbury large chimneys, but as these admit a great quantity (2) St Rollox shaft, Glasgow Castle, Gloucesterof air at the ordinary temperature, the draught is total height, 453 feet 6 shire, 1514. thereby checked, and the chimneys are apt to inches; diameter at base, 50 (From Parker.) smoke. Experience has taught that the 'throat' feet; at top, 13 feet 6 inches. or entrance to the chimney from the fireplace (3) Mechernich shaft, Cologne—total height, 441 should be made as small as possible compatible feet; diameter (square) at base, 39 feet; at top with its task of carrying off the products of com- (round), 11 feet 6 inches; weight, about 5459 tons. bustion from the fire. A proper draught depends An act to regulate chimney-sweeping was passed also on the height of the chimney, which ought to as early as 1789; and in 1842, to prevent the fearbe sufficient to be above the interference of swirls ful cruelties practised on young chimney-sweepers, of air caused by surrounding buildings or other
it was rendered penal to compel or knowingly objects. The higher the chimney, the greater the allow any person under the age of twenty-one, to draught.
ascend or descend a chimney or enter a flue for the Chimneys are of comparatively modern origin. purpose of cleaning or curing it; and no child Only traces of them are found in classic antiquity; under sixteen could be thereafter apprenticed to but there must have been some such means of dis- the trade. The act was extended and made more charging the smoke from the fires which heated the stringent in 1864 and 1875. hypocausts of the Roman baths. In medieval times, To extinguish a chimney on fire, it is only necesthe earliest examples of fireplaces with chimneys, sary to hang over the fireplace a piece of wet such as those in the Norman castles of Rochester carpet or blanket : some handfuls of salt thrown and Castle Hedingham, erected in the 12th century, into the fire at the same time will greatly aid the have only a short flue ascending a few feet, and extinction. It is also recommended to scatter a discharging by an oblong aperture in the outer face handful of flowers of sulphur over the dullest part
of the wall. These were no of the burning coals, the vapour arising from which doubt found very smoky and will not support combustion, and will consequently inconvenient, and ultimately extinguish the flames. Throwing water down from the chimneys were carried to the top is a clumsy expedient, by which much damthe roof. In Gothic buildings age is frequently done to furniture ; so also is stopthey are often detached, and ping at the top, by which the smoke and suffocatthe outlet is ornamented with ing smell of the burning soot are driven into the trefoil and other openings. apartment. If every fireplace were provided with In the English balls the a damper, or shutter of sheet-iron, sufficiently large centre hearth was long re
to choke it thoroughly, fire in chimneys would tained, without any chimney, become of little consequence, as it would only be the smoke being allowed to necessary to apply this damper to extinguish them. find its way out through an All good modern grates are furnished with such opening in the roof called the dampers. To set chimneys on fire with a view to Louvre (q.v.).
In Scottish clean them is highly objectionable, even where
mansions and castles the there is no danger of fire to be apprehended, as Chimney, Tisbury, fireplace was an invariable the intense heat produced rends and weakens the
Wilts. feature in every apartment walls. For other connected subjects, see SMOKE(From Parker's Glossary.) from the 13th century. The NUISANCE, VENTILATION, WARMING.
hall has always a large fire- Chimpanzee (Troglodytes niger), one of the place and capacious chimney, while those of the highest of the anthropoid or more manlike apes,
belonging to the same genus as the gorilla (T. in the cerebral hemispheres of the chimpanzee; but gorilla).
they are simpler and more symmetrical, and larger History. The first historical notice of the chim- in proportion to the brain.' panzee seems to be that given in an account of a Habits.—The chimpanzee is found on the coast Carthaginian exploration of the north-west of of Guinea and farther inland. It occupies a wider Africa, conducted by Hanno in 470 B.C. Along area than the gorilla, and is even said to have been with other anthropoid apes, it was known to the found in East Africa, to the south of Abyssinia. Romans in their varied communications with It lives in forests, is an adept climber, but keeps a Africa. The first thorough investigation of the good deal to the ground. The diet consists mainly anatomy was made by Tyson in 1699. Various of wild fruits; but animal food seems to be occatravellers gradually gathered information in regard sionally eaten. The chimpanzees live in families to its habits, and captured specimens were known or in small societies. They construct pent-houses in France and England by the 18th century. The in the thick forest darkness, and the males are said structure of the animal has been studied by several to pass the night below the family nest. They famous anatomists, such as Owen, Duvernoy, make a great deal of noise, of a dreary and horrible Bischoff, and Huxley ; and much information, both character, especially when provoked by other historical and anatomical, will be conveniently monkeys. Though they generally flee at the sight found in Professor R. Hartmann's Anthropoid of man, they can with hands and teeth make themApes (Inter. Sc. Series, 1885). To this naturalist selves in extremity most formidable antagonists. much of our knowledge as to the exact anatomy The natives shoot them with arrows or javelins, or of the chimpanzee and related forms is due. For in recent days with firearms. The flesh is eaten by more general considerations, Huxley's work en- the natives of some parts of Africa ; the skulls may titled Man's Place Nature may be profitably serve as fetiches. consulted. See also his Anatomy of Vertebrate There is considerable dispute as to the species Animals,
or varieties of chimpanzee. Hartmann discusses Characteristics. -As the general features of the question at length in the work already referred Anthropoid Apes (q.v.) have been already sketched, to, describing one distinct variety in addition to it will be enough to sum up the more striking the typical Troglodytes niger, and admitting the characteristics of the chimpanzee. The animal possibility of hybrids. Chimpanzees are occasionally stands about four feet high, has very dark, all but brought to European zoological gardens, but rarely black hair, a broad, leathery, reddish brown face, stand the climate for more than two or three years. small nose, large mouth, protruding lips, large browThey are known to exhibit great cleverness, and ridges, and small ears. The face has an angle of admit of some education. 70 degrees. The head langs down upon the chest. China. The Chinese Empire, consisting of
China Proper and Manchuria (q.v.), with its dependencies of Mongolia, I-lî, and Tibet (q.v.), embraces a vast territory in Eastern Asia only inferior in extent to the dominions of Great Britain and Russia. The dependencies are not colonies, but subject territories; and China Proper itself, indeed, has been a subject territory of Manchuria since 1644. It will be convenient, however, to confine ourselves in this article to the former.
China is not known among the people themselves as the designation of the country, and the use of the term is spreading among them only through its all but universal employment by other nations. In the oldest classical writings the country is called Hwû Hsia, “The Flowery Hsiâ.' Ching Kwo, The Middle State,' or kingdom, grew up in the feudal period as a name for the royal domain in the nidst of the other states, or for those states as a whole in the midst of the uncivilised states around them. The idea of its being in the middle of the earth 'did not enter into the designation, though the assumption of universal sovereignty, de jure if not de facto, that has been so injurious to the nation, a beneath the
very ancient names Tien hsia, all Chimpanzee (after Hartmann).
sky,' and Sze Hâi, 'all within the four seas.' In
the treaties with western nations concluded in the There are no cheek-pouches. The arms are very present century the empire is called by the title of long, and reach the knee; their span is about half the reigning dynasty, 'the Kingdom of the Great as much again as the height. The hand is narrow, Pure (dynasty);' and this is in accordance with the but as long as the foot. The sole of the foot can practice of Chinese writers, who are fond of calling rest flatly on the ground, and the animal readily their country the Land of Han,' and 'the Hills of stands or walks erect. But his favourite attitude T'ang' from the two great dynasties so named. is leaning forward, and supporting himself on the Serica, Sera, and Seres, in Ptolemy and other knuckles of the hand. The backbone begins to ancient geographers, indicate China and the exhibit the curves characteristic of man, and the Chinese as the country and people producing silk, chimpanzee is alone among anthropoids in having being taken from sze (silk), originally the pictorial the spine of the second neck vertebra bifurcated as symbol of a packet of cocoons. in man.
It has one pair of ribs in addition to the Cathay, a poetical name with us, and still twelve possessed by man.
There is of course no apparent in the Russian name for China (Kitai), tail, nor are there any sitting pads or ischial cal. came into use as a designation for the northern losities. The volume of the brain is about half part of the empire through Marco Polo and other the minimum size of a normal human brain. All medieval writers. It was the Persian designation the gyri (ridges) of the human brain are represented l of the Tartar K'itan tribes which contended with
the Sung dynasty for the supremacy of the empire, 1887 of 'the awakening of 300 millions to a conthen merged in the dynasty of Chin (Kin), and sciousness of their strength !' Our own impression were extinguished by the NIongol conquest." The is that 400 millions is not an overestimate of the country south of the Yang-tsze River was then population of the Chinese empire. Of the twentystyled Manzi or Manzy, from the old name of Man two ports open to foreign commerce, only five have for all the southern aboriginal tribes.
a population under 50,000. That of Canton is The name China has come to us from India estimated at 1,600,000; of T'ien-tsin at 950,000; of through Buddhism. In a conversation ( apocryphal Han-k'au at 750,000; of Fa-châu at 630,000 ; of probably), related by Nien Ch'ang in his History of Shang-hâi at 355,000; of Ning-po at 240,000. Buddhism, between the Han emperor who wel- As to the physical features of China Proper, the comed them to his capital and the first two of the whole territory may be described as sloping from Buddhist missionaries, there appear the names of the mountainous regions of Tibet and Nepal Chi-na and Chin-tan (“the Land of Chin'). We towards the shores of the Pacific on the east and do not know how long before our first century the south. The most extensive mountain-range in it name had obtained in India, nor how it origin- is the Nan Ling or Southern Range, a far-extendated. If it had begun with ts instead of ch, the ing spur of the Himalayas. Commencing in Yun. view of many that it was derived from the great nan, it bounds Kwang-hsî, Kwang-tung, and state of Ts'in, whose fortunes culminated in the Fû-chien on the north, and, passing through Cheh. first but short-lived imperial dynasty (221–209 B.C.), chiang, enters into the sea at Ning-po. It thus might have been considered as certain. This ques- forms a continuous barrier, penetrated only by a tion must be left as hardly capable of determina- few steep passes (of which the Mei Kwan is the tion; as also how it is that we find the empire best known) that separates the coast-regions of called by other Asiatic peoples Sin, Tsin, Tsinistan, South-eastern China from the rest of the country. and the inhabitants Tsinista. * The land of Sinim,' This great chain throws off numerous spurs to the in Isa. xlix. 12, should be added to these denomina- south and east, which, dipping into the sea, appear tions.
above it as a belt of rugged islands along the seaCHINA PROPER was divided in the K'ang-hsî reign board. Of this belt the Chusan Archipelago is the (1662–1722) into eighteen provinces; and since the most northerly portion. recent separation of the island of Formosa from North of this long range, and west of the 113th Fa-chien, and its constitution into an independent meridian, on to the borders of Tibet, the country is province (as T'âi-wan), we may say that it now mountainous, while to the east and from the great consists of nineteen. These form one of the corners wall on the north, to the Po-yang lake in the south, of the Asiatic continent, having the Pacific Ocean there is the Great Plain, comprising the greater on the south and east. They are somewhat in the part of the provinces of Chih-lî and Shan-tung, shape of an irregular rectangle, and lie, if we Ho-nan, An-hui, and Chiang-sû—an area of about include the island of Hâi-nan, between 18° and 49° 210,000 sq. m., estimated to support a population N. lat., and 98° and 124° E. long. Their area las of 177,000,000. been given at 1,297,300 sq. m., being more than In the provinces west from Chih-lî—Shan-hsî, twenty-five times that of England, but that esti- Shen-hsî, and Kan-sû—the soil is formed of what mate does not include large additions to Chih-lî are called the loess beds, which extend even to the on the north-east, and Kan-sû on the north-west, Koko-nor and the head-waters of the Yellow River. made since the K'ang-hsî reign. Including these, The name loess is adopted from that of a Tertiary the area is at present not much, if at all, short deposit which appears in the Rhine Valley-a of 2,000,000 sq. m. (The whole empire, without brownish coloured earth, extremely porous, crumbCorea, has an area more than twice as large.) ling easily between the fingers, and carried far and
On the north there are four provinces—Chih-lî, wide in clouds of dust. It covers the subsoil to an Shan-lisî, Shen-hsî, and Kan-sû; on the west, two- enormous depth, and is apt to split perpendicularly Sze-ch'wan (the largest of all) and Yun-nan; on in clefts which render travelling difficult. And the south, two-Kwang-hsî and Kwang-tung; on yet by this cleavage it affords homes to multitudes the east, four-Fû-chien (Kien-the initial ch used of the people, who live in caves excavated near the to be pronounced k), Cheh-chiang, Chiang-sû, and bottoms of the cliffs. Sometimes whole villages are Shan-tung. The central area inclosed by these so formed in terraces of the earth that rise above twelve provinces is occupied by Ho-nan, An-lui one another. But the most valuable quality of the (Gan- and Ngan-hwei), Hû-pei, Ha-nan, Chiang- loess is its fertility, the fields composed of it hardly, hsî, and Kwei-châu (a poor province, but with parts requiring any other manure than a sprinkling of of it largely occupied by clans or tribes of abori- its own fresh loam. The husbandman in this way ginal Miâo-tsze). The island of Formosa, lying off obtains an assured harvest two and even three the coast of Fa-chien, 90 miles W. of Amoy, is
times a year.
This fertility, provided there be a about 235 miles in length, fertile, and rich in coal, sufficient rainfall, seems inexhaustible. The propetroleum, and camphor-wood. The first settle- vince of Shan-hsî has borne the name for thousands ment of a Chinese population only took place in of years of the Granary of the Nation ;' and it is 1683, and the greater part of it is still occupied no doubt to the distribution of this earth over its by aboriginal tribes of a more than ordinarily high surface that the Great Plain owes its fruitfulness. type.
The rivers of China-called for the most part hoin The population of these provinces is immense, the north, and chiang (kiang) in the soutli, are one but the various censuses that have been adduced of its most distinguishing features. Two of them by inquirers vary and fluctuate so much that the stand out conspicuous among the great rivers of the writer entirely agrees with the late Dr Williams world ; the Ho, Hoang-ho, or Yellow River, and the in holding that, until there has been a methodical Chiang, generally misnamed the Yang-tsze. They inspection of the empire' published and guaranteed rise not far from each other ; the Ho, in the plain of by the government, questions concerning the popu. Odontala, called in Chinese the 'Sea of Stars :-i.e. lation must be held in abeyance (The Middle King of springs or lakelets, in 35!° N. lat., and 96° E. long.; dom, 2d ed. preface, p. 10). The Almanach de and the Chiang (Kiang), from among the mountains Gotha for 1888, basing its conclusions on reports of of Tibet. The Ho pursues a tortuous eastward course the imperial maritime customs, gives for all the to Kan-sû, and the Chiang with a southern inclinaprovinces a total of 381} millions. The late ambas- tion enters China at Batang, in Sze-ch'wan. From sador in England, however, the Marquis T'săng, the prefecture of Lan-châu the Ho flows north-east writes in the Asiatic Quarterly Review of January more or less along the Great Wall, till it arrives