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are artificially hatched. Comparatively little beef the grass-cloth is made. The cotton-plant, though is eaten, not so much because of the prevalence not indigenous, appears to have been introduced of Buddhism, which forbids the taking of life, as from. Khoten (Eastern Turkestan) in the 11th cenfrom a feeling of gratitude to the animal which tury, and is now found everywhere, but is cultirenders the most important service in tilling the vated most extensively in the great basin of the ground. Pork is the most used of all flesh meat, Chiang. The well-known nankeen is named from and the number of pigs is enormous. In addition | Nanking, a centre for its manufacture. The to these animals, the seaboard, rivers, lakes, and Chinese cotton is inferior to the imported cloth in ponds supply an immense quantity of excellent fish its finish, but is heavier and more durable. (For taken by the net. Angling is not much practised ; the flora of China, see Asia, Vol. I. p. 491.) Of but a boat with its complement of cormorants, woollen fabrics the production is not large ; but trained to dive for the fish and bring them to their we meet with felt caps, rugs of camels' hair, and masters, is a pleasant sight. Shellfish also yield furs of various kinds. As the houses have no their quota to the food of the people. An idea is fireplaces, people keep themselves warm in cold prevalent that the Chinese are gross feeders, but weather by increasing the number of garments this is true only of the very poor. first-class which they wear.

On the whole China has more Chinese dinner with its twenty-seven courses may resources in itself for the comfortable support and hold its own with most luxurious tables. The clothing its vast population than most other famed birds'-nest soup is a misnomer. Nests of the countries. Collocalia esculenta, brought from the Indian Archi- For building materials the Chinese use, like our. pelago, are sliced into other soup, and supposed to selves, timber, bricks, and stone ; but in the south impart to the compound an invigorating and stimu- inexpensive houses are often made of a kind of lating quality, but the writer never felt that it concrete called “sifted earth,' a compound of added either to its flavour or piquancy:

decomposed granite and lime, with the addition For beverages the use of tea has nearly superseded sometimes of a little oil, pounded in a wooden every other. The plant does not grow in the north, framework, which is shifted till the walls have but is cultivated extensively in the western pro- reached their intended height. Anciently, as we vinces and in those south of the Great Chiang. The learn from the Shih King, the largest structures infusion of the leaves was little, if at all, drunk in were raised in this way. The walls, if well ancient times, but now its use is universal. Fa- protected by overhanging eaves and plaster against chien, Hû-pei, and HQ-nan produce most largely the wet, are strong and durable. Granite and limeblack teas; the green comeschiefly from Cheh-chiang stone are found in many places, and the largest and An-hui; both kinds come from Kwan-tung rocks are ingeniously split and wrought into buildand Sze-ch'wan. Next to silk, if not equally with ing blocks. The architecture of China is defective, it, tea is China's most valuable export; and by however, in the grandeur and grace which mark nothing does it contribute more to the comfort and that of some other countries ; the best specimens of well-being of the rest of the world. To the people it are seen in the marble bridges and altars of themselves its use has been invaluable, and more Peking, and in the Buddhistic buildings on the ‘Hill than anything else has promoted the temperance of Longevity' and other places in the neighbourthat is characteristic of them. They are acquainted hood. No one who has seen them can ever forget with distillation, and from rice and millet produce the gigantic figures of animals and the statues alcoholic liquors. Their literature abounds from lining the road that leads to the tombs of several the 12th century B.C. to the present dynasty with of the Ming emperors, a considerable distance north warnings against the injury of strong drink; but from the capital. In the country, houses are more effectual than the proclamations of authority seldom of more than one story. Even in the has been the habit of drinking tea. As compared cities the public offices and large business establishwith the populations of western nations, the Chinese ments are not remarkable for their height, but for are sparing in the use of strong drink, and it is rare their depth, as you pass from one series of rooms to

them intoxicated. They do not sit another through intervening courts. Rising condown to tea as a special meal, nor do they make it spicuous above the other buildings are the pawn. so strong as we do, or add sugar or cream to it, brokers' establishments, whilst the most substantial but they have it at hand, and offer it to visitors, and elegantly finished structures are the guildhalls all day long. The ordinary name of the plant is belonging to the various trades, or to the merchants ch'â; but the leaf was first imported into England congregating in them from the different provinces. from Amoy in Fu-chien, where the dialectical The most picturesque buildings are the pavilions pronunciation of the name is t'ay, which the Irish- and pagodas. Of the former the most striking is one man still retains. The use of opium will be dis- in what has become famous by being miscalled the cussed in a separate article.

“Summer Palace' at Peking, about 14 feet square The next essential to food and drink in the and 20 high, made of pure copper, The pagodas economy of life is clothing, and for this China are Buddhistic structures, borrowed from the topes has abundant provision in its stores of silk, linen, of India, where they were built at first as deposiand cotton. It was no doubt the original home tories for the relics of Buddha and distinguished of silk. From the 23d century B.C. and earlier, Arhats. In China they have taken a peculiar form, the care of the silkworm, and the spinning and and are supposed to exercise mysterious geomantic weaving of its produce, have been the special work intluences. They are the most remarkable objects of woman. As it is the duty of the sovereign to in the landscapes of the country, and there are few turn over a few furrows in the spring to stimulate cities which cannot boast of one or more, always the people to their agricultural tasks, so his con- of an uneven number of stories, The most cele. sort should perform an analogous ceremony with brated of them, the Porcelain Tower of Nanking, her silkworms and mulberry-trees. The tree grows is now a thing of the past, having been blown up. everywhere, and in all the provinces some silk is by the iconoclastic Tâi-p'ings in 1856. It was of produced ; but Kwan-tung, Sze-ch'wan, and Cheh- an octagonal form, and was intended to be of thirchiang furnish the best and the most. The manu teen stories, rising to a height of 329 feet; but only factures of silk are not inferior or less brilliant than nine stories were completed, the building of which any that are produced in Europe, and nothing can took nineteen years (1411-30). It was built massexceed the embroidery of the Chinese. Indigenous ively of brick and faced with slabs of glazed to the country also are hemp and other fibrous porcelain-green, red, yellow and white; with plants, such as the Behmeria nivea, from which I lamps hanging outside from the projections of the

to see one

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different stories-one of the architectural wonders the deer family. The musk-deer is greatly valued. of the world,

Among the more domestic quadrupeds, the breed In the cities, and studding the country also, are

of horses and cattle is dwarfish, and no attempts many P'ai-laus or Honorary Portals, which often seem to be made to improve them. The ass is a carried the writer's thoughts to the old Temple I more lively animal in the orth ian with us, and Bar, though not of so substantial a construction as it was. They are tokens of imperial favour, erected in honour of distinguished persons, and many of them signalising the virtue of widows who steadfastly refused to be married a second time.

The streets of the cities, especially in the south, are not wider than so many lanes, and the streams of people hurrying through them give the stranger an idea that they are more populous than they really are, though against this hasty assumption must be set the rarity of the appearance of women in them. They are paved with slabs of stone, but badly drained, and the heat and stench render a promenade through them anything but agreeable. Most of them have high-sounding names, such as “The

Temple of the Goddess Ma Tsu-pu, Ning-po. Street of Benevolence and Riglıt

(From The Middle Kingdom, by S. W. Williams, LL.D.) eousness.' As in the old Roman cities, tradesmen of the same pursuits are found | receives more attention. About Peking one is very much together in the same street. The streets struck by many beautiful specimens of the mule. are wider in the northern cities, till we arrive at Princes are seen riding on mules, or drawn by them Peking, where the wide ways of the Manchû portion in elegant litters, while their attendants accompany combine with the imposing walls and their lofty them on horseback. The camel is only seen in towers to make the visitor think for a time that the north. One of the first things that strikes a he has arrived at the grandest city of the world. stranger in the capital is the troops of the shaggy

When you enter the house of a well-to-do family, animal lying or feeding about the walls, with their you find the furniture sufficient, though somewhat Mongol keepers, looking as uncouth as their charge. scanty and not luxurious. The floor may be The birds of prey are inany.

Minos, crows, and covered with matting, but not with a carpet or rugs. magpies abound. The last are 'sacred birds,' The tables and straight-backed chairs are of a dark, which it is not safe for the traveller to shoot. The heavy wood resembling ebony. A few pictures, people are fond of song-birds, especially the lark, not works of art, are hung on the walls, along with the thrush, and the canary. The song of the scrolls of fine writing, expressing moral sentiments nightingale is familiar. The smaller birds are not or historical and topographical references, while so afraid of man as with us. Buddhism, with which some jars and other specimens of fine porcelain are life is sacred, has done much to secure for birds, put down here and there. There may be a couch both with old and young, immunity from molesor two made of bamboo and rattan, and stools of tation and death. The lovely gold and silver the same materials. The bamboo, that queen of pheasants are well known, and also the Yuan-yang the Arundinacee, deserves especial mention. A (Anas galericulata), or mandarin duck, the emblem clump of bamboos adds a graceful charm to the to the Chinese of conjugal fidelity. scenery, and there seems to be no end to the uses The people are fond of flowers, and make which the plant serves. The schoolmaster employs excellent gardeners. You look in vain, however, it for his ferule, and the mandarin or magistrate in the gardens of the wealthy for the gay parterres for his most common instrument of punishment. which so please the eye in England. They cultivate The writing-paper is made from it. Its young their favourites mostly in pots; and the willowshoots are used for food, and for comfits and plate pattern,' with its arbours, bridges, and ponds, pickles. Its stems, according to their size, are glowing often with the large and brilliant flowers employed for pencil handles, for canes, and for of the nelumbium, supplies a good picture of a poles. Fans, cages, baskets, and fish-creels are Chinese garden of a superior order. all constructed with it. Its roots are carved into While the Chinese have, as we have seen, done grotesque figures, and fashioned into blocks of a justice to most of the natural capabilities of their peculiar shape to be used in divination. China country, they have greatly failed in developing its would not be China without the bamboo.

mineral resources. The skill which their lapidaries The country is too thickly peopled and well display in cutting crystal and other quartzose cultivated to harbour many wild and dangerous minerals is well known, and their work in jade, animals, though one occasionally hears of a tiger which they so highly prize, is very fine. But a that las ventured from the forest and been killed mineral more valuable than any other has been or captured. The lion was never a denizen of comparatively neglected. The coalfields of China China, and is only to be seen rampant in stone are enormous—more than twenty times the extent in front of temples. The rhinoceros, elephant, and of those of Great Britain ; but up to this time the tapir are said still to exist in the forests and majority of them can hardly be said to have been swamps of Yun-nan ; but the supply of elephants more than scratched. Immense quantities of iron at Peking for the carriage of the emperor when he ore, moreover, must have been extracted from the proceeds to the great sacrificial altars has been earth during the millenniums of its history, but a decreasing for several reigns. Both the brown and much greater amount is still untouched. "Copper, black bear are met with, and several varieties of lead, tin, silver, and gold are known to exist in

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many places, but little has been done to make the ancient practice in the country, though it seems to stores of them available. More attention has been have prevailed since our 6th century. The distordirected to their mines since the government and tion is produced by bandaging the feet in early companies began to have steamers of their own; and a scheme has been approved by the govern. ment for working the gold-mines in the valley of the Amoor River. The government has become conscious of its mineral wealth, and there is no calculating the resources to which it may attain.

A gold and silver currency is one of the first things which it has to provide. Thus far the only currency has been the copper cash, cumbrous and often debased, varying in its relative value in every district, and the source of endless trouble to the traveller. Even foreign silver coins are treated as bullion, and taken by weight. What is called * sycee silver' is made from them.

After they Foot of Chinese Girl (aged 16 Years), in three positions: have been defaced and broken to pieces, they are

Copied from a cast in Trinity College, Dublin. melted and cast into ingots of different sizes called

(Length of foot, 4] inches.) shoes.' The comfort of the housekeeper, as well as of the traveller, is interfered with by the years, so as to prevent their further growth. The necessity of keeping small fine scales or steelyards very poor and servants are not subjected to this to weigh every outlay and receipt. Paper money torture, but such is the force of fashion that we is indeed in circulation, but the banking system have known humble girls of twelve or thirteen exists as yet only in a rudimentary condition. vainly try to reduce the size of their feet, thinking

Another want in China is that of good roads and thereby to make themselves more attractive. comfortable conveyances. The necessity for good The separation of the sexes until marriage has roads first presented itself to Shih Hwang Tî (214 been a feature of the social life from the earliest B.C.), who, after he had extended the empire to times. In the old feudal period, at the age of nearly its present limits, ordered the preparation of seven, boys and girls of the same family did not them seven years before he commenced the building occupy the same mat, nor eat together, and at the of the Great Wall; and it has been said that there age of ten a girl ceased to appear outside the are now 20,000 roads in China; but according to the women's apartments. Her governess taught hier reports of travellers in the present century, the the arts of pleasing speech and manners, to be good roads among them are very few.

The govern

docile and obedient, to handle the hempen fibres, ment couriers perform their journeys on horseback. to deal with the cocoons, to weave silks and form Where communication by water is abundant the fillets, to learn all woman's work, how to furnish want of roads is not so much felt; but in their garments, to watch the sacrifices, to supply the absence in times of scarcity it is a most difficult liquors and sauces, to fill the stands and dishes thing to convey supplies to starving populations, with pickles and brine, and to assist in setting as in the famine which prevailed in Shan-hsî and forth the appurtenances for the ceremonies. At other northern provinces a few years ago.

It is fifteen she assumed the hairpin (as a token that owing doubtless to the want of roads that the she had arrived at woman's estate), at twenty she wheelbarrow is so much used as the chief vehicle of was married, or if there were occasion for the delay, communication and commerce from the Chiang at twenty-three. We read nothing of any lite. northwards. The writer once had an experience of rary training for the daughters then, nor is there this, when, along with a companion, he was con- any now, though Chinese history is not without veyed 280 miles on one of those cany wagons

instances of learned women and distinguished light’in about 8 days. Slow as the journey was, authoresses. In the important event of marriage the fatigue was much less than if tliey had been the parents exercise a supreme control; and this jolted over the same distance in a springless mule- has given rise to the class of match-makers or gocart in half the time. Even at Peking roads once betweens, who are consulted by the parents, make paved with marble slabs have been allowed to fall inquiries, and by an examination of the horoscopes into such a state of dilapidation as to be full of dis- of the parties and other methods of their profession comfort and danger; and the route and convey- determine the question of the mutual suitability of ances from the capital to T'ien-tsin, its port, are the match. When a marriage has een agreed disgraceful to the government.

upon, it is carried through with a great variety Social Habits. — The dress of the poor is very of ceremonies, the parties most concerned being much alike in both sexes; and though it is regu- supposed never to have previously seen each lated for all classes by sumptuary laws, it is varied other.

In the majority of cases the husband among the wealtlıy by the richness of the materials and wife thus brought together seem to take and the various ornamentation. The most striking to each other very well. Notwithstanding its thing in the appearance of the men to a foreigner defects and differences from our ideal, its result is the queue or plaitea tail from the hair of the seems to be a fair amount of peace and happicrown, all the rest of the head being shavedl. This

When the wife becomes a mother she was not the old fashion of doing up the hair, but is treated as a sort of divinity in the household. was enforced on the Chinese by the Manchûs in There is but one proper wife (chăng-ch'i) in the 1627, when they had commenced the conquest of family, but there is no law against a man's having the empire. Inscriptions on stone tablets in old secondary wives or concubines ; and such connectemples in Japan, erected by refugees of the 17th | tions are common wherever the means of the family century, mention this degrading requirement as are sufficient for their support. Many of the one of the reasons why they had fled from their greatest names in the nation's history are stained country. All dislike to the custom, however, has with this practice, and the evils of it have been and now disappeared. A foreigner is surprised in the are very great. There are seven legal grounds for same way by the small feet of the more respectable divorcing a wife : Disobedience to her husband's

These were not enforced upon them by parents ; not giving birth to a son ; dissolute conthe Manchû conquerors, whose women allow their duct; jealousy (of her husband's attentions-i.e. feet to grow to the natural size, nor was it a very to the other inmates of his harem); talkativeness ;



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thieving; and leprosy. These grounds, however, cycle being made to commence with the sixtieth may be nullified by the three considerations : ' If year of Hwang Tî in 2637 B.C. But this is merely her parents be dead; if she have passed with her a conventional arrangement. There were Chinese husband through the years of mourning for his in China before Hwang Tî, and the cycle names for parents; and if he have become rich from being the years prior to 827 B.C. cannot be fully relied on. poor. In many cases the betrothment of children The documents of the Shû King begin with the is made at an early age, leading often to injurious reigns of Yâo and Shun (2356-2206 B.C.); and and melancholy issues.

from various intimations in that work we The charge of infanticide has been brought brought to conclude that the nation then consisted against the family life in China, the victims in of a collection of tribes or clans of the same race, the vast majority of instances being the female ruled by a sovereign, nominated by his predecessor, children. That it is stained by this crime, and approved by the people as tlie worthiest man though not to the extent that has often been to reign over them. alleged, cannot be denied. It is among the very With Yü, the successor of Shun, and the hero of poor that the barbarity is chiefly perpetrated, and Yâo's deluge to which we have already made refertheir poverty is the reason of it. From the ances- ence, there came a change in the principle of suctral worship which prevails among the people, the cession to the throne. As it is expressed, He desire for male children is greater in China than familied the kingdom.' Then commenced the perhaps in any other country. In one case the wife Feudal State, which lasted under three dynasties of a professing Christian asked the writer whether (Hsiâ, 2205-1767 B.C.; Shany or Yin, 1766-1123 her husband might not be allowed, like any other B.C. ; and Châu, 1122–255 B.C.) for a period of person, to bring a concubine to the house, as chil- nearly two thousand years. The feudal system of dren were denied to herself, and she would bring up China was very similar to that which prevailed in any boy that might be born on her knees as her Europe during what we call the middle ages. At own child. Public opinion is certainly against the a grand durbar held by Yü after his accession crime of infanticide; the government is to blame there were, it is said, ten thousand princes present in that it does not address itself to punish the deed with their jade symbols of rank. But the feudal and put it down. Even the public opinion against states were constantly being absorbed by one it is not so emphatic as it ought to be. Foundling another. On the rise of the Shang dynasty they hospitals and asylums for the aged are to be found were only somewhat over three thousand, which in most of the large towns, but their cleanliness had decreased to thirteen hundred when King Wa and management are not satisfactory,

established the sovereignty of the Châu. In 403 The complexion of the Chinese inclines to yellow B.C. we find only seven great states, all sooner or -is, as they say themselves, of the colour of the later claiming to be “the kingdom,' and contending olive. The same coarse black hair and apparently for the supremacy, till Ts'in ( Ch'in) put down all the oblique eyes, with high cheekbones and roundish others, and in 221 B.C. its king assumed the title of face, belong to them all from the Great Wall to the Hwang Tî, or Emperor, and determined that there island of Hai-nan. They are stout and muscular should be no more feudal principalities, and that, as compared with other eastern peoples, temperate, as there is but one sun in the sky, there should be industrious, cheerful, and easily contented. They but one ruler in the nation. are addicted to gambling, and are generally held to From that year dates the imperial form of the be given also to mendacity and larceny. Many of Chinese government, which has thus existed for more them are so; and where is the country where there than 2100 years. The changes of dynasty have been are not many such? The longer one lives among many, two or more sometimes ruling together, each them, however, the better he likes them, and having but a nominal supremacy over the whole the better he thinks of them.

nation. The greater dynasties have been those of They bury their dead in graves which are built Han (206 B.C.-220 A.D.), T'ang (618-906), Sung round in the form of a horseshoe, and often with (960–1279), Yuan (the Mongol, 1280-1367), the much display and at great expense. The mourning Ming (1368–1643), and the Ch'ing (Manchû-Tarrites are tedious, and embrace a variety of sacrifices tar, 1643 to the present date). and other observances. No subject occupies so The long and persistent existence of the Chinese large a portion of the Classic of Ritual Observances. nation has been owing partly to its geographical

; our Sunday. At the New Year the government and partly to its educational culture and training: offices are shut for about a month. New-year's | Where tlie race came from at first takes us beyond Day is the one universal holiday, and at this time the footsteps of history. The Chinese were not the shops are closed for several days. The whole earliest inhabitants of the country. They made nation seems to be dissolved in festivity and joy. their way from the north and west of China The people dress in their best; the temples are proper, pushing before them the older inhabitants, visited ; gambling tables are surrounded by crowds ; | exterminating them or absorbing them, or leaving Throughout the year every month has its festivals, borders, as wrecks of tribes still subsisting here of which the most general are that of ‘Lanterns, and there, and apparently mouldering to extinction. on the full moon of the first month; of the “ Tombs,' From the first appearance of the Chinese we find later on in the spring; of Dragon Boats,' in the among them written characters (see the next fifth month; and of'All Souls,' in the seventh article), and certain elements of intellectual and month, for the benefit of departed relatives and moral culture and religious beliefs. (The connechungry ghosts in the world of spirits. Theatrical tion of Chinese culture with that of ancient Babyrepresentations are immensely popular. Strolling lonia has been suggested but not proved.) companies' can easily be hired ; with the bamboo The Ruler and the Sage confront us in the and matting, sheds, often very large, can be readily earliest records of the nation ; the Ruler to govern erected for the exhibition. Individual actors be the people, and the Sage or Man of Intelligence to come celebrated as with us, and their services are assist and advise him, and spread abroad among well remunerated. Females do not appear on the them the lessons of truth and duty. It is said in a stage. Their parts are performed by boys got up document of the 18th century B.C., 'Heaven gives for the purpose.

birth to the people with such desires that without History. — The chronology of China is measured a Ruler they will fall into all disorders, and heaven not by centuries, but by sexagenaries, the first I again gives birth to the Man of Intelligence to

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regulate them.' Thus the sovereign and the sage where as a rule every third year special examiners are both the ordinances of heaven; and it has been from Peking conduct the examination for the degree the rule in the various stages of the nation's of Chü () jăn, or men for promotion,' which history that officers of the government should pos- perhaps three in a thousand of them may obtain, sess whatever educational culture its institutions and which entitles them to some minor appointcould supply. The same written character (shih) ments. To take the third degree of Ts'in shih, or serves to designate both a scholar and an officer, men to be presented to the emperor,' the successand of the 'four classes of the people, scholars or ful Chü-jăn from all the provinces must proceed to oflicers, agriculturists, mechanics, and merchants,' | the metropolis, perhaps about six thousand in all, the first has always been held to be “the head.' and there, also as a rule triennially, pass a test Even in the feudal times the system of examina- examination, the successful candidates at which tions for the selection of the officials existed in a

then go in for the palace examination, conducted rudimentary state, though it was not till our 7th within the precincts of the imperial palace itself ; century that it began to assume its present form, after which the lists are published in three classes, open to all, excepting monks, play-actors, and the first being a tripos of the three best men, who menial servants.'

become for the time the heroes of the day. They This competitive system, as now existing with and a proportion of the others are admitted to the all the necessary machinery, is organised in three ranks of the members of the Han-lin, the 'Forest principal gradations—the provincial, the metropoli- of Pencils,' or 'Grand Academy of Literature.' tan, and the palace examinations. The students The remainder receive appointments in the proof each province who have attained at the district vinces or at the capital, according as vacancies examinations to the style of Hsiứ Ts'âi, or ‘men

Such is an outline, as large as our space of talent,' assemble at the provincial capital, will allow, of the competitive system of examina


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A Chinese School when the master has gone out (Peking). (From a Chinese Picture.)

tions by which the government of China seeks to and Shang-Ti, the Supreme Ruler.' The state secure the ablest men of the empire for its service. worship of Heaven or God was, and still is, conThe examinations are testing and fairly conducted. fined to the sovereign as the father and priest The subjects are taken from the literature of the of the people. The will of God is to be learned country itself. There are already indications not from the moral principles of man's nature. Governa few that the system will undergo the modifica- ment is ordained by God for the good of the people, tions made necessary by the new relations with and as soon as a sovereign ceases to seek that other countries which have arisen in our own time; good and his rule is antagonistic to it, he has mathematics became a subject of examination in forfeited his title to the throne ; and thus it is 1888. The system has tended to impress the people that the changes of dynasty are always referred to with the value of education; but it must not be as 'the will of Heaven,' and the sovereign professes supposed that as a whole they are highly educated. to be such ‘by the grace of God.' Associated with Everywhere indeed there are primary schools, not the worship of Heaven or God, there was the governmental, but maintained by the people them- worship of heaven and earth and the powers of selves. A smattering of education is widely nature, but only as subordinate to God and fulfilldiffused; but apart from the official classes, those ing His will for the good of men; and also of who can read freely or write readily are few. distinguished men, as having by their discoveries

The three religions of China are Confucianism, and achievements defended, benefited, and blessed Taoism, and Buddhism. Most writers represent the people of their own and future times. There the first not so much as a religion, but as a was also common to their sovereign and all the morality ; but there always underlies its teachings people the worship of their ancestors. This last a recognition of the religion which prevailed in was and is considered as an expression of filial the country from the most ancient times—the piety, the perpetuation of the duty which every belief of a Supreme Power, expressed at first by one owes to his parents—the first and chief of the name 'Heaven,' which soon came to be desig: all virtues.' On this Confucius laid great stress, nated also by the personal names Ti, “the Ruler,' I endeavouring to develop all other virtues from it.

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