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breeding which was pursued by Mr Quartly and his usefulness both as beef and milk producers have brother, the clergyman who interests himself won for it many hearty admirers in America. much in live-stock." The ideal animal which the Sussex cattle are also uniformly red in colour, Quartlys kept before them and bred up to exactly with strong spreading horns, larger in size than corresponds to the typical Devon of to-day; and the Devons, heavy meat-producers, but deficient there is no doubt that their sound and systematic in dairying properties. Marshall is probably right method of breeding imprinted an indelible stamp in stating (1796-98) that the Sussex, Devon, Hereupon the race through which the blood of their ford, North Wales, and Gloucestershire cattle had stock has freely permeated. In former times, when all sprung from the same aboriginal stock; and that cattle were beasts of burden, the Devons were in fact they were varieties arising from soils and greatly esteemed for their agility and hardiness. management of the native breeds of this island.' Now that the yoke has fallen upon other shoulders, Formerly Sussex cows were highly esteemed for the “Rubies of the West,' as the plump little their milking properties, but in the rage for beef. Devons have been called by their admirers, are production these have unfortunately been destroyed. holding a high position as beef-producers. The Sussex cattle mature early, grow to great weights
, quality of their meat is excelled by none; and and in late years they have been improving in while they are small in size, they give a good quality. They have also found supporters in return for the food they consume. Garrard, writing foreign countries, chiefly in the United States of in 1800, attributed the excellence of Devon cattle America. Young Sussex steers (averaging 659 mainly to the mildness of the climate and high dry days) at the London Christmas Fat Stock Show in ground, calcareous soil
, and sweet pasture where 1887 reached an average live-weight of 1436 lb., they were bred; but he considered it might be also and three-year-old steers (averaging 1349 days)
, to some extent due to an admixture of finer blood 2030 lb. each. from the still warmer'continent of Europe. There Longhorn cattle are now in few hands ; so few may have been some slight foundation for this indeed that the breed may be said to be approachlatter suggestion; but it is undeniable that the ing extinction. They are big, rough, angainly main forces and features now existing in Devon cattle, with long drooping horns which are often cattle are distinctively native to the south-west so shaped as to make it difficult for the animals to of England. This idea is strengthened by the graze short pasture. The cows give a fair quantity recollection of the estimate of Devon cattle formed of very rich milk, and the bullocks grow and fatten by Bakewell, who declared that they could not be to great weights. But for general utility they are improved by any cross. From the first and greatest being ousted by smaller, finer, and more rapidly of all our early improvers of farm live-stock this maturing varieties. Peculiar interest attaches to testimony is weighty. The dairy properties of the this breed from the fact that it was upon it that breed are not of a high order. The yield of milk is
the past great improver of farm live-stock, Robert comparatively small, but its quality is exception- Bakewell (q.v.) of Dishley, tried his earliest experially rich. Some rare specimens of the breed have ments. The improvement of live-stock upon scien; reached 19 cwt. live-weight at four years old, but tific principles dates from 1755, when Bakewell the average is much below that. At the London began his great work with longhorns. These cattle Christmas Fat Stock Show in December 1887 the were at one time widely diffused through England, class of two-year-old Devon steers (averaging 681 and also obtained a footing in Ireland, but were days) gave an average live-weight of 1235 lb. ; many years ago supplanted by shorthorns, Heresteers over two and under three years old (averag- fords, Devons, or other varieties. ing 996 days), 1489 lb.; and steers over three years Welsh cattle present considerable variety of (averaging 1320 days), 1734 lb. each.
type and character, yet there is all through a The Red Polled cattle of Norfolk and Suffolk noticeable family likeness, arising of course in are supposed to bear a close affinity to the polled their common origin in the aboriginal cattle of the breeds of Scotland through the circumstance that principality. They are black in colour, with long formerly Scotch cattle were freely transported to be horns, hardy in constitution, good milkers, slow in fattened on the Norfolk pastures. Be this as it maturing, but able to subsist and thrive upon may, the red polled breed has been sufficiently scanty fare. In late years they have been conlong associated with Norfolk and Suffolk to enable siderably improved, especially in their fattening these counties to claim them as natives. Marshall properties. They vary greatly in size, but in his Political Economy of Norfolk, published them attain great weights at from three to four in 1782, tells us that the native catt of Norfolk years old. The average live-weight of Welsh steers were a small, hardy thriving race, fattening as at the London Christmas Fat Stock Show in 1887 freely at three years old as cattle in general do at was 2111 lb. each, their average having been 1286 four or five. They are small boned, short legged, days. round barrelled, well loined; the favourite colour
Amongst the four Scotch breeds of cattle the a blood-red with a white or mottled face.' Arthur Polled Aberdeen-Angus is well entitled to preYoung, writing in 1794, says the Suffolk breed of cedence.
Descended directly from the ancient cattle 'is universally polled, that is, without horns ; polled cattle of Angus (Forfarshire) and Buchan the size small; few rise when fattened to above (in Aberdeenshire)--two varieties of the same type, 50 stone (14 lb.); the milk veins remarkably large; known in the former as 'Doddies,' and in the latter cows upon good land give a great quantity of rich as “Humlies '--this valuable beef-producing breed milk. These are the progenitors of the modern has made great strides in public favour since 1878, red polls, and all the good features of the old breed when, with five plump black polls the late Mr have been retained and developed. The cattle William M'Combie (1805-80) of Tillyfour carried are now relatively larger, still blood-red in colour, off the champion prize for the best group of ' meatbut with no white face, good meat-producers, and, making 'cattle at the Paris Exhibition, where no taken as a whole, perliaps the best of all the fewer than sixty different varieties of cattle were native English breeds from a dairying point of represented, including the best of the English view. Individual shorthorn
cows will be found to breeds. That remarkable triumph has been fol, exceed them in yield of milk, but red-polled cows lowed by great achievements at home, the breed are distinguished for high average milking pro- having in 1881, 1885, and 1887 won the £100 Cham. perties. The breed has found much favour in the pion Plate at the London Christmas Fat Stock United States of America and elsewhere abroad. Show. The improvement of the breed was begun Its uniformity of colour, absence of horns, and before the advent of the 19th century, and all
through its breeders have been careful to preserve the south-west of Scotland before the close of the
her moderate size.
more handsome animal of the
Kerry of Ireland,
is regarded as the
hardiness, and can be kept with advantage where The Galloway breed, which takes its name from no other breed would subsist. The cattle of the south-west of Scotland, where it has existed it Orkney and Shetland differ considerably from the is believed for centuries, has an undeniable claim varieties on the mainland, but they are as a rule
to an ancient lineage. Its of an inferior character and small in size.
only in outward features, fully described by Youatt: Truly the poor man's
properties. They are size abundance of milk of good quality, and fattensimilar in size, more shaggy and muscular in ing rapidly when required.' Black is the prevailappearance, having a thicker hide and ranker ing colour, and their horns are upturned and often coat of hair, but they do not mature so quickly, peculiarly. cocked. There is a sub-variety called and are not so well suited for rapid house-feeding the 'Dexter Kerry,' shorter in the leg, thicker in as the northern polls. But the Galloways are body, and heavier in the flesh than the Kerry excellent grazing cattle, and for this property proper. they have been highly esteemed for many genera
The extension of dairy-farming in the United tions, both in England and Scotland. In recent Kingdom, and the somewhat meagre milking proyears they have been exported in large numbers to perties of the greater proportion of British cattle, Ainerica, where they have been found admirably have led to the importation of large numbers of adapted for ranching purposes. They are exceed Channel Island cattle. These—often indiscriminingly robust and hardy, and have surpassed several ately called Alderney cattle-comprise the Jersey of the other finer varieties on the ranches of the and Guernsey breeds, supposed to be from one western states of America, where the cattle have common origin, but known to have been bred in to accomplish a great deal of walking in finding purity in the respective islands of these names for food and water,
upwards of a hundred years. They are both essenFrom a dairy-farmer's point of view, the Ayr. tially dairy breeds, giving an abundant yield of rich shire is the most valuable of all the British highly-coloured milk. The Jersey is the smaller breeds of cattle. Its origin is uncertain, but it is of the two, and is docile, delicate, and of graceful considered more than probable that its progenitors
deer-like form. In the production of beef it is of were of Dutch extraction. Be this as it may, it little value. The Guernsey is not only larger, but was well established as a famous dairy breed in also hardier and more generally useful. When in
full milk, whole herds of Jersey cows give an aver Quebec as early as 1608 ; and towards the close of age of 92 lb. of butter each cow per week, an excep the 17th century fresh importations of European tional cow occasionally giving as much as 16 lb. of cattle poured into the great American continent.
It so happens, however, that while importations of Good Jersey cows yield cattle were made from all the countries named, from 500 to 700 gallons and perhaps from others also, the existing cattle of milk, and from 300 stock of America-leaving out the Mexican, now to 350 lb. of butter in more commonly called Texan, cattle, which are twelve months. Guern. still a race by themselves—are largely of British sey cows have exceeded origin. In the earlier importations, again exclud800 gallons of milk in a ing Mexico, British cattle preponderated ; and just year,
and the noted cow as the English language has submerged all others Select,' when six years in the gradual development of the American contiold, gave 221 lb. of nent, so has British blood become the dominating
butter in seven days, element in the main bulk of the cattle stock of Fig. 6.–Jersey Cow. this quantity being ob the country. There is no authentic information as
tained from 19 quarts to the character of the cattle first introduced into of milk per day. In America still higher records America, but all the leading breeds of the British have been obtained.
Isles, as well as the chief milking breeds of the It has been stated that the improvement of European continent, are now strongly represented cattle-breeding on scientific principles was begun in North America. There, as at home, the English by Bakewell in 1755. Almost continuously since shorthorn predominates, and there are also strong then the good work has been prosecuted with representations of the Hereford, Polled Aberdeenenergy and success, and for many years the British Angus, Galloway, Devon, Norfolk and Suffolk Red Isles have been regarded as the origin and head- Polls, Jersey and Dutch breeds. The cattle of quarters of almost all the most valuable varieties America are being speedily improved, chiefly by of farm live-stock. For generations foreign the use of well-bred bulls, either imported from countries have freely resorted to these islands the British Isles or bred from imported cattle
, for improved live-stock, and this export trade Still, the majority of them are of an inferior goes on as briskly and as extensively as ever. character — quite unworthy of the rich country The United States of America have in particular which they occupy. The Texan cattle still retain drawn very largely upon British herds, and a the rough coarse character which distinguished great stimulus to this trade with the United their Spanish ancestors. Improvement amongst States has been given by the extension of the the Texan cattle is proceeding very slowly. ranching system. Vast areas of grazing land in The cattle of Australia, which are small
, slowthe western states and territories have been growing, and of inferior quality as beef-producers, acquired by syndicates for the breeding and rear have also been greatly improved by the introducing of cattle; and with the view of improving tion of British stock, chiefly of the Shorthorn, the stock of native cattle, large numbers of well. Hereford, and Polled Aberdeen-Angus breeds. bred bulls of the leading British varieties, either In the management of cattle there is perhaps even imported from the United Kingdom or descended greater variation than in the character of the cattle from imported stock, have been sent to the West themselves. A full description of the various for use on ranches.
methods of management would itself occupy & The cattle of the United States and Canada moderate volume. ȘIt must suffice here to mention present almost endless variety of form
and two or three leading features in cattle economy, character. This is what might be expected in the British Isles the ox is no longer a beast when it is remembered that they are descended of burden, save in a very few localities. The from importations of cattle from Spain, Hol yoke has fallen upon the horse, except where land, Sweden, Denmark, France, and England, both have been relieved by the steam-engine. Scotland, and Ireland.
About the year 1525, The two main purposes for which cattle are now some six years after the discovery of Mexico by reared are the production of milk and butcherthe Spaniard Cortes, cattle were introduced into meat. Certain breeds, as already indicated, are that country from Spain, and in the abundant peculiarly adapted for milk production, such as pasturage of the Mexican territory they increased Jersey and Guernsey and Ayrshire cattle ; others, rapidly, spreading with the enterprising Spanish notably the shorthorn and red-polled breeds, are settlers into Texas, California, and other parts of distinguished for the combination of both milking the Far West. Exactly a hundred years later and fattening properties of the highest order ; while the Dutch settlers in New York brought cattle others again, such as the Polled Aberdeen-Angus, thither from Holland, and a few years earlier the Hereford and Devon, &c., display remarkable small importations of cattle had been made from aptitude to fatten, and yield meat of the choicest the West India Islands into Virginia. The earliest quality. The farmer of course selects the breed of these arrivals in Virginia are assigned to 1610 best adapted to the locality in which he lives, and and 1611, but that colony was broken up in 1622 to the purposes he has in view.
As a rule cattle of by the Indians, who massacred 347 men, women, all kinds, whether dairying or fattening, spend the and children, and, it is presumed, also destroyed summer on the pasture fields ; and it is only in their cattle. In 1624-four years after the land- exceptional cases, either where there is a deficiency ing of the English Plymouth colony there-cattle of grass, or where it is desired to force the growth, were introduced into Massachusetts from England, fattening, or milking of the animals, that any food and many other importations followed during the beyond what they can pick up for themselves is next few years. The Swedes brought cattle into given to cattle on the fields. Oil-cake, cottonDelaware in 1627, and in 1631 and two following cake, and bruised grain-partly imported, mostly years Danish emigrants introduced cattle from home grown-are the principal auxiliary foods.com their native country into New Hampshire. Eng pasture. Where a careful system of management lish emigrants settled in Maryland in 1633, in prevails
, the cattle are put into comfortable houses North and South Carolina in 1660 and 1670, and overnight as soon as the chill autumnal evenings in Pennsylvania in 1682, and took with them, or set in ; and throughout the winter they are kept had sent after them, large numbers of English almost entirely in the houses, store-cattle getting cattle. The French colonists brought cattle into out now and again about mid-day when the weather
is favourable. As winter food, turnips and straw originated. These are B. primigenius, B. longior hay preponderate, but in the improved practice of frons, B. frontosus. The first became virtually recent years smaller quantities of roots and more of extinct within historic times, is known as the the concentrated foods, such as cake and grain, are Ur in the Nibelungenlied, was domesticated in being given to cattle. Silage is fast becoming an Switzerland in the Neolithic period, was common important article of food for cattle. Now cattle in Britain and on the Continent in the time of are fattened off at from eighteen to thirty months Cæsar, seems to have persisted in Poland till the old, instead of from three to five years, as prior to | 17th century, and still survives in a senii-wild 1850. The essence of the feeder's art is to produce stage, though much degenerated in size,' in Chilthe maximum quantity of first-class meat in the lingham Park in the north of Northumberland. In shortest possible time and at the lowest possible 1692 the flock numbered but 28; in 1875, 62 in all. cost; and in the struggle after this the maturing At Cadzow near Hamilton is another herd, differing and fattening properties of cattle have been greatly somewhat from those of Chillingham, but presumed accelerated. The young or · baby-beef,' as it has to be also representatives of a detachment of the been called, is more tender and perhaps more palat- wild cattle that roamed the Caledonian Forest. able than the substantial 'rounds of the slow Other herds are still found at Chartley (Staffordgrowing five-year-old beeves of 'fifty years ago ;' shire), Somerford (Cheshire), and Kilmory (Argyllbut it is questionable if it is either so wholesome or shire); whilst that at Gisburn (Yorkshire) became 80 strength-giving. Be that as it may, the popular extinct in 1859, and that of Lyme (Cheshire) taste is entirely in favour of the 'baby-beef ;' and dwindled from 34 head in 1850 to 4 in 1875. what the public desire the feeder must endeavour to Though the interesting survivals preserved at supply.
Chillingham are less altered from the true primi. Since 1880 there has been considerable growth in genius type than any other known breed, there is dairy-farming throughout the British Isles. When some reason to suppose from their white colour and it is mentioned, however, that in 1887 butter to the some other features that they are descended from value of £8,017,000, and cheese to the value of a partially domesticated ancestry,
As to other £4,509,000, were imported into the United Kingdom, descendants of B. primigenius, which have diverged it will be seen that there is room for still further further from the primitive type, it is generally extension. The system of management on dairy- supposed that the Podolian cattle of South Russia, farms varies according to the locality and objects Hungary, &c., the larger breeds in Friesland, of the farmer. Where the milk can be conveniently Holland, and other parts of the Continent, and disposed of or despatched to towns, attention is given the Pembroke breed in England, are to be referred mainly to milk-selling, which is the least trouble. back to the same source. some, and perhaps also the most profitable system of B. longifrons or brachyceros was a smaller animal dairying. In other cases butter is the staple pro- with short body. It was domesticated in Switzerduce of the dairy; in other parts again, cheese land in the Neolithic period; it was early intromaking is the prevailing feature. The consumption duced into Britain (vast quantities of its bones of milk as human food has vastly increased in recent having been found in remains of a lake-dwelling at years. The rate of consumption keeps on growing, Croyland); and it has its probable descendants in and ingenious facilities are devised for bringing some of the mountain breeds of Switzerland, the fresh milk from distant dairies—dairies from 50 to Tyrol, and Bavaria (e.g. the Appenzell cattle), and, 60 miles distant-into towns every morning. As according to Owen, in some of the Welsh and would be expected, the calves bred on dairy-farms Highland cattle. get little of their mothers' milk. They are reared B. frontosus is found along with the latter principally on milk substitutes,' either prepared species, to which it is closely allied. It occurs in at home or by firms who make the production of the peat-mosses of Scandinavia, and also in Irecattle foods their sole or chief business. Linseed land. It is regarded as the probable ancestor of in various forms is very extensively used in calf the Norwegian mountain cattle, of the Bern cattle, rearing
and, according to Owen and others, of some of the Cattle are very variously used, and are the only Scotch Highland varieties. In regard to many of or the chief beasts of draught in many countries, as these pedigrees, dogmatic statement is quite imCape Colony and large part of America. In India possible, and much difference of opinion obtains. also horned cattle are the only beasts used for The most divergent opinion is that of Wilckens, ploughing, and are chiefly valued as draught who maintains that some of the European domestic animals. A famous breed was formed for military breeds are descended from the European bison. purposes; and in the Central Provinces there is a Darwin's Animals and Plants under Domestication, high-class breed of trotting bullocks. The best vol. i., may be conveniently consulted for facts and referghee of India is obtained from the milk not of ccws
See the articles BOTIDE, BREED, BULL-FIGHT, but of butfaloes. In China, no use whatever is Gaur, Musk Ox, RANCHING, YAK, ZEBU, &c. The made of cow's milk, though human milk is some
diseases of cattle are discussed under their own headstimes given to old people as a restorative. Nearer CATTLE-PLAGUE, PLEURO-PNEUMONIA, FOOT AND MOUTH
DISEASE, ANTHRAY, BLACK QUARTER, &c.; the law home, in Italy even, milk and butter are but little
thereof under CONTAGIOUS DISEASES, See G. Flemused, and cows are in request mainly for rearing ing's Animal Plaques (1871-82), For the management calves
. The large Italian breed can do little more of the DAIRY, see that head, as also BUTTER, CHEESE, and than feed their young; and milch cows, if wanted, Milk; on cattle generally, see Pringle's Live Stock of the are brought from Switzerland. In Italy and some Farm'; Wallace's Farm Live Stock of Great Britain ; other countries, cattle are all stall-fed, vine, elm, Stephen's Book of the Farm (new ed. by Macdonald) and oak leaves forming an important part of their and Allen's American Cattle New York). For Wilá
Cattle, see Wilckens, Rinderrassen Mittel-Europas Wild Cattle.--In various parts of the world, Vienna, 1876); J. A. Smith, Ancient Cattle of Scotland species occur of cattle more or less wild, which are
(1873); and Harting, Extinct British Animals (1880). certainly different from any of the domesticated
Cattle, in English Law. See CHATTEL. European breeds. Such are the Banteng (Bos Cattle-plague (Ger. Rinderpest ; Lat. Typhus banteng), the Gaur Ox (B. gaurus), the Gayal Bovis Contagiosus). This is a specific malignant and ( garæus). But besides these extra-European contagious fever indigenous to the
Asiatic steppes wild cattle, there are abundant remains of three of Russia, India, Persia, China, Burma, Ceylon, virtually extinct European species, from which
the &c. ; never occurring in Britain but as a result domesticated breeds are believed to have gradually of direct or indirect communication with imported
cattle, or with hides and offal which have been until an Order in Council was issued making it
Had the restrictions upon cattle traffic been Records of fatal plagues in cattle have been removed, there would have been another visitation handed down from very early dates, but the in 1872, for in July of that year, animals affected descriptions are so meagre that it is possible only with the disease were sent to Deptford, Hull
, and to. surmise their nature. It is probable that one Leith, but owing to its swift recognition, were not of the plagues of Egypt was a form of anthrax, allowed to land in Scotland. From Hull, however, but in the reign of Nero (69 A.D.) Columella it spread to Bridlington, Pocklington, and two describes a disease which resembles cattle-plague. other parishes in the East Riding of Yorkshire
, He says : The fever is present when tears are but through the activity of the authorities was trickling down the face, when the head is carried prevented from spreading further. low and heavily, and the eyes are closed; when Sheep do not readily take the disease when kept. the saliva flows from the mouth, when the respira- in fields with affected cattle, but if kept together tion is shorter than in health, and seemingly em in close sheds, they take the disease in a short barrassed or sometimes accompanied by groaning.' time. About 400 A.D. Vegetius Renatus describes, under Symptoms. The virus absorbed into the blood the term Malleus, a disease which might have been gives rise to elevation of temperature (fever), cattle-plague. In 809–10 A.D., during the wars of which precedes all other symptoms, and occurs in Charlemagne, occurred a great outbreak of cattle from 36 to 48 hours after an animal has been plague, which spread over nearly the whole of inoculated. It will be thus seen that the period of Europe, and particularly Britain. In 1348-49 a latency-incubation-is very short. Two days plague broke out amongst the cattle in England, after this elevation of temperature, the mucous just after the black death had destroyed thousands membrane of the mouth, as well as that of the of human beings; it seems to have been similar to vagina in the cow, assumes a salmon colour, and cattle-plague. Even in those days the stamping. is covered with an eruption. Even at this time out system was understood, as the diseased cattle the pulse is but little affected, but on the fourth were slaughtered, and infected herds, and the day from the first rise of temperature there are herdsmen attending them, were kept from coming marked signs of illness; the constitution is into contact with sound animals.
thoroughly invaded, and now ensue the drooping In 1480 another outbreak occurred which com head, hanging ears, distressed look, with rigors mitted great devastation. It cannot be stated and twitching of the muscles, failing pulse, oppositively that these outbreaks were cattle-plague, pressed breathing, diarrhoea, fetid breath, disas the symptoms have not been clearly handed charge from the eyes, nose, and mouth, and condown, but there is evidence to prove that out stant moan
so characteristic of this dreadful breaks occurring in 1715, in 1745, and which con malady; death usually occurs on the seventh day tinued until 1757, were those of the veritable from the first perceptible elevation of temperature, plague. That of 1745 was brought from Holland but the third or fourth after the illness is apparent either by two white calves, or by a parcel of dis- to ordinary observers. tempered hides brought from Zealand. The disease
The Virus.—It is now supposed that the disease broke out near London, continued for twelve years, is due to micrococci found by Klebs in 1872, and and was only suppressed by most vigorous measures. by Semmer in 1874, in the lymphatic glands and It again made its appearance in 1865, and was biood. The micrococci, which will grow rapidly in introduced by 331 cattle shipped at Revel , and beef-broth and other special preparations
, form landed at Hull. Amongst these were 13 Russian zooglea and chains; calves inoculated with them cattle, the remainder of 46 which had been die from the plague in seven days. By repeated brought from St Petersburg and its neighbour cultivations the virus loses its potency ; inoculated hood. The cargo arrived on 29th May, and a lot into sheep it secures their immunity from the of 146 were disposed of at Hull on the 30th. The disease. remaining 175 were sent to London. Amongst No medicinal treatment has as yet been found them were 330 sheep which were sold at Hull to ' beneficial in this disease. Almost every remedy the butchers and killed, and all the 175 cattle was tried in 1865, and although there were except 20 were sold for killing, but the remaining recoveries, no one attributed these to any remedies. 20 were sent to Gosport. From this source the The disease is much milder in cattle indigenous to disease spread rapidly, and by the end of July it those countries where it has its home and origin, appeared in Aberdeenshire, brought by 4 calves and there the mortality is not great; but this mild sent to Huntly from the south. By the beginning type propagates the disease in its most virulent of November the plague was present in 30 counties form when introduced amongst cattle of other in England, 17 in Scotland, and 1 in Wales ; and countries. on December 30 the disease_had appeared on 7443 farms or in cattle-sheds in England, 2065 in Scot
Cattoʻlica, a town of Sicily, with sulphurland, and 245 in Wales; total-9753 centres of works, 14 miles NW. of Girgenti. Pop. 6591. infection. The total number of cattle on farms, in Catullus, GAIUS VALERIUS, the greatest lyric shieds, or other places where the disease had been poet of ancient Italy, and one of the greatest
poets officially reported to exist, was--England, 110,647; 1 of all ages, was born at Verona either in 87 or, Scotland, 44,527; Wales, 4536 ; total, 159,710. more probably, in 84 B.C.
Few of the incidents in And the number of healthy animals in contact his life are known to us, and the dates assigned and slaughtered were~England, 10,636 ; Scotland, to these are in most cases only conjectural. He 6578; Wales, 152; total, 17,366. The number appears to have belonged to the equestrian order, attacked were-England, 48,964; Scotland, 22,298; and his years were spent mainly at Rome, where Wales, 2287; total, 73,549. Out of this number he settled about 62 B.C., and at his villas, to which 7045 recovered, 41,491 died, 13,931 were killed, and he was fond of retiring, at Tibur and Sirmio. He 11,082 remained diseased at this date. The plague began to write verses when a boy of sixteen or continued to spread and to commit great havoc, seventeen. When my primrose youth was in its