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pleasant spring,” he says, 'I played enough at The text of the works of Catullus, after having rhyming.' ' In Rome he mingled with the best been lost for more than three hundred years, was society, becoming intimate with the two Ciceros, discovered in the 14th century at Verona. The the Metelli, Hortensius, and probably with Lu- original manuscript was again lost, and until

cretius. And in Rome he met the lady whom, lately only one copy of it, which was preserved at ‘under the name of Lesbia, he has sung in verses St Germains, and is now in Paris, was believed to

which stand at the head of the lyric poetry of be in existence. A manuscript in the Bodleian passion. It is almost certain that the Lesbia of Library, however, has been discovered by Dr Catullus was none other than Clodia, the sister Bährens to be a sister copy of the St Germains of Cicero's enemy, Publius Clodius Pulcher. One manuscript. A commentary on

Catullus was of the most beautiful and accomplished women of issued by Doering in 1788–92. The best editions her time, she inspired Catullus with a passionate are those of Mr Robinson Ellis (1866-67), and love of which the changing phases are mirrored in Bähren's (Leip. 1876-85). Among the English a wonderful cycle of poems. There is first a time verse translations may be mentioned those of of rapturous joy; then come doubts, quarrels, and | Martin (1861), Cranstoun (1867), and Ellis (1867, reconciliations, and in the end betrayal and de- and 1871). See R. Ellis's edition, mentioned spair. The final rupture seems to have happened above, and its admirable commentary (1876); in 57 B.C., and in that year Catullus accompanied Munro's Criticisms and Elucidations of Catullus the proprætor Gaius Memmius to his province of (1878); and Sellar’s Roman Poets of the Republic Bithynia. He returned to Rome disappointed in (new.ed. 1881). his hopes of enriching himself, and entered im

Caub, a town in the Prussian province of Hessepetuously into the contest which was then being Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, 30 miles waged between the senatorian and the democratic WNW. of Wiesbaden by rail. Here Blücher parties. Like Cicero and most of the men of

crossed the Rhine with his army, January 1, 1814; letters of his day, he espoused the cause of the and here, too, till 1866, toll was levied by the Duke senate

. A fiery, unscrupulous partisan, he assailed of Nassau-the only ruler who kept up this feudal directed one of his coarsest lampoons at the head privilege—from vessels navigating the

Rhine. Caub

has underground slate-quarries; and opposite, on of Julius Caesar. His closing years were darkened

an island in the river, where Louis le Débonnaire by the loss of a favourite brother, on whose tomb died in 840, is a castle called the Pfalz, built in in the Troad, which he visited when returning 1326, which is said to have been resorted to for from Bithynia, he wrote one of the most exquisite safety by the Countesses Palatine during childbed. of all poems that breathe regret for the dead. He In 1876 and 1879 Caub was the scene of two serious was himself cut off in early life, for, though the landslips. Pop. 2179. exact date of his death can only be conjectured, in all probability he did not survive the year which, after a northerly course of 600 miles, falls

Cauca, a river of Colombia, in South America, 54 B.C.

Its valley is one of the The extant works of Catullus comprise 116 into the Magdalena. pieces, many of which are extremely brief, while richest and most populous districts of the continent, the longest of them contains only some 400 lines.

and it gives name to the largest of the Colombian There is considerable variety, however, in this states, traversed by the Andean coast-range, and somewhat slender body of poetry.

There are

extending along the Pacific from Panama to graceful, playful verses of society, and there are

Ecuador. Area, 260,000 sq. m.; pop. (1887) stated verses, struck out in the heat of party warfare, at 435,690. It is rich in minerals, and possesses in which satiric wit sparkles through 'fescennine the most productive platinum mine in America. raillery. There are elaborate descriptive and Capital, Popayán. mythological pieces, such as the Comci Berenices Caucasus and the Caucasians. The great and the stately and richly-coloured Peleus and mountain-range of the Caucasus forms the backThetis

, which appear to have been translated or bone of a well-marked geographical region, nearly adapted from the Greek. There is the dtys, a corresponding with the Russian governor-yeneralstrange poem, unlike any other work of a Latin ship or lieutenancy of Caucasia. The natural and writer in its wild imaginative power and in the administrative northern limit is the great Manitch magnificent sound and sweep of its galliambic verse. depression, extending from the Sea of Azov to the And there is the crowning series of love-poems, in Caspian, and including the basins of the Kuban which the incarnation of burning passion in ex and Terek rivers. The southern natural limit is quisite language, the mastery of verbal music, are along the basins of the Rion and Kur rivers. The carried to what is seemingly the highest attain. Russian province comprises all the Russian terriable point of perfection. In these 'Lesbia tory to the Turkish and Persian frontiers, including poems' there is no sign of the laborious art which | also part of the Armenian highlands and the produced the mosaic-work of the Horatian odes. mountain masses adjoining themi, now known by They seem to have flowed forth-thought, feeling, the infelicitous name of Little Caucasus, south of phrase, and cadence combined in a perfect whole the Rion and Kur rivers. Little or Anti-Caucasiis -at a single creative impulse. Their author's is connected with Caucasus proper by the narrow mastery of the Latin tongue was unerring and Mesk ridge crossing the Rion-Kur Valley between unbounded. In his works it seems endowed with the headwaters of those streams. The Sea of Azov the elastic and radiant strength of the Greek. He and the Caspian seem at one time to have been revealed all it had of energy, sonority, and sweet connected by the Manitch depre ion; south of ness, of monumental dignity and laughing grace.

which extend vast steppes of flat treeless landHe moulded it into lines which neither Lucretius fertile, but with little or no water. South of the nor Virgil has surpassed for majesty of rhythm ; he steppe to the northern spurs of the mountains is wove it into lyrics which for "lightness of move

luxuriant park land covered with magnificent ment and caressing sweetness of cadence are grasses, and also quite level. Beyond this rise the unmatched in all the fields of Latin verse.

For mountains in successive terraces. On the south breadth of vision, fertility of thought, insight into side, towards the Rion and Kur, the mountain face human character, we must turn to other writers is much steeper and more sudden. than Catullus. For fire and music and unlaboured The Caucasus occupies the isthmus between the felicity of phrase he has no superior among the Black Sea and the Caspian, its general direction lyric poets of all time.

being from west-nortli-west to east-south-east.

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From the peninsula of Taman on the Black Sea, to bach (q. y.) for one of his main ethnological divisions the peninsula of Apsheron on the Caspian, it has a of mankind ; and as the Georgian skull he had was length of about 750 miles. The breadth, including the finest in his collection, the Caucasian was taken the secondary ranges and spurs, is about 150 miles, as the finest type of the Indo-European stock. Subbut that of the higher Caucasus does not exceed 76 sequent ethnologists have, mainly on philological miles. This range is sometimes treated as part of grounds, broken up the Caucasian variety of the boundary line between Europe and Asia, but Blumenbach into two well-marked philological the region is really Asiatic in character (see Asia), groups, the Aryan (q.v.) and the Semitic peoples The higher and central part of the range is formed | Tq.v.). The name Caucasian was clearly a misof parallel chains, not separated by deep and wide nomer when it suggested affinity in blood or in valleys, but remarkably connected by elevated language between the very various races of the plateaus, which are traversed by narrow fissures of Caucasus, classified below, and Aryans or Semites ; extreme depth. The highest peaks are in the most and Prichard and others proposed actually to central ridge or chain, at least six of them well connect most of the Caucasus peoples with the over 16,000 feet, much exceeding the highest Alps. Mongolian races of Asia. Later anthropologists, Mount Elburz attains an elevation of 18,000 feet finding, the word convenient, use Caucasian or above the sea; Kazbek reaches a height of more Caucasic for the Fair type of man as opposed to than 16,500 feet; and between these come Koshtan- the Mongolic or Yellow type. But they distau and Dikh-tau. Here the line of perpetual snow tinctly repudiate any suggestion of community is between 10,000 and 11,000 feet high ; but the of race or of language between the peoples so whole amount of perpetual snow is not great, nor named ; and desire to indicate a physical fact and are the glaciers very large or numerous.

For more an anthropological type. See ETHNOLOGY; also than 100 miles' length of the main ridge there are PHILOLOGY. no passes lower than 10,000 feet. The central The Caucasus has been called the Mountain of chain, in its highest part at least, is granitic or Languages from the multiplicity of tongues spoken even pure granite. On either side of the granitic in this narrow area-tongues many of them totally axis are metamorphic rocks, such as mica-schists distinct from one another, and, with one exception, and talc-schists; and beyond these, clay-slates and apparently unconnected with the languages of any schists. The secondary parallel chains on both other part of the globe, or race of men ; though sides of the central ridge are of limestone. The both Aryan and Turkoman affinities have been spurs and outlying mountains or hills are of less alleged for Georgian, and Sayce has suggested extent and importance than those of almost any that the ancient Hittites (q.v.), whose empire in other mountain-range of similar magnitude, sub- | Asia Minor rivalled that of the Assyrians, were siding as they do until they are only about 200 of the same stock. There are certain well-marked feet high along the shores of the Black Sea. Some groups amongst then, within which manifest parts are entirely destitute of wood, but other parts affinity, prevails. (1) The Southern division or are very densely wooded, and the secondary ranges Kartveli stock comprises the Georgians or Grusinear the Black Sea exhibit most magnificent forests ans, mainly in the upper and middle basin of the of oak, beech, ash, maple, and walnut; grain is Kur; the Imeritians, west of the watershed becultivated in some parts to a height of 8000 feet, tween the Kur and Rion; the Mingrelians, farther while in the lower valleys rice, tobacco, cotton, west reaching to the Black Sea ; the Gurians, south indigo, &c. are produced. As might be expected of the Rion; the Laz, on the Turkish frontiers; and from the geographical situation of the Caucasus, the Svans or Suanetians, between the Mingrelians the climate, though it is generally healthy, is very and the higher Caucasus.

(2) The Western different on the northern and southern sides, the division contains the Tcherkess or Circassian race, vine growing wild in great abundance on the south, formerly on the left bank of the Kuban, north of which is not the case on the north. The south Caucasus ; the Abkhasians in the narrow strip of declivity of the mountains towards Georgia presents land between the Caucasus and the Black Sea on much exceedingly beautiful and romantic scenery. the south ; and the Kabards, north and east of

There are no active volcanoes in Mount Caucasus, Elburz. (3) The Eastern division contains the but every evidence of volcanic action. Elburz and Chechenz or Tchetchens on the northern slopes of Kazbek are both of volcanic origin. There are hot the Eastern Caucasus down to the Terek; and the springs and mud volcanoes at each end of the Lesghians farther east and south. It is doubtful range, and there are also famous

petroleum wells whether the numerous small tribes called Lesghians in the peninsula of Apsheron (see BAKU). Mineral have any affinity with the Tchetchens, or how far springs also occur in many places, notably at Vla- they are related to one another; only one, the dikavkaz. The bison, or aurochs, is found in the Avars, have a written language, and they use mountains ; bears, wolves, and jackals are among Arabic characters. (4) The Ossetes or Ossetians in the carnivorous animals. Lead, iron, sulphur, the centre of Caucasus, on both slopes about coal, and copper are found.

Kazbek, are unquestionably a race of the Aryan The waters of the Caucasus flow into four prin stock, and the language has affinity with the cipal rivers-the Kuban and the Rion or Faz (the Persian branch; they call themselves Irun (probPhasis of the ancients), which flow into the Black ably meaning Aryan). The Kartveli group may Sea; and the Terek and the Kur, which flow into contain 850,000 persons; the Western group, the Caspian. Kuban and Terek are north, Rion 130,000; the Eastern, 520,000 ; the Ossetian, and Kur or Kura south of the mountains. The 120,000. All the Caucasian languages are exRussians have with great labour carried a military tremely harsh. Some of them are partially, inroad through a valley somewhat wider than most flectional ; all save the Ossetian are substantially of the Caucasian valleys. This is the tremendous agglutinative. fissure or ravine of the Dariel gorge about half In various portions of this territory there are way from the Black Sea to the Caspian. The road of course other intrusive elements of population of passes over a height of about 8000 feet, and is foreign race : Russian Slavs ; Tartars ; numerous protected by many forts. The only other road is Armenians ; Kurds; Greeks; Tats and other by the Pass of Derbend, near the Caspian Sea. Iranians or Tajiks; and a German colony from There is a railway from Baku by Tiflis to Poti and Würtemberg, east of Tiflis. Not merely do the Batoum ; Vladikavkaz is the terminus of the rail. inhabitants of the Caucasus differ widely in race, way from the north.

but they represent great variety of stages of culture, ČAUCASIAN was the name adopted by Blumen- from the indolent, music-loving Georgians to the

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wild and semi-barbarous Suanetians. Christianity John Smith (1609) having Cawcawwassoughes for
is the faith of some races, as the Georgians and the Indian councillors of Virginia, and Caicorouse
Ossetes ; Mohammedanism of a fanatical type that for an Indian captain.
of others, as the Lesghians; while primitive pagan

Cauda-galli Grit, the basement subdivision superstitions seem largely to underlie both religious

of the Devonian system of North America. The professions. One Kartvelian tribe, the Khevsurs, has in some measure combined Christianity with forms of a common fossil, supposed to be a seaweed.

name (lit. 'cock's tail') is derived from the feathery The resistance which the Caucasian peoples for

Caudebec, two places in the French departmore than half a century offered to the arms of ment of Seine-Inférieure. Caudebec lès Elbeuf, 12 Russia attracted to them the attention of the

miles S. by W. of Rouen, has a pop. (1886) of

Caudebec-enworld. But with the capture in 1859 of Shamyl,

11,038, and manufactures cloth. the prophet chief of the Lesghians, who for more

Caux, a pretty antique village of 2200 inhabitants, than twenty years withstood the armies sent

is on the Seine, 31 miles WNW. of Rouen. against him, the power of the Caucasians was Caudine Forks (Furculæ Cardince), two shattered; by 1870 it was completely broken. The high, narrow, and wooded mountain-gorges near bulk of the Circassians migrated to Turkish terri the town of Caudium, in ancient Samnium, on the tories in Asia or Europe ; most of the Abkhasians borders of Campania ; noted for the defeat of the have done the like. The ancient divisions of Romans in the second Samnite war (321 B.C.). the country, Georgia, Imeritia, Svanetia, Mingrelia, See ROME. &c., were based on tribal distinctions. These have

Caul, a portion of the amnion or thin membrane disappeared from the Russian administrative

enveloping the fætus, sometimes encompassing the system. According to the latter, the main range head of a child when born, mentioned here on acof Caucasus divides the province into Ciscaucasia, count of the extraordinary superstitions connected north of the mountains, and Transcaucasia to the

with it from very early ages almost down to the south of them ; the former comprising the govern- present day. It was the popular belief that chil. ments of Stavropol, Kuban, Terek; the latter, dren so born would turn out very fortunate, and those of Dagbestan (really north of Caucasus), that the caul brought fortune even to those who Sakatal, Tiflis, Kutaïs, Sukhum, Black Sea, Elisa

purchased it.

This superstition was so cominon betpol, Baku, and Erivan. Add Batoum and Kars

in the primitive church, that St Chrysostom (Russian Armenia), and the Transcaspian terri- inveighed against it in several of his homilies. In tory, and then Caucasia in the widest sense has an later times midwives sold the caul to advocates area of 308,000 sq. m., and a pop. of 6,290,000. The at high prices, as an especial means of making chief town in Ciscaucasia is Vladikavkaz; in Trans- theni eloquent, and to seamen, as an infallible caucasia, Tiflis ; the two connected by the great

preservative against drowning (cf. Dickens's David military road through the Caucasus. The old

Copperfield). It was also supposed that the health capital of Georgia was Mtzkhet, a good specimen of the person born with it could be told by the of a Georgian word. For Caucasus and Caucasia, caul, which, if firm and crisp, betokened health, see the map of Russia and the

articles, in this but if relaxed and flaccid, sickness or death (Notes work, CIRCASSIANS, GEORGIA, TRANSCAUCASIA, I and Queries, 1884–86). During the 17th century and, for the wars with Russia, SHAMYL ; also cauls were often advertised in the newspapers for Freshfield, Travels in Centrul Caucasus (1869) ; ) sale--from £10 to £30 being the prices asked ; Cuninghame, Eastern Caucasus (1872); Bryce, and so recently as 8th May 1848, there was an Transcaucasia (1878); Phillipps-Wolley, Savagę advertisement in the Times of a caul to be sold, Svanetia (1883); Dingelstedt on Caucasian Idioms' which was afloat with its late owner thirty years in Scottish Geographical Magazine (1888); Mourier, in all the perils of a seaman's life, and the owner Contes et Légendes du Caucase (1888).

died at last at the place of his birth.' The price Cauchy, AUGUSTIN Louis, mathematician, asked was six guineas. born in Paris, 21st August 1789, published in 1815 Caulaincourt, ARMAND DE, Duke of Vicenza, à Mémoire sur la Théorie des Ondes, which was a statesman of the French empire, born at Caulainafterwards made the basis of the undulatory theory court (Aisne), in 1772, early distinguished himself of light. Between 1820 and 1830 he wrote several as an officer, was made a general of division in important treatises; and at Prague, where he 1805, and shortly after created Duke of Vicenza. resided as tutor to the Comte de Chambord, he pub- Faithful to the last to Napoleon, he was made lished his Mémoire sur la Dispersion de la Lumière Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1813, and during (1837). From_1848 to 1852 he was professor of the Hundred Days resumed the office, receiving Astronomy at Paris, but refused the oath of alle a peerage of France, of which he was deprived after giance to Napoleon III., and lived in retirement till the restoration. He died in Paris, February 19, his death, 23ů May 1857. A reissue of his works, 1827. See his Souvenirs (1837–40). in 26 vols., was commenced by the Academy in 1882. See his Life by Valson (2 vols. Paris, 1868).

Cauliflower, a variety of the common kale or

cabbage. It was cultivated by the Greeks and Caucus, a private meeting of politicians to Romans, but was little attended to in England till agree upon candidates to be proposed for an ensuing the end of the 17th century; yet prior to the election, or to fix the business to be laid before a French Revolution cauliflower formed an article general meeting of their party. The term origin of export from England to Holland, whilst English ated in America, where the caucus has taken fast cauliflower seed is still preferred on the Continent. root, the ticket,' or list of candidates for federal, The deformed inflorescence or heads of the caulistate

, and municipal offices, being always decided tower only are used. Its cultivation for the supply upon by the party leaders; but of late years the of Covent Garden and other markets occupies the system has been introduced into England, and attention of the market-gardeners of London, Cornadopted by the Radicals, especially in Birmingham, wall, Devonshire, and the Channel Islands to a though the word is there used rather for the regu- very large extent during winter and spring. It is larly constituted party organisation. In Notes and much more tender than Broccoli (9.v.), and the Queries for 1885 there is a long discussion as to the plants that are reareil in August for the purpose origin of the word, which Sydney Smith used in of supplying the first crop of the following summer 1818, and John Adams in 1763. Professor Skeat is require to be protected under hand-glasses or frames inclined to refer it to an Indian source, Captain during winter. They require to be freely exposed

28

CAULKING

CAUSALITY

a cer

cause

to air in mild or comparatively mild weather, but Causality, or the theory of the relation besevere frost must be prevented from entering the tween cause and effect, is one of the most intricate glasses or frames. From the middle of August to and important questions of philosophical doctrine. the 24th of that month, make two or three sowings All scientific investigation is occupied with the at intervals of three or four days. The plants search for the causes of given events, or for the reared from these sov gs are planted ou effects of given causes, and with the generalisation tain portion of the strongest under hand-glasses to of these into laws of nature. But the nature and furnish the earliest crop; and an abundant reserve ground of the relation between cause and effect are of the smaller plants are planted a few inches apart obscure and disputed. in frames, to be planted out finally in the spring in The difficulty of the question is largely increased the open ground. To succeed these a sowing may by the uncertain signification of the word cause. be made in a hotbed in January or February; and Thus the investigation into the cause of things, again in March and May, plants should be reared with which early Greek speculation was occupied, for successional crops, these later sowings being was really an inquiry for the ultimate constituent made in the open ground. The ground must be or element from which the variety of actual rich and the cultivation high to produce cauliflower existence had proceeded ; , and from this inquiry of first-rate quality; there is some risk, however, the quest for a principle of change or development in having the ground too rich for the winter crop was only gradually distinguished. The first imin the case of severe weather occurring; if the portant step in the direction of clear discussion plants are extra luxuriant, they will the more was made in Aristotle's doctrine of the four readily succumb to frost.

causes :' the material cause, out of which a thing Caulking, in wood shipbuilding, is the opera

is framed; the formal cause, or the essence or tion of driving oakum or untwisted rope into the idea of the thing; the efficient or active cause

, by seams of the outside planks, or of the deck plank- means of which it took its present form; and the ing, to render them watertight. The quantity final cause or purpose it subserves. These, it is thus driven in depends on the thickness of the to be observed, are not so much causes in the planking ; it varies from 1 to 13 double threads of modern sense of the term, as principles which enter oakum, with 1 or 2 single threads of spun yarn.

into the existence of everything: In modern The caulker first raims or reems the seam-that is, science the meaning of the term is much more drives a caulking-iron into it, to widen the seam as restricted, corresponding in some degree to what much as possible, and close any rents or fissures in Aristotle called the efficient cause. Thus both the wood'; he then drives in a little spun yarn or

Bacon and Descartes wished to banish the notion white oakum with a wood mallet and a caulking of final from the scientific interprechisel, and afterwards a much larger quantity of tation of nature; and although, in Bacon's own black' or coarse oakum. The fibres are driven in method, science was treated as an inquiry into until they form a densely hard mass, which not the form or true nature of things (corresponding only keeps out water, but strengthens the plank- thus to Aristotle's formal cause), this notion has ing? The seam is finally coated or payed with hot had little influence. What Descartes sought, and pitch or resin.

what science still seeks, is the connection rather In iron or steel shipbuilding and boilermaking than the essence of things; and its ideal is a the term covers the operation of driving the edge mechanical interpretation of nature in terms of of one thickness of plating firmly against the other matter and motion. In modern science cause thickness upon which it is superimposed, or to may therefore be said to mean the explanation which it is adjacent, thus rendering the joints of change. To some extent it corresponds with watertight. The tool employed is a specially Aristotle's efficient cause. But the notion of formed chisel, struck by a metał hand-hammer'; efficient cause has itself undergone a profound but endeavours have been made to supplant this modification, which seems to have been carried by steam-driven machines, so far with but indiffer- out alongside of the formulating of the principle ent success.

of the conservation of energy. The tendency in certain extinct tree-ferns, which range from the The genesis and justification of the notion of Caulop'teris, a generic name for the stems of science has been to replace the notion of power or

efficiency by that of order or constant sequence. Devonian to the Permian system. They are hollow, and covered with markings similar to

efficiency are matters of dispute : whether it is an the leaf-scars on recent tree-ferns.

a priori intuition, or derived from the consciousCaura, a considerable river of Venezuela, rises from the sensations of innervation and muscular

ness of the voluntary direction of attention, or among the sierras of the southern frontier, and resistance. Both Berkeley and Hume directed a flows NNW. to the Orinoco.

On both sides vigorous polemic against the doctrine of power stretches the territory of Caura (22,485 sq. m.), expressed by Locke, as going beyond the observed with immense forests of tonka beans.

facts of the motion of bodies, and Hume refused Caus, CAULX, or CAULS, SALOMON DE, en to see in mind any more than in matter anything gineer, born at Dieppe in 1576, was a Protestant, else than a succession of impressions and ideas. and lived much in England and Germany. He was Into the rights of this controversy it is impossible in the service of the Prince of Wales in 1612, and to enter here. But clearness of scientific stateof the Elector Palatine, at Heidelberg, in 1614-20; ment has certainly been gained by the extrusion but by 1623 he returned to France, and became of the

notion of power, and substitution for it of engineer and architect to the king. He died in

that of regular sequence. It is in following out Paris, 6th June 1626.

At Frankfort in 1615 this view of the physical as distinct from the appeared his Raisons des Forces Mouvantes, &c., a efficient cause that 'the term comes to be defined work in which is described an apparatus for forcing as the aggregate of the conditions or antecedents up water by a steam fountain, differing only in necessary to the production of the effect : meaning one detail from that of Della Porta (see STEAM- by necessary conditions those conditions without ENGINE). There is no reason to suppose that the which the effect either would not have existed at apparatus ever was constructed ; but on the strength all, or would have been different from what it is, of the description, Arago has claimed for De Caus In popular language, however, and even in most the invention of the steam-engine. See the article scientific inquiries, the term cause is restricted to DE CAUS in vol. xiv. of the Dict. of National the one or two conditions by the intervention of Biography (1888).

which amongst other more permanent conditions

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the effect is produced. Thus it is noticeable that phers and others, as well as Kant, had attempted while the former or more complete definition replies to Hume, contending that causality is an corresponds with that expressly given in J. S. | intuitive judgment antecedent to experience. But Mill's Logic, his inductive methods are entirely such a reply remains an arbitrary assertion until it devoted to explaining modes of discovering causes is shown how the causal judgment is connected in the narrower or popular signification.

with experience. In Kant's Critique of Pure It is in this meaning of the term that science Reason this connection is thoroughly investigated; investigates causes. In doing so, it goes on the the refutation of Hume is only part or consequence presupposition that every event or change has a of a complete inquiry into the relation of reason cause. This has been called the Law of Uni to experience. It was, however, largely Hume's versal Causation, and may be expressed by doctrine of causality that led to Kant's new point saying that the explanation of every event is of view, and to the doctrine that experience is the to be found in antecedent conditions. Scientific product of the understanding, the realisation of its investigation also presupposes the Law of the a priori forms. It is not the sequence of events in Uniformity of Nature, that the same conditions time, Kant holds, that gives rise to the principle of or cause will be followed (at all times and places) causality ; but the pure notion of causality finds by the same effects. The grounds and mutual its realisation in this time-sequence, in which each relation of these two assumptions form the chief event is determined by its antecedent. Kant's subject of controversy in the philosophical theory doctrine, as thus stated, is in full harmony with of causality. It is to Hume that the credit is due the principles and methods of modern science ; of having drawn attention to the difficulties in asserting the principle that every change—i.e. each volved in the principle of causation, in such a way successive state-of the universe is the result of its as to determine the whole course of subsequent preceding state, and at the same tiine leaving to philosophy. All reasoning about matters of "fact, empirical investigation the connection in experihe shows-all physical science, therefore-depends ence of any one definite thing with any other. on the relation between cause and effect. Yet, The most important discussions of causality are between the cause and the effect there is no dis- those of Hume, Treatise of Human Nature, book i. coverable connection. There appears not, through part iii., and Essay of the Idea of Necessary all nature, any one instance of connection which is Connection ; Kant, Critique of Pure Reason ; and conceivable by us. All events seem entirely loose J. S. Mill, System of Logic, book iii. chaps. iii.-v. and separate. One event follows another; but we There is also elaborate treatment of the subject in never can observe any tie between them. They the works of Reid, Stewart, and Hamilton. Dr seem conjoined, but never connected.'

Hume's own Thomas Brown's Inquiry into the Relation of solution of the difficulty is found in the law of Cause and Effect contains much acute analytical mental association. The mind,' he says, “is thinking. carried by habit upon the appearance of one event Cause Célèbre, a convenient French term for to expect its usual attendant, and to believe that

a specially interesting and important legal trial, it will exist. This connection, therefore, which we criminal or civil, such as the Douglas Cause feel in the mind, or customary transition of the l (1769-71), the Dred Scott case in the United imagination from one object to its usual attendant, States as to the possession of a negro (1856), the is the sentiment or impression from which we form Tichborne case (1871-74). There is a great French the idea of power or necessary connection. Nothing collection of Causes Célèbres et interessantes ( 22 vols. further is in the case. When we say, there. 1737-45), by Gayot de Pitaval, with modern coni. fore, that one object is connected with another, we tinuations. See TRIALS. mean only that they have acquired a connection in our thonghts, and give rise to this inference by and informal essay on any subject in a newspaper

Causerie, a name applied to a somewhat short which they became proofs of one another's exist

or magazine. More familiar in manner and slighter ence: a conclusion which is somewhat extra

in structure than the formal essay as usually underordinary, but which seems founded on sufficient stood, it is an excellent medium for a writer whose driven is thus that, while all reasoning about personality interests the reader as much as the

value of his thoughts. The name owes its literary matters of fact is founded on the principle of causality, this principle has itself no other basis of Sainte-Beuve; hardly less valuable examples

currency mainly to the famous Causeries du Lundi than the mental tendency to pass from one impression to the idea of another impression previously

were many of the occasional essays in the later

manner of Matthew Arnold. experienced in conjunction with the former. Hume's solution is thus not sceptical (except as

Caustic (Gr., 'burning’), in Medicine and in regards the application of causality or any other Chemistry, is the term applied to such substances principle beyond experience), but it is subjective :

as exert a corroding or disintegrating action on the the connection of things is resolved into a customary skin and flesh. Lunur caustic (so called because succession of ideas. Of the numerous theories of silver was called luna, the moon,' in the alchemists causation put forward since the question was thus mystical jargon) is nitrate of silver, and common opened, the two most important are J. S. Mill's caustic is potash. When used as a caustic in medirehabilitation of Hume's doctrine to suit the re

cine, the substance is fused and cast into moulds, opposed doctrine of Kant and his philosophical Caustic is also used in chemistry in an adjective quirements of scientific investigation, and the which yield the caustic in small sticks the thick

ness of an ordinary lead pencil, or rather less. It is characteristic of Mill's doctrine that the

sense—thus caustic lime, or pure lime, Cao, as principle of causality is made a consequence of the distinguished from mild lime, or the carbonate of Law of the Uniformity of Nature : the familiar lime, CaCO3, caustic magnesia, Mgo, and mild truth that invariability of succession is found by magnesia, MgCO3, caustic potash, caustic soda (for observation to obtain between every fact in nature these, see POTASH, SODA, &c.). See CAUTERY. and some other fact which has preceded it.' This Caustics. When the incident rays are parallel principle, which is assumed in every scientific in to the principal axis of a reflecting concave mirror, duction, is itself held to be the generalisation of a wide and uncontradicted experience.

they converge, after reflection, to a single point,

called the principal focus. In the case of parabolic A different position is given to the causal prin- mirrors this is rigorously true. For, as is easily ciple in Kant's philosophy. The Scottish philoso- seen from the fundamental property of the para

successors

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