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is mainly indebted to him for the Private Bill Colchis, a province of ancient Asia, on the east Ofice and for the royal record commission, whose coast of the Pontus Euxinus or Black Sea, situated proceedings he for many years superintended. But north of Armenia and south of the Caucasus. his greatest service was in the Act (1800) for tak. Colchis was famous in Greek mythology as the ing the first census. In 1802 he was elected land of Medea (q.v.) and the goal of the ArgoSpeaker, the duties of which high and honourable nauts (9.v.); afterwards it was better known to oflice he continued to discharge with as much the Greeks as the seat of some colonies of the impartiality as distinction until May 1817, when Milesians. It was noted for its wines and fruits. ill-health compelled him to resign. He received The principal town was Dioscurias ; the principal a pension of £4000 a year, and was raised to the river the Phasis. The Colchians were at one time peerage as Baron Colchester, his father having been subject to Persia, and subsequently to Mithridates, rector of All Saints, Colchester. He died 7th May king of Pontus, and ultimately passed under the 1829. See his Diary and Correspondence (3 vols. mighty empire of Rome. 1861), edited by his son Charles, second Lord Col. chester (1798-1867), who was postmaster-general in

Colcothar is the name given by the alchemists

to the red powder (mainly red oxide of iron) which 1858. Col'chicum, a genus of Liliaceæ, sub-order sulphate of iron is calcined.

remains in the retorts when green vitriol or the

It is used for polishiMelanthaceæ. The species, which are few in ing glass and the like, and is called crocus by number, are stemless, with flowers half subter

artists. ranean like the crocus, the limb of the perianth and

part of the tube only Cold is the term by which we signify a relative
rising above ground. want of sensible heat. There are therefore no
The flowers much re- determinate boundaries between cold and heat,
semble crocus-flowers, and it is a mere arbitrary distinction to call the
but are readily distin- degrees of the thermometer below the freezing.
guished by having six point degrees of cold. When the atmosphere, or
instead of three any substance which comes in contact with our
stamens, and three body, is at a lower temperature than the skin, it
styles instead of one. absorbs heat from it, and we call it cold. See
The superior ovary does HEAT.
not remain

to ripen The physiological action of cold on the animal underground, but after organism requires a brief notice. All animals the flowering is over, (the warm-blooded animals to the greatest extent) rises in the form of three have a certain power of maintaining the heat of little follicles slightly the body, in defiance of external cold, as has been adhering to each other, shown in the article ANIMAL HEAT.

This power is on a lengthened stalk. mainly due to a process analogous to combustion, in The only British species which carbon and hydrogen taken into the system is C. autumnale, the in food are made to unite with oxygen derived Meadow Saffron, some- from the air by respiration. If the combustible times also, but incor- materials are not duly furnished, or if the supply rectly, named Autumn of oxygen be deficient (as in various diseased conCrocus, which is plenti- ditions), there must be a depression of temperature. ful in meadows and pas. Now, if the temperature of a bird or mammal (except tures in some parts of in the case of hybernating animals) be lowered England and of the about 30° below its normal standard (which in birds continent of Europe. ranges from 100° to 112, and in mammals from 96° The flowers are pale to 102° ), the death of the animal is the result. The purple; they appear symptoms indicating that an animal or a man is in autumn, unaccom- suffering from a depression of the temperature of panied by any leaves ; the body are—retardation of the circulation of the the leaves, which are blood, causing lividity of the skin, which is followed large and broadly lan- by pallor, in consequence of the blood being almost

ceolate, appear in entirely driven from the surface through the Meadow Saffron spring, when the stalk | contraction of the vessels; a peculiar torpor of the (Colchicum autumnale): which bears the ripen- muscular and nervous systems at the same time

ing fruit arises amongst manifests itself in an indisposition to make any

them. The whole plant effort or exertion, and in intense sleepiness. The is very acrid and poisonous, chiefly owing to the respiratory movements become slower (see RESPIRApresence of an alkaloid called Colchicine TION), and the loss of heat goes on, therefore, with Colchicia. Cattle are not unfrequently injured increasing rapidity, till the fatal limit is reached, by it in pastures where it abounds. It is a and death supervenes. valuable medicinal plant, and is administered, in In hibernating animals (the marmot, dormouse, small doses, to allay the pain of gout and rheu- bat, &c.) the power of genemting heat within their matism. Repeated doses produce vomiting, purg. own bodies is very slight, their temperature fol. ing, increase of the urinary secretion, and profuse lowing that of the external air, so that it may be perspiration. The parts chiefly used for medicinal brought down nearly to the freezing-point. See purposes are the corm (popularly called the root) the articles HIBERNATION, STARVATION, DORMANT and the seeds. The seeds are round, brown, rather VITALITY; also, for other phenomena connected larger than mustard-seed. Other species of col. with cold, HEAT, CLIMATE, FREEZING, ICE, THER

chicum appear to possess similar properties. The MOMETER, TEMPERATURE. 'hermodactyls of the druggists' shops, which for many Great or prolonged atmospheric cold is a most centuries have enjoyed an extensive celebrity for powerful depressing agent, and is a fruitful cause soothing pains in the joints, and are brought from of disease and even of death. Whenever the the Levant, are believed to be the corms either of temperature of the atmosphere is suddenly reC. variegatum or C. bulbocodioides. C. autumnale duced, and particularly when it is reduced below is not unfrequent in flower-borders, particularly a the freezing-point, a considerable addition takes variety with double flowers.

place to the mortality of the country at large. The

a, a leaf.





effects of cold are, in ordinary circumstances, most Cole, THOMAS, painter, born at Bolton-le-Moors apparent among the aged and the very young, in 1801, removed to America in 1819, where he and among those suffering from chronic disease; became one of the best-known landscape-painters. but when a very low temperature is long con- In 1830 two of his pictures appeared in the Royal tinued, even the healthy are sure to suffer, when Academy, and he afterwards nade sketching tours impoverished so as not to have suflicient means through England, France, and Italy ; but all his of external warmth in their homes. The most best landscapes were American, and these, as well direct effects of cold are in the production of what as his allegorical subjects, are highly valued. He is commonly called Frost-bite (q.v.).

died 11th February 1848. Cold is applied in various ways in the treatment of disease. In some forms of fever, a cold bath, or

Cole, ViCat, landscape-painter, was born at cold wet pack, is the best means of reducing a

Plymouth in 1833, and since 1853 has been a frevery high temperature which of itself threatens quent contributor to the Royal Academy exhibi.

tions. life. In many inflammations relief is best obtained

In 1870 he became A.R.A., and in 1880 R.A. by the local application of ice, or of a coiled tube Very many of his paintings are Surrey scenes. through which cold water circulates. The tonic Colebrooke, HENRY THOMAS, the pioneer of and stimulating effects of a temporary application Sanskrit scholarship in Europe, was born in London, of cold are familiar in the cold morning bath, or 15th June 1765, the son of Sir George Colebrooke, the use of cold water sprinkled on the face of a banker, and eventually chairman of the board of person who has fainted. The disease commonly directors of the East India Company. He was edutermed a “cold' has been already described under cated at home, and early showed a strong disposiCATARRH.

tion for mathematical studies. In 1782 his father's Cold Cream is the term applied to an oint influence procured him a writership in the Bengal ment containing rose-water which is used as a

service. He was a voracious reader, and his alert mild and cooling dressing for the skin. It may

mind found its relaxation in the change from be prepared by melting together almond-oil five administrative to scientific labour. His duties as parts, spermaceti one part, and white wax one revenue officer at Tirhut led him to make a minute part Three parts of rose-water are then added study of the state of husbandry in Bengal, and his with brisk stirring, which is continued till the Remarks thereon (Calcutta, 1795, privately printed) whole is cool, and of a soft creamy consistence. formed so searching a criticism of the existing policy As cold cream prepared in this way is liable to that the work could not be published in England. turn rancid, glycerine is sometimes added, or the At Purneah his legal functions led him to study almond-oil is replaced by white vaseline. Cola Indian law and learn Sanskrit; and he began in cream is a pleasant application to irritated surfaces, 1794 publishing essays on Indian religion, poetry, protecting them from the influences of the weather, and science in the Asiatic Researches of the recently and promoting the healing of wounds and chapped founded Asiatic Society of Calcutta. His removal hands.

in 1795 to the magistracy of Mirzapur gave him the Coldstream, a town of Berwickshire, 15 miles opportunity of cultivating the acquaintance of the SW. of Berwick by rail, on the Tweed, over which

learned men of the neighbouring Sanskrit college there is a fine bridge by Smeaton (1766). At Cold

at Benares, and with this advantage he brought stream was the famous ford by which Edward I.

out his Digest of Hindu Law on Contracts and entered Scotland in 1296, and near which he met Successions (translated from the Sanskrit, 1798, the Scottish nobles, to settle the dispute about the 4 vols. Calcutta). A mission to Nagpur (1799-1801) crown of Scotland. By this ford also the Scots interrupted his work, and on his return he was invaded England in 1640. Being convenient as a appointed a judge of the new court of appeal at Border town, Coldstream, like Gretna Green and

Calcutta, and at the same time honorary professor Lamberton toll-bar near Berwick, was formerly cele

of Hindu Law and Sanskrit at the college of Fort brated for its clandestine marriages. Pop. 1616.

William. Yet he contrived during this busy period Coldstream Guards, a regiment in the

to publish the first (and only) volume of his SansFoot Guards (9.v.) or Household Brigade, the

krit Grammar (1805), based upon Pánini and the

native commentators, to write his famous articles oldest in the British army except the 1st Foot,

on the Vedas and on the sect of Jains, besides now called the Royal Scots. Raised in 1660 by General Monk at Coldstream, it was at first called and also to supplement his Digest by Two Treatises

many other valuable essays for Asiatic Researches, Monk's Regiment;' but when parliament con- on the Hindu Law of Inheritance (1810). Before sented to give a brigade of guards to Charles II.,

this he had reached the eminence of a seat on the this corps, under the name of Coldstream Guards, was included in it.

governor-general's council (1807), and was using

his influence earnestly in the direction of adminisColdwater, capital of Branch county, Michi- trative reform and the encouragement of oriental gan, 156 miles E.

Chicago, on the Lake Shore studies. He retired in 1814, and devoted himself Railway, has several foundries, tlour-mills, and

to scholarly work in England, especially to eastern manufactories, and a public school which cost science. Several of his essays in Asiatic Researches $100,000. Pop. (1880) 4681 ; (1890) 5462.

related to Hindu astronomy, meteorology, matheCole, Sir HENRY, was born at Bath, 15th July matics, geology, and botany. He contributed also 1808, educated at Christ's Hospital, and became to the Transactions of the Astronomical Society, to assistant-keeper of the Records in 1838. He wrote The Quarterly Journal of Science, the Linnean and much for the newspapers and reviews, and under the Geological Societies, as well as, more especially, the name of Felix Summerly' produced about to the Royal Asiatic Society, which he helped to twenty children's books. He was chairman of the found in 1823. His last years were troubled by Society of Arts, did valuable service on the com- care, blindness, and much bodily suffering, endured mittee of the Great Exhibition of 1851, was the with fortitude; and on 10th March 1837 he died at founder of the South Kensington Museum, and in the age of seventy-two. His translation of the Sán1860 became its director. For liis services on innu- khya Kúrika was posthumously edited by Professor merable committees and councils, and in promoting H. H. Wilson. His work as a Sanskrit scholar valuable reforms, he was made K.C. B. in 1875; possessed the highest merits of extreme conscienand he held several foreign decorations. He died tiousness and caution, scientific accuracy, and a 18th April 1882. See his Autobiography (2 vols. stern repression of the tendency to fanciful exaggera1884).

tion which marked the early theories of European 340



scholars on Indian science and religion. His life a dispossessed Zulu chief. On his return to South has been well written by his son, Sir T. E. Cole- Africa he warmly espoused the interests of the brooke (1873), and his immense services to Sans- natives against the oppression of the Boers, and krit scholarship are lucidly criticised in Max the encroaching policy of the Cape_officials. He Müller's Biographical Essays (1884).

opposed the attitude of Sir Bartle Frere and the Colenso, John WILLIAM, D.D., Bishop of home government during the Zulu war, and Natal, the son of a Cornish gentleman, was born earnestly strove to make peace between the conat St Austell, January 24, 1814. He was educated tending parties. Owing to his exertions, Cety. at St John's College, Cambridge, where he gradu- wayo was allowed to visit England and plead ated as second wrangler in 1836, and became for his rights. Dr Colenso's defence of the fellow and assistant-tutor of his college. From aboriginal claims lost him much valuable support; 1838 to 1942 he was an assistant-master at Harrow, but the bishop and his daughter never swerved and for the next four years a tutor at Cambridge.

from what seemed to them to be the wisest as Appointed, in 1846, rector of Forncett St Mary,

well as the only honourable course to pursue Norfolk, he published Miscellaneous Examples in

towards the natives of South Africa. In addition Algebra in 1848, Plane Trigonometry in 1851, and

to the works already named, Dr Colenso was Village Sermons in 1853, in which same year he

the author of Ten Weeks in Natal (1855); The was appointed first Bishop of Natal. With that New Bible Commentary Literally Examined (1871energy of character which always distinguished 74); Lectures on the Pentateuch and the Moabite him, Dr Colenso at once began a close study of Stone (1873); and a volume of Sermons (1873), the natives and of the Zulu language, and after a

His critical analysis of the Pentateuch extended time prepared a grammar and dictionary, and to seven parts, the last of which appeared in made a translation of the English Prayer-book and

1879. This work was not without iniluence in a portion of the Bible, printing them in his own modifying the views of Kuenen and other conhouse. In 1860 he memorialised the Archbishop tinental commentators. Bishop Colenso died at

He was a man of Canterbury against compelling those natives Durban, Natal, June 20, 1883. who had already more than one wife to renounce of upright and inflexible character, yet gentle polygamy as a condition to baptism, alleging that in demeanour and chivalrous in controversy. His he could find no warrant for such compulsion theological works still find many readers, while either in the gospel or in the ancient church. his treatises on algebra and arithmetic have long In 1861 he published his Translation of St been text-books in the public schools and uniPaul's Epistle to the Romans, commented on from versities. See his Life by Sir G. W. Cox (2 vols. a Missionary Point of View, in which he objected 1888). to the doctrine of eternal punishment. He next Coleop'tera. See BEETLE. announced that he had become convinced of the improbability of many statements of facts and but, save that he had seen much foreign service,

Colepeper, Joun, was a native of Sussex, numbers in the historical books of the Bible ; | little is known of him till his return for Kent in and in 1862 there appeared the first part of his

1640 to the Long Parliament. There he pursued work on The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua

a course much the same as Hyde's (see CLARENCritically Examined. This treatise brought down DON), and in January 1642 was created Chancellor upon its writer an avalanche of criticism and remonstrance. He had called in question the

of the Exchequer, a twelvemonth later Master of

the Rolls, and in 1644 Lord Colepeper. With historical accuracy and Mosaic authorship of the

Hyde he attended Prince Charles to the western books cited, and his work was condemned as

counties, and from Jersey he brought him to heretical by small majorities in both Houses of Convocation of the province of Canterbury; The attached himself. He lived to see the Restoration,

Henrietta Maria, to whose party he thenceforth bishop was entreated to resign his see by his dying on 11th June 1660. He was an able, farepiscopal brethren, some of whom inhibited him seeing councillor, but rough and unstable. from preaching in their dioceses. The second part of his work appeared in 1863. Convocation cen

Coleraine, a seaport in County Londonderry, sured him in the succeeding year, and he was

on the right bank of the Bann, 4 miles from its declared to be deposed from his see by his Metro- mouth, 33 by rail NE. of Londonderry, and 61 politan, Bishop Gray of Capetown. He appealed

NW. of Belfast. It has manufactures of fine from this judgment in 1865, when the Privy-council linens, pork-curing, distilling, and important fishdeclared the deposition to be “null and void in eries in the river. The Bann is here spanned by law. The bishops constituting the council of the

a fine stone bridge, 288 feet long, which connects

Coleraine with its suburb on the left bank of the Colonial Bishoprics Fund, however, refused to pay him his income, upon which he appealed to

river, Waterside or Killowen. Vessels of 200 tons the Court of Chancery. On October 6, 1866, the

can discharge at the quay—those of greater burden Master of the Rolls delivered an elaborate judg. lie at Portrush, 6.5 miles off. Pop. (1861) 6236 ;

Until 1885 Coleraine returned ment, ordering the payment of the bishop's income, (1881) 5899. with all arrears and interest, unless his accusers

member to parliament. should bring him to trial for heresy ; but this they Coleridge, HARTLEY, eldest son of the great declined to do. Immediately before Di Colenso's Coleridge, was born, an eight months' child, at return to his diocese in August 1865, his English Clevedon, Somersetshire, 19th September 1796. friends presented him with £3300 as a testimonial. Very early he showed uncommon parts, and a The Anglican community at the Cape was now singular power of living entirely in a make-believe divided into two camps, and although Dr Colenso world of dreams and imagination. Wordsworth's remained the only bishop of the Church of England lovely and touching poem to the child at six years in Natal, Bishop Gray publicly excommunicated of age was strangely and sadly prophetic of his him, and in 1869 consecrated Dr W. K. Macrorie | after-life; hardly less the concluding lines of his as Bishop of Maritzburg, his authority practically own father's two poems, The Nightingale and Frost extending over the same diocese. In 1874 Dr at Midnight. Hartley was brought up, after the Colenso visited England to report upon the affairs separation of his parents, by. Southey at Greta of his diocese to the Archbishop of Canterbury, | Hall, and was educated chietly at Ambleside and to consult with the heads of the church upon school. In 1815 he went to Oxford as postmaster its relations to the new see of Maritzburg. While of Merton College. His scholarship was great but in England he pleaded the cause of Langalibalele, ' unequal, and not such as to lead to high distinc.


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tions in the schools. His failure after no less children of his father's second marriage. A singuthan three attempts to gain the Newdigate filled larly precocious child, he had read the Arabian him with a passionate despondency,' from which Nights in his fourth year; but he said of himself, he turned for relief to a fatal remedy. When at I never thought as a child.' On his father's death length he had gained with credit an Oriel fellow- he was sent, in his ninth year, to be educated at ship, at the close of his probationary year he was Christ's Hospital, where he had Charles Lamb for judged to have forfeited it mainly on the ground a school companion. He was poorly fed, and badly of intemperance. 'The sentence might be con- taught; but he plunged with eagerness into a whole sidered severe,' says his brother; it could not be library of literature, and read Homer and Virgil said to be unjust.' Unhappily it ruined his life, for the mere pleasure of it. Remaining at Christ's crushed his spirit, and made recovery impossible. for eight years, he became head of the school, and With £300 given him by the college, Hartley spent showed a remarkable capacity for assimilating all the next two years in London, then tried for four sorts of knowledge. He was a mental rover from or five years taking pupils at Ambleside, occasion. his boyhood onwards, with a very miscellaneous ally writing for Blackwood's Magazine, next lived intellectual appetite. At school he translated the some time at Grasmere, and then went to live at hymns of Synesius, studied works on medicine in Leeds with one Bingley, a publisher, for whom he Latin, on metaphysics in Greek, and fell in love agreed to write a biographical work on the worthies with the sister of one of his companions. His last of Lancashire and Yorkshire. Of these but thirteen years at school, however, were years of suffering. lives had already been written when Bingley failed. He used to bathe in the New River, plunging These were published under the titles of Biographia into the water with his clothes on, and after å Borealis (1833) and of Worthies of Yorkshire and swim, resumed his games, or returned to his books, Lancashire (1836). Bingley also printed a small without changing his garments. The inevitable volume of his poems in 1833. Hartley next result was rheumatic fever and other ailments. returned to Grasmere, the only remaining inter- While at school he had a passing attraction ruptions to his ordinary life being two short and not only to his schoolmate's sister, but to the not unsuccessful intervals of teaching at Sedbergh shoemaker's craft. This was a short-lived fancy ; grammar-school. His father, who died in 1834, and in October 1791 he passed to Jesus College, made a special provision for him in a codicil to Cambridge, a few months after Wordsworth had his will, and his mother's death in 1845 made him taken his B.A. degree, and left the university. by an annuity completely independent. He con- During his first year at college he did good work in tinued to write poetry, and wrote a life of Mas- classics, and became one of four selected candidates singer for an edition projected by Moxon. His days for the Craven scholarship in 1793 ; but his bent were spent in fitful study, lonely reverie, and wan- not being mathematical, and having little chance derings over the Lake Country, with, unhappily, of winning the chancellor's medal, he gave himself occasional lapses into intemperance. The dales- up to general literature. He also became intermen everywhere treated ‘Poet Hartley' with a ested in politics, took a strong position on the singularly affectionate respect, not without a kind Liberal side, and won distinction, even thus early, of awe at his eerie appearance, his abstracted air, as a marvellous talker. He got into difliculties his small stature, prematurely white hair, and in Cambridge, through extravagance in furnishing gentle manners. He loved children and animals, his rooms, became depressed, and in a panic fled to and was fondly loved by them in return. He died | London, where he enlisted in the 15th Dragoons, 6th January 1849, and was buried beside what was under the name Silas Tomkyns Comberbach (a soon to be Wordsworth's grave.

name assumed to conceal and yet reveal his identity Hartley Coleridge's poetry falls short of the as S. T. C.). He never could learn, however, how great, but sometimes approaches it, and even to manage a horse, never rose out of the awkward nearly. It is graceful, tender, and sincere, per squad ; and a chance accident disclosing, his knowvaded throughout with a charm of a nature rare and ledge of classics, led to his discovery by his friends, almost unique, alternately wise and playful, and and to his being bought out of the service. At the often perfect in the expression of the thoughts close of the summer term, he went from Cambridge it has to convey.

He is greatest in the sonnet- to Oxford ; and there, at Balliol College, he for the a form which seems exactly to have been the first time met Sonthey. In July he took a pedesmeasure of his powers, or rather of the fitful trian tour in North Wales, after which he went to periods of his poetic passion. Leonard and Susan, Bristol, and there again met both with Southey à narrative poem in blank verse, and Prometheus, and with Robert Lovell, the latter of whom had a dramatic fragment, are the only poems of any just married a Miss Fricker, to whose sister ( Edith) length. His Poems were collected by his brother Southey had engaged himself. Coleridge at once Derwent, with a Memoir (2 vols. 1851); also his followed his example, and became engaged to Essays and Marginalia (2 vols. 1851).

another sister (Sara); and amongst them they Coleridge, LORD. John Duke Coleridge (eldest of the Susquehanna in America, where they were to

formed the Quixotic plan of emigration to the banks son of Sir John Taylor Coleridge, the great poet's form a "Pantisocracy'-an ideal community on the nephew, and hiniself the biographer of Keble.) was born in 1821, and educated at Eton and Oxford, | labour were to suffice for providing the necessaries

principles of Communism. Two hours of daily was called to the bar in 1847, and was for some

of life, the rest of their time being devoted to intelyears leader of the western circuit. Appointed

lectual work and social converse. They were to recorder of Portsmouth in 1855, he took silk in 1861, and from 1865 to 1873 represented Exeter,.in experiment, were to bring in a golden age, for

have all things in common ; and, as a result of the
parliament, where he was Solicitor-general (1868) themselves and others.
and Attorney-general (1871) under Mr Gladstone.

It was a dream ; and it
In 1873 he became Chief-justice of the Court of passed, as dreams do.
Common Pleas, and Baron Coleridge of Ottery St

Coleridge had left Cambridge without taking a
Mary; and in 1880 he succeeded Sir Alexander London, and there renewed his acquaintance with

degree. In the late autumn of 1794 he went up to Cockburn as Lord Chief-justice of England.

Lamlı. But in December he was brought back to Coleridge, SAMUEL TAYLOR, was born at Bristol by Southey, who feared he might come Ottery St Mary, Devonshire, October 21, 1772, under some new fascination in the metropolis. He where his father was vicar, and master of the had to find the means of livelihood, not on the grammar-school,

He was the youngest of ten / Susquehanna, but in the west of England ; and

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he began a course of miscellaneous lecturing on most joyous in their lives. While living at Nether literary and political subjects. It was now that Stowey, Coleridge kept up the practice of occasional he made the acquaintance of Joseph Cottle, the preaching; and to prevent the necessity of his Bristol bookseller, who became so kind a friend. going into the ministry,' another admiring friend, Cottle offered to publish a volume of poems for Josiah Wedgwood, sent him a draft for £100. He him, giving him thirty guineas for the copyright; returned it to the donor; but, soon afterwards, and, vexed at his delay in completing the volume, Coleridge accepted an annuity of £150 from the subsequently offered him a guinea for every hundred brothers Wedgwood, given to him on the condition lines of verse he would write, after this first volume that he would devote his life wholly to poetry was printed. With this promise, and what he and philosophy. In 1798 he started with the thought provision for life, he ventured to marry ; Wordsworths for Germany, crossing from Yarand in October 1795 Sara Fricker became Mrs mouth to Hamburg ; and while Wordsworth went Coleridge. They went at once to a small cottage, to Goslar, Coleridge proceeded to Ratzeburg, to which is still to be seen at Clevedon in Somerset. study the language and literature of the country. Here, however, Coleridge did not long remain. He moved on to Göttingen in January 1799. An We find him in Bristol in December getting his interesting picture of his life in Germany is given first volume of poems ready for the press (it was in Satyrane's Letters. He returned to England in published in April 1796), and at the same time June; in August we find him at Stowey; and in attempting to start a weekly journal to be called September in Yorkshire with the Wordsworths. the Watchman, which was to contain general They had some idea of settling together, to renew news, parliamentary reports, literary intelligence, the fellowship of the Quantock days. On the and reviews. In siis efforts to float this journal approach of winter, however, Coleridge went up to he went north to Birmingham, Manchester, Shef- London, and there translated Wallenstein, one of field, &c., to procure subscribers. He succeeded the best bits of work he ever did. He now made in starting it, Cottle being the publisher ; but it fresh attempts at journalism, and wrote both prose only reached its tenth number, and failed—the and verse for the Morning Post ; but, while some generous publisher bearing all the loss. Coleridge of his articles were admirable, he was such an next tried the experiment of preaching in the irregular contributor, that his connection with the Unitarian chapels around Bristol. Cottle gives Post lasted only for a few months. In July he an account of his appearance in one of these at went north to Keswick, and took up his residence Bath on a Sunday, ‘in blue coat and white waist- at Greta Hall, which Southey also made his home coat,' to discourse on the corn laws and the powder in 1803. At Keswick he continued his poetic work, tax. This eccentricity did not last. Another and wrote the second part of Christabel. The friend, and a somewhat remarkable man-Thomas Wordsworths had now been settled for some time Poole of Nether Stowey-provided him with a at Dove Cottage, Grasmere, and there Coleridge small house and garden in the village of Stowey ; was their frequent guest. Dorothy Wordsworth's and there Coleridge went to live, in January 1797, Grasmere journal (as yet in MS.) is full of allusions with his wife and child (whom he had named to his visits, and to the wonderful friendship of these Hartley, from his admiration for the philosophy of days—a friendship immortalised in her brother's David Hartley). Poole also very generously raised Stanzas written in a pocket copy of Thomson's a sum of money to provide an annuity for his Castle of Indolence. But during the years he spent friend.

at Keswick, Coleridge came under the influence of Before this date Coleridge had made the acquaint- what was henceforward to be the very curse of his ance of Wordsworth. In the early spring of 1796 | life. His health had never been robust; rheumaWordsworth went up to Bristol from Racedown in tism and neuralgia had tortured him; and, becom. Dorsetshire, to see both Coleridge and Southey ; ing his own doctor, he had recourse to the anodyne and, in a list of authors with whom he was of opium. Little by little the habit grew, and the acquainted, drawn up by Coleridge in March of Kendal black drop' at length enslaved him. It that year, Wordsworth's name occurs. In the injured his constitution and killed his imagination; following year Coleridge went down from Stowey it enfeebled his will and destroyed his sense of to Racedown to return the visit. As late as 1845 truth and honour. Few things in literature are so Mrs Wordsworth gave a graphic account to Sara pathetic as his own lament over the deterioration Coleridge of her father's ‘leaping over a gate, and of his nature, in his Dejection, an Ode. The details bounding down a pathless field on this first visit of this malady, and what it led to, have not yet to Racedown. In July 1797 the Wordsworths been fully told. moved from Racedown to Alfoxden, partly to be Charles Lamb came to visit him at Keswick in nearer Coleridge; and during that winter—which 1802. In 1803 he started with the Wordsworths, on William and Dorothy Wordsworth spent in Somer- their memorable Scottish tour; but left them in a set-Coleridge was their almost daily companion, fortnight, and did wonderful feats of walking alone. roaming the woods and coombs of the Quantocks He now thought of many plans for the recovery of with them, or spending the night at Alfoxden. health, which were really but plans to flee from Wordsworth and he discussed together the prin- his own shadow. The frugal Wordsworth forced ciples of poetry, and planned a joint volume of him to accept a loan of £100. He was befriended verse to illustrate these principles; Wordsworth by others, and he sailed for Malta in April 1804. undertaking to invest commonplace themes with There he became secretary to the governor, Sir an imaginative interest, by disclosing what under Alexander Ball, an office for which he was entirely lay them; and Coleridge taking supernatural or unsuited. His letters from abroad were hypochonromantic incidents, humanising the stories so as to driacal, valetudinarian, and sad in many ways. give new life to them. This was the origin of the From Malta he went to Sicily, to Naples, and to Lyrical Ballads, the little volume which more than Rome; but he had to leave Italy with some abruptany other marked a new departure in poetical ness, an order, it is said, having been issued by literature at the beginning of the present century. Napoleon for his arrest, on the ground of some To it Coleridge contributed the Ancient Mariner. republican utterances years before ; and the vessel The book was published in 1798.

in which he sailed being chased by a French cruiser, This meeting of Coleridge and Wordsworth was he threw all his papers (which included many of one of the most remarkable conjunctions of genius Wordsworth's poems) overboard. In August 1806 in the literary history of England, and the days he returned to England. It is unnecessary to they spent together in Somerset were perhaps the trace his subsequent wanderings to and fro, from

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