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London to Keswick, to Penrith, to Coleorton, to era by his poetic idealism, and by introducing the Bristol, and to Bridgwater. At London he began spirit of Plato alike into his poetry and his literary what might have been a very remarkable series of criticism. As a philosopher, however, he does not lectures at the Royal Institution ; but the experi- occupy the foremost place. He was too miscelment failed, from the same cause that previous ones laneous, too assimilative, and his intellect too liad failed. He next thought of a fresh venture in meteoric and vagrant for speculative originality of journalism, and projected a new weekly paper, The the highest order. But he was one of the most Friend, for which he got a number of subscribers. suggestive of critics. Though not profoundly It was printed at Penrith at his own expense. The learned, he was very widely read; and he did more to Wordsworths took him into their house at Allan leaven English philosophy, literature, and theology Bank, Grasmere, for the winter; and while Coleridge with the depth and the free spirit of Germany, wrote most of the papers for The Friend himself, than any one of his contemporaries. He vitalised Wordsworth supplied him with some of the articles, whatever he discussed ; and his writings will proband Sarah Hutchinson transcribed them week by ably continue to kindle successive generations, and week for the press. The paper lived from August to fascinate them, even while they fail to convince. 1809 to March 1810. The habit of opium-eating, Coleridge's most important works are: Poems (1876); which had now obtained a fatal ascendency, could Wallenstein (1800); The Friend (1809-10); Remorse not be hidden from his friends ; and at this junc. (1813); Christabel, Kubla Khan, dc. (1816); The Statesture the Wordsworths, with the greatest delicacy, man's Manual (1816); Sibylline Leares (1817); Biotried their utmost to help and to befriend him. graphia Literarin (1917); Aids to Reflection (1825). They were misunderstood. He went up to London Posthumously published--four volumes of Literary in 1810, and a strange cloud (the full story of which
Remains (1836-38); Confessions of an Enquiring Spirit has yet to be told) obscured for a time the old (1840); Essay on Method (1845).
The chief authorities in reference to Coleridge are relationship between the households. A partial
Letters, Conversations, and Recollections, by Allsop (1836); estrangement lasted for some years, but was at
Cottle's Early Recollections (1837); Gillman's Life length overcome by the friendly offices of Henry (1838); Coleridge's Letters to Sir George and Lady Crabb Robinson.
Beaumont (1886); Mrs Sandford's Thomas Poole and his During Coleridge's later years in London he Friends (1889); the Biographia Literaria (1817); De lived for four years with an old Bristol friend, Quincey's “S. T. Coleridge,' in his Recollections of the Lakes John Morgan, at Hammersmith. He first tried the (1857); Eliza Meteyard's Group of Englishmen, 1795–1815 experiment of lecturing on Shakespeare. Occa- (1871); the Memoirs of Wordsworth (1851); Southey's sionally his appearances were brilliant ;
Life and Correspondence (1850); Lamb's Letters (1888); usually they were absolute failures. His conversa
Mr Traill's Coleridge (1884); and Alois Brandl's S. T. tional powers, however, seem to have increased!, complete and exhaustive biography was commenced in
Coleridge and the English Romantic School (1882). A while his success as a lecturer diminished. All his
1888 by his grandson, Mr Ernest Coleridge. life he had been in the habit of receiving gifts freely from such friends as the Beaumonts, and the
Coleridge, SARA, the gifted daughter of the Wedgwoods, from Stuart, and Wordsworth, and great Coleridge, was born, 220 December 1802, at De Quincey; and though he occasionally did
Greta Hall, near Keswick, where she was brought generous things to others, lis neglect of the primal up by Southey: She grew up a remarkably sweet duties to his own family put a severe strain upon intellect. Her depth of meditative eye' is noticeul
and graceful girl, with already more than a woman's the tie that bound these friends to him.
The remaining years of his life were spent at by Wordsworth in the finest lines of his rather poor Highgate with Mr and Mrs Gillman, whose kind poem, the Triad (1828), the other maidens of the ness and consideration were unbounded. Though a
group being Edith Southey and Dora Wordsworth. wreck of his former self, the baleful opium-habit Sara early showed remarkable powers of mind, lessened, as Coleridge grew older, and he was able
with all her father's leaning towards psychology to do a good deal of miscellaneous writing. Some
and abstract thought. At twenty she published,
to aid her brother Derwent's college expenses, a of his best prose work was written at Highgate. Though a dreamy and often unintelligible sage, he translation of Martin Dobrizhofer's Latin Account of became a sort of oracle to a circle of enthusiastic the Abipones (1784), and three years later the “ Loyal admirers that gathered round him, and he com
Servitor's' memoirs of the Chevalier Bayard. In pletely fascinated the young men, who made their
1829 she married lier cousin, Henry Nelson Coleweekly pilgrimages to Gillman's house to hear him ridge, and on his death in 1843 succeeded him in talk. As the years went on, his health somewhat the task of annotating and editing her father's improved, and he was even able to make occasional writings, Her health failed early, and she died visits. In 1829 he took a short tour with the 3d May 1852. Her own works were Pretty Lessons daughter to the Rhine. He died on the 232 July and Letters were edited by her daughter in 1873.Wordsworths, accompanying the poet and his for Good Children (1834), and Phantasmión (1837),
å somewhat remarkable fairy-tale. Her Memoirs 1831, and was buried at Highgate. As a Poet, Critic, and Philosopher (the three
Her son, HERBERT COLERIDGE, born in 1830, was functions having been combined by Coleridge as
educated at Eton and Balliol College, took a doublethey had never been by any previous Englishman)
first in 1852, and was called to the bar, but devoted he was certainly a star of the first magnitude in
himself to the study of comparative philology. the firmament of letters. For originality, insight,
Elected a member of the Philological Society in grace, musicalness, deft subtlety of thought, natural 1857, he threw himself with enthusiasm into its ness and charm of diction, he had only one rival ambitious project of a standard English dictionary, amongst the poets of the Renaissance. It is true and was practically editor in its earlier stages. there have been greater poets in England, but there
His own works were a Glossarial Index to the has been no greater poetical critic in British litera- Printed English Literature of the Thirteenth Cen. ture. Coleridge was a critic of poets (and the poets tury (1859), and an excellent essay on King Arthur, have, as a rule, been the best critics of each other). printed after his untimely death (at London, 238 As yet there is no estimate of the literary revival April 1861) by the Philological Society. which Coleridge and Wordsworth inaugurated Coleroon, the largest and most northerly that is superior to what the former wrote in his branch from the Kaveri, flows 94 miles, chietly Biographia Literaria ; and he was a philosophical between Trichinopoly and Tanjore, into the Bay of critic, because he was a philosopher amongst the Bengal. It is remarkable for its two weirs or pcets. He may be said to have inaugurated a new danıs, the anicuts, constructed in 1856.
fully watched, and discontinued if there is any sign large quantities of coffee, sugar, rice, tobacco,
Colin. See VIRGINIAN QUAIL.
Coll, one of the Argyllshire Hebrides, 16 miles
exceeds 326 feet in height; mica-slate is the preBy Henry II. he was appointed colonel.general of face is cultivated or in pasture. Pop. (1801) 1162 ; the French infantry, and the severe system of dis
Collar-bone, or CLAVICLE (q.v.), is in man, made admiral of France, though he never com
as in most mammals, the only bone directly conmanded on the sea. By holding the town of St necting the upper extremity with the skeleton of
the trunk, Quentin ( 1557 ) with a handful of men for seventeen
It is consequently very often broken, days against the army of Spain, he was the means
more often than any other bone except perhaps
the radius. of saving his country. It was during his im
Under proper treatment, in children prisonment, after the capture of this town, that sometimes even without treatment, it readily rehe embraced the views of the Huguenots, to the
unites without any impairment of the usefulness furtherance of which the rest of his life was con
of the limb. But it is very difficult to maintain secrated. On the accession of Francis II. in 1559,
such exact adjustment that no irregularity of the the Guises became all-powerful, and their interest surface of the bone will remain ; and as it lies and fanaticism led them to oppose all toleration of
close under the skin, the resulting deformity is
often visible. the Huguenots. To obtain this toleration, however, was Coligny's great aim, and by his high Collateral. See CONSANGUINITY, SUCCEScharacter and his abilities as a statesman and
Collateral Security is an additional and general, he succeeded in conjunction with the separate security for the performance of an obligaheads of the Bourbon family in effecting the
tion. treaty known as the Pacification of Amboise' Collation. See BENEFICE. (1563), by which the Huguenots were allowed Col'lé, a town of Italy, on the Elsa, 24 miles freedom of worship: This concession having SSW. of Florence. It has an old cathedral and been gradually withdrawn by the queen-mother, castle. Pop. 5090. Catharine de' Medicis, the second Huguenot war broke out in 1567, when, on the death of the liturgies of the Western Church. It consists of a
Collect, a short form of prayer, peculiar to the Prince of Condé, Coligny was appointed general: single sentence, conveying one main petition, which issimo of the forces of Henry of Navarre, afterwards is based on an attribute ascribed to God in the Henry IV. of France. Both parties having grown opening invocation, and closing with an ascription weary of the war, peace was concluded in 1570 on the basis of the treaty of Amboise, mainly through Thus much for the structure of these prayers, which,
of praise or a pleading of the merits of Christ. Coligny's energy Catharine de' Medicis, how-whether in Latin or English, may be described, ever, again becoming alarmed at the growing power alike from their noble rhythmical harmony and from of the Huguenots, and especially at the ascendency their pathos and devout simple earnestness, as of Coligny over the young king, Charles IX., deter- models of liturgical petitions; the etymology of mined by one desperate stroke to regain her power.
their name is more difficult to determine, beyond In 1572, a numerous body of the Huguenot nobles having been drawn to Paris by the marriage of collect. According to some, the prayer was so
the fact that it is from the Latin colligere, 'to Henry of Navarre with Margaret, the sister of the called because, as the English Prayer-book, it king, the massacre of St Bartholomew took place, collects or condenses the teachings of the epistle when Coligny was murdered in his bed, and his and gospel for the day; but this explanation body thrown into the street by Henry of Guise and applies only to the class of special collects. Accordhis followers. In his personal character Coligny was one of the ing to others, the term implies that the prayer
collects and sums up all the previous petitions, or noblest Frenchimen of his time. His religious zeal was purely disinterested, and he had deeply at gathers and otlers up in one comprehensive form all heart the welfare of his country. His great aim
the spoken and unspoken petitions of the people.
Both these derivations are open to serious objecwas to make the Huguenots a national party, and by their enthusiasm to defeat the schemes of Spain, tions, and neither has any historical basis; the who he saw was bent on supremacy in western
most probable view is that which traces the name Europe. Had he lived a few years longer the service, at which certain prayers orationes ad col.
to the collecta, or assembly of the people for divine history of French Protestantism would have been lectam) were said, distinct from the later prayers of different. Coligny's wide views are further seen in his unsuccessful attempts to found Protestant used in the liturgy of the Church of England, some,
the mass (orationes ad missam). Of the collects colonies in Brazil and North America. Life by Blackburn (2 vols. Phila. 1869), Bersier including most of those for saints' days-since the (Eng. trans. 1884), and Delaborde (3 vols. Paris, intercession-were composed at the Reformation,
old collects were mainly prayers for the saints' 1880).
or even later ; but most, taken from the old Roman Coli'ma, a Mexican state on the Pacific coast, Missal, are derived from the Sacramentaries of with an area of 2694 sq. m., and a pop. (1882) of Popes Leo, Gelasius, and Gregory (5th and 6th 72,591. The soil is very fertile, the climate warm ; centuries). The remoter source of the weekly
collects Freeman finds in the hymns of the Eastern either from the senate or the emperor. A college Church, founded on the gospels, of which these col- could not consist of fewer than three persons, lects would thus be the very quintessence.' In according to the well-known maxim, “three make a the English Prayer-book, for every Sunday there is college' (Dig. 50, tit. 16, 1. 85). Some of these a proper collect, with corresponding epistle and colleges were for purely mercantile purposes, but gospel ; and this collect stands for every day in the there were others which had religious objects in following week, except in the case of festivals and view, such as the colleges of pontifices and augurs, their eves or vigils, which have collects of their &c., and some were political, as the colleges of the
Good Friday alone has three collects; and tribunes of the plebs. With us, a college is an in. during Advent and Lent the collect for the first day corporation, company, or society of persons joined of the season is repeated after the collect for the together generally for literary or scientitic purposes
and frequently possessing peculiar or exclusive Collections at Churches. The collections privileges. See PHYSICIANS (COLLEGE OF), SURwhich are still made at all churches in Scotland- GEONS (COLLEGE OF), HERALDS' COLLEGE. Very either at the church-loors before the service, or in often in England a college is an endowed institution the church after it-were, till a comparatively connected with a university, having for its object recent period, the principal fund for the support of
the promotion of learning. In this relation a college the poor. The proceeds of these collections were is a sub-corporation-i.e. a member of the body originally under the control of the kirk-session, and
known as the university. For a more detailed remain so under certain restrictions. By a pro
account of college in this sense, see UNIVERSITY, clamation of the Privy-council in 1693, it was
OXFORD, CAMBRIDGE. In Scotland and in America ordered that one-half of the sums so collected, and the distinction between the college as the member of dues received by the kirk-session, be paid over
and the university as the body has been lost sight into the general fund for the support of the poor.
of; and we consequently hear of colleges granting The other half bas generally been applied for the degrees, a function which in the English and in the relief of sudden or temporary distress. The kirk- original European view of the matter belonged exsession may be called upon by any single heritor to clusively to the university. Where there is but one account for its management of this remaining half. college in a university, as is the case in Edinburgh By the Poor-law Amendment Act, 1845, it is enacted
and Glasgow universities, the two bodies are of that in all parishes in which it has been agreed that
course identical. Trinity College, Dublin, is pracan assessment shall be levied for the relief of the tically the university. Owens College is a branch poor, all moneys arising from the ordinary church
of the Victoria University. University College collections shall in future belong to, and be at the is a very usual name for recently founded institudisposal of, the kirk-session ; provided, however,
tions for the higher learning in the United King, that they shall be applied to no purposes other dom. Some of the public schools are colleges, and than those to which they were, in whole or in part, many secondary schools are so called. Theological legally applicable before the date of the act. A schools often bear this name, which is sometimes power is reserved to the heritors to examine the given to a hospital. In Germany there are no accounts of the kirk-session, and to inquire into colleges in the English sense. În France the the manner in which the collections are applied ; name of college is sometimes given to the local and the session-clerk is enjoined to report annually branches of the University of France (q.v.); as also as to the application of the moneys, to the Board of to a school, corresponding, however, more to the Supervision. The collections made at Disse ing Gymnasium (9.7.) of Germany than to the grammeeting-houses, under which denomination Episco- mar-school of this country. The principal colleges pal chapels are included, are entirely at the disposal have articles under special heads; see King's of the congregations, and do not form part of the COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (LONDON). poor's funds. The making of a collection is properly Collège de France, originally a Collège de the province of the minister and elders; but when Trois Langues merely, founded by Francis I. in 1530, they neglect the duty the heritors have been in use is now a very important educational institution to perform it. See Black's Parochial Ecclesiastical giving instruction over a very wide field of literaLaw of Scotland (1888), p. 145.
ture, history, and science. It is independent of the In England there are no regular collections at University of France (9.v.), is directly under the churches as in Scotland. The alms collected in Minister of Public Instruction, and is supported by chapels, as well as in parish churches, during the the government. As in the Sorbonne (q.v.), the reading of the offertory, are declared by the rubric lectures are gratuitous ; and for the most part are to be at the disposal of the incumbent and church- designed to attract auditors older than ordinary wardens of the parish, and not of the minister or university students. The college comprises two proprietor of the chapel. If the minister and faculties, one literary, one scientific; and each has church wardens disagree as to the distribution of about twenty professors. Amongst the professors the alms, they shall be disposed of as the ordinary have been some of the most distinguished scholars shall appoint.
and scientists in France, such as M. Renan, M. Collectivism is a word of recent origin, in- Laboulaye, M. Gaston de Paris, in the literary tended to express the central idea in the economic department; and M. Brown-Séquard in the science theory of socialism, that industry should be carried division. Amongst the subjects discussed are on with a collective capital. It means that capital political economy, Assyrian and Egyptian archæshould not be owned and controlled by individuals, ology, Arabic, Slavonic literature, French literabut by groups of associated workers, that it should ture; physiology, anatomy, and embryology. be the joint property of the community or other College of Arms. See HERALD. form of social organisation. Its exact meaning College of Justice. See COURT OF SESSION. depends very much on the form of socialism with
Collegiate Churches-so called from having which the principle is connected. See SOCIALISM.
a college or chapter, consisting of a dean or College (Lat. collegium, “a collection or assem- provost and canons, attached to them-date from blage'). In its Roman signification, a college the 9th century, when such foundations in large signified any association of persons for a specific towns became frequent. They are under the jurispurpose, and was in many cases practically what diction of the bishop of the diocese in which they we call a corporation. It required also to be incor- are situated, and he exercises visitorial powers over porated by some sort of public authority, springing them. There were about ninety collegiate churches COLLEMBOLA
in England and Wales at the beginning of the 16th is a hindrance, not a protection. The chief points century, but nearly all of them were suppressed or of the collie are—head long and sharp, with dissolved in Edward VI.'s reign under the Acts of bright, keen eyes, set rather close together, and a Henry VIII. which followed upon the dissolution small ear drooping slightly at the tips; back of the monasteries, and granted the hospitals, strong and muscular; legs withi plenty of bone and chantries, and colleges to the crown. Those re- not too much feather, bare below the hocks; feet maining in England are Westminster, Windsor, Wolverhampton, Haytesbury, Middleham; also Brecon in Wales, and Galway in Ireland. Ripon, Manchester, and Southwell have been constituted the cathedrals of new dioceses. Some churches called collegiate (such as Beverley) have no chapters. In the Roman Catholic Church, no new collegiate church can be founded without the sanction of the pope, acting on the favourable report of the Con. gregation of the Council of Trent, that the necessary conditions have all been fulfilled, such as suitable population and locality, adequate buildings, suflicient endowments, and the assent of the diocesan bishop; while a priority of rank in their class is conceded to some such churches, distinguished by the title 'eminent' (insignis). The History of Renfrewshire (1886) contains a very full and interesting account of the collegiate church of Castle. Semple, founded in 1504.
Collem'bola, the name given by Sir John Lubbock to a tribe of wingless insects, to which the Podura (q.v.) or spring-tail belongs; though he and other entomologists question their claim to
Collie. be called insects.
Colley, Sir GEORGE, major-general, was born round and cat-like. The collie should have a in 1833, and in 1852 received an ensigney in the 21 short dense under-coat fitted to withstand the or Queen's Foot, whose headquarters, then in the severest wet or cold, with a long and beautiful eastern frontier of Cape Colony, he joined in 1854. outer-coat springing from it; round the neck this He was a border magistrate in 1857–58, surveyed coat develops into a “ruff' or 'frill' which sticks the Trans-kei country, and served with his regiment out in front and on each side to a great length, in China in 1860. He was then for some years adding largely to the dog's beauty. Many anecmajor of brigade at Plymouth, and a professor at
dotes are told of the collie, who from his the Staff College. He ably managed the transport intimate association with man has acquired almost service in the Ashanti expedition, and in 1875 ac- human intelligence, a good dog being able to companied Sir Garnet Wolseley to Natal, where he separate the sheep under his care from those of was for some time colonial treasurer, and prepared other flocks. The collie often deteriorates in ina valuable report and map of the Transvaal and telligence when kept merely as a companion ; he Swaziland. From 1876 to 1880, except for a short is apt to get cross-tempered, a fact which the period of service as chief of Wolseley's staff in Zulu- shepherd does not consider a fault, as it prevents land and the Transvaal, he was private secretary strangers interfering with the sheep. But when to Lord Lytton, then viceroy in India. Appointed not spoilt no dog makes such an agreeable com. governor and commander-in-chief of Natal in April panion as the collie, as liis instinct is to attach 1880, he commanded his small force against the limself to one person to whom he becomes devoted. Boers at Laing's Nek and Ingogo, and fell, shot Collier, ARTHUR, metaphysician, the son of a through the forehead by a rifle-bullet, in the attack clergyman, was born in 1680 at Langford Magna, on Majuba Hill, February 27, 1881.
Wiltshire, studied at Oxford, and became rector of Collie. The origin of the collie is somewhat the family living at Langford in 1704, remaining obscure, but great antiquity is claimed for it. there till his death in 1732. At Balliol College, Buffon has gone so far as to call it the oldest Collier had devoted himself to the study of Descartes known breed of dogs, an opinion not now generally and Malebranche; and his notable book, Clavis entertained; though it is only reasonable to suppose Universalis, or a New Inquiry after Truth, being a that the ancients, after providing a dog for the Demonstration of the Non-Existence and Impossichase, next turned their attention to obtaining a bility of the External World (which, though pub. guardian for their locks. For many years collies lished in 1713, was written ten years before), coinwere confined to Scotland and the northern counties cides in a remarkable way with Berkeley's Theory of England, until their good points as a graceful of Vision (published 1709). He was a High-Churchiand intelligent companion attracting more atten:
man, and wrote also A Specimen of True Philosophy tion, they were taken south in large numbers, and (1730) and a Logology (1732). became the most popular breed of the day. Thanks Collier, JEREMY, nonjuror and purifier of the to judicious breeding and a large expenditure of English stage, was born at Stow cum Quy, in money, the best show collies are now all found in Cambridgeshire, 230 September 1650. His father England. Tempted by the demand for black-and- was a clerical schoolmaster at Ipswich, and here tan dogs, a cross with the Gordon setter was and at Caius College, Cambridge, he was educated, resorted to, producing many collies with the flat graduating B.A. in 1672. For six years he was ears and open coat of the setter, a cross to be rector of Ampton, near Bury St Edmunds, and avoided at all costs. In judging the collie the fact for some years before the Revolution he was should never be forgotten that it is meant to do lecturer at Gray's Inn. His reply to Dr Gilbert work in all weathers, requiring the best of legs Burnet's Inquiry into the State of Affairs (1688) cost and feet, a close coat, and a strony active body him some months' imprisonment in Newgate. He capable of great speed ; and that a long and beanti- next waged warfare on the crown with a succession ful coat, if unaccompanied by a thick under-coat, of incisive pamphlets, carrying his refusal to recog.