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nise the authority of the government so far as Church. His last years were racked by the hardly to be persuaded by his friends to let them torments of the stone, from which he found relief bail him out of prison when arrested in 1692 on in death, April 26, 1726. Of his forty-two books suspicion of being involved in a treasonable plot. and pamphlets, those on the stage alone are still In 1696, along with two other clergymen, he out- read. The fifth edition of his famous treatise raged public feeling by solemnly pronouncing (1730) contains all the successive pamphlets which absolution, without any public confession, on the fortified the first. His largest works were the scaffold at Tyburn upon the heads of Friend and Great Historical, Geographical, Genealogical, and Parkyns just before their execution for a plot to Poetical Dictionary (4 vols. folio, 1701–2i), and An murder the king. For this gross and public Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain to offence he was obliged to go into hiding, but the end of the Reign of Charles II. (2 vols. folio, though he was formally outlawed, no attempt was 1708–14; new ed. by T. Lathbury, with Life, 9 made to punish him. In 1697 he published his vols. 1852). famous Short View of the Immorality and Profane

Collier, John, known under the pseudonym of ness of the English Stage, which fell like a thunderbolt among the wits.

* Tim Bobbin,' was the son of the curate of StretThe boldness of the onslaught can only be understood by remembering in 1786 was master of a school at Milnrow, near

ford, near Manchester, and from 1739 to his death the greatness of the odds and the might of his

Rochdale. He early wrote verse and painted antagonists. ' It is inspiriting,' says Macaulay, * to see how gallantly the solitary outlaw advances Blackbird, appeared in 1739, and his View of the

grotesque pictures ; his rhyming satire, The to attack enemies, formidable separately, and, it Lancashire Dialect (in humorous dialogue), his most might have been thought, irresistible when com

notable production, in 1775. It has been often bined, distributes his swashing blows right and reprinted. Other works are Truth in a Mask, The treads the wretched D'Urfey down in the dirt Fortune-teller, and The Human Passions (120 beneath his feet, and strikes with all his strength engravings, with verse descriptions). full at the towering crest of Dryden.' Collier's Collier, JOHN PAYNE, Shakespearian critic and argument carried the country with it, and brought commentator, was born in London, 11th January back the English drama to good morals and good | 1789, son of an unprosperous merchant who had

That excessive stage-profligacy which was succeeded as a reporter and journalist. His parents a mere reaction against the rigidity of Puritan- were friends of Lamb, Hazlitt, Coleridge, and ism, and had far outrun the parallel laxity of Wordsworth. The boy passed some years at Leeds, contemporary social morals, at once disappeared, and early began to write. Still a boy, he became and the theatre in England again became a mirror parliamentary reporter for the Times, next for in which nature and truth were reflected without the Morning Chronicle, and wrote regularly for distortion. But it was not without a struggle that the latter down to 1847. His call to the bar was the wits consented to be worsted. Congreve and delayed till 1829, probably through the odium le Vanbrugh, with many of the smaller fry, answered incurred by a foolish volume of satirical verse. His angrily but weakly, and were crushed anew by the real literary career commenced in 1820_with the redoubtable nonjuror, who was complete master publication of The Poetical Decameron. From 1825 of the rhetoric of honest indignation. Contest,' to 1827 he issued a new edition of Dodsley's Old says Dr Johnson, was his delight; he was not to Plays, and in 1831 his best work, a History of be frighted from his purpose or his prey.' The English Dramatic Poetry to the Time of Shake. great Dryden stood apart at first, but at length in speare, and Annals of the Stage to the Restoration. the preface to his Fables (1700) acknowledged with This opened up to him the libraries of Lord Francis a noble honesty that he had been justly reproved. Gower, afterwards Lord Egerton and Earl of Elles'I shall say the less of Mr Collier,' he says, mere, and of the Duke of Devonshire, the latter “because in many things he has taxed me justly appointing him his librarian. From 1835 to 1839 and I have pleaded guilty to all thoughts and Collier published his New Facts regarding the life expressions of mine which can be truly argued of and works of Shakespeare, followed by an edition obscenity; profaneness, cor immorality, and retract of Shakespeare (8 vols. 1842–44), and supplemented them. If he be my enemy, let him triumph; if he by Shakespeare's Library (2 vols. 1844), a reprint be my friend, as 'I have given him no personal of the histories, novels, and early dramas on which occasion to be otherwise, he will be glad of my Shakespeare founded his plays. He was one of the repentance. It becomes me not to draw my pen leading members of the Camden Society from its in the defence of a bad cause, when I have so often foundation in 1838, and he edited for its issues Bale's drawn it for a good one.' But Dryden complained, Kynge Johan (1838), the Egerton Papers (1840), and fairly, that his antagonist had often perverted and the Trevelyan Papers (1857 and 1863). He his meaning, that he was ' too much given to contributed ten publications (1840–44) to the Percy horse-play in his raillery, and came to battle like a Society, and twenty-one (1841-5l) to the Shake. dictator from the plough.' Spite, however, of all speare Society, of which he was long director. In its pedantry and overstatement of the case, and 1852 he announced his discovery of an extensive its faults of taste and of relative proportion in series of marginal annotations in 17th-cencharges made with equal indignation, the Short tury hand on a copy of the second Shakespeare View was a noble protest against evil, and was folio (1631-32) he had bought-the famous Perkins as effective as it deserved to be.

folio, so called from a name inscribed on the cover. Collier continued to preach to a congregation of Late in the same year he published these to the Nonjurors (q.v.), and was consecrated bishop in 1713. world as Notes and Emendations to the Plays of A great controversy soon rent the nonjuring com- Shakespeare, and calmly lifted them into the text munity on the lawfulness of returning to certain in his 1853 edition of Shakespeare, and again in usages' allowed in the communion-office of the his annotated six-volume Shakespeare in 1858. first prayer-book of Edward VI., which Collier's The emendations caused a great commotion in the party preferred to the revision of 1552. Collier literary world, and were furiously applauded or at length pronounced these usages essential, and furiously assailed. The best Shakespearian students not unnaturally laid himself open to a charge of were more or less sceptical, but C. W. Singer and holding Romish views.

He masqueraded as 'Jere- E. A. Brae were the first to express openly an mias, Primus Anglo-Britannie Episcopus' in some unfavourable opinion. The latter also attacked abortive attempts to form a union with the Eastern Collier's alleged discovery of his suspiciously long






lost notes of Coleridge's lectures on Shakespeare the cross-wires in one coincide perfectly with those and Milton, delivered in 1811. Collier, in the of the other in all possible positions. Then recourse of abortive proceedings for libel against placing the “transit circle, it is examined and Brae's publisher, swore to the truth of his state- tested by reference, first to one, and then the other ments respecting both the Perkins folio and his collimator, the verification requiring that it be Coleridge notes. Meantime he had been judi. turned through 180° till the threads in the three cious enough to keep his folio from the eyes of fields of view absolutely coincide, and the collimaexperts, but at length in 1859, the Duke of Devon- tion is pronounced perfect. shire, to whose predecessor Collier had given it Practical astronomers set great value on the colin 1853, sent it, at Sir F. Madden's request, to limator (in the arrangement just described) for the British Museum for examination. The result having entirely superseded the meridian mark.'

a conclusive proof, by Mr N. Hamilton in By Rittenhouse's principle a telescope can become letters to the Times, and more completely in his its own collimator, especially in determining the Inquiry (1860), that the boasted `17th-century nadir point. When the axis is vertical over a emendations were entirely recent fabrications. vessel containing mercury, the telescope will be Still further forgeries were later brought to light collimated when the cross-wires are brought to exact in Mr Warner's Catalogue of MSS. at Dulwich coincidence with their image seen in the mercury. College (1883), from which Collier had prepared See TELESCOPE. three publications for the Shakespeare Society. Collingwood, a town of Ontario, on the south Collier replied angrily in the Times, in his shore of Georgian Bay, where it connects the raillong Reply (1860), the disingenuousness of which

ways with the Huron lake steamers. It has several injured his reputation as much as the facts factories, ship-yards, and grain-elevators, and a conof his antagonist. The controversy widened, but siderable trade in lumber and grain. Pop. (1871) every competent writer concluded against Collier,

2829; (1891) 4940. the only question that remained uncertain being whether lie himself was merely a dupe or more.

Collingwood, CUTHBERT, LORD, admiral, Unhappily for the name of a sound scholar ruined

was born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 26th September by one fatal weakness, this too was answered by

1750. Sent to sea as a volunteer at the age of the discovery after his death of some manipulated eleven, his life thenceforth, with the exception of books in his own library. In 1847 Collier was

some half-dozen years, was spent wholly on board named secretary to the Royal Commission on the ship: From 1778 his career was closely connected British Museum, and in 1850 he removed to Maiden

with that of Nelson, whom he followed up the head, where he died 17th September 1883. He ladder of promotion step by step, until Nelson's had enjoyed since October 1850 a civil list pension death left the topmost round vacant for himself. of £100. His later books were A Booke of Rox- | Among the great naval victories in which Collingburghe Ballads (1847), Extracts from the Registers wood bore a prominent part, were those of Lord of the Stationers' Company (2 vols. 1848-49), The Howe off Brest in 1794 ; of Lord Jervis off Cape Dramatic Works of Thomas Heywood (1850–51), a

St Vincent in 1797 ; and of Trafalgar in 1805,

where he held the second command. In the lastgood edition of Spenser (5 vols. 1862), a series of small reprints of rare 18th and 17th century pieces named engagement, his ship was, by Nelson's comCritical Account of the Rarest Books in the English I had received his death-wound, he assumed the in prose and verse (1863-71), Bibliographical and mand, the first to break through the line of the com

bined French and Spanish fleets; and after Nelson Language ( 1865), and An Old Man's Diary Forty chief direction. A peerage was his reward for Years Ago (1871-72). See Dr Ingleby's Complete his gallant conduct in this battle. After View of the Shakspere Controversy (1861), which contains a bibliography of the books.

several years' uneventful service in the MediterColliers and Salters. See SERFDOM.

ranean, he died at sea, March 7, 1810, but was

buried beside Nelson, in St Paul's. CollingCollimator, a subsidiary telescope used to wood was not the stuff great tacticians are made detect or correct errors in collimation (i.e. in of, and his talents as a commander-in-chief were directing the sight to a fixed object) when adjust-ať best but mediocre ; but he was a brave and ing for transit observations. When the vertical capable seaman, earnest and pious as a man, firm thread in the field of view exactly coincides with and mild as an officer, and admirable as a second the vertical axis of a telescope, tlie instrument is in command. See his Correspondence and Life, collimated vertically ; and when the horizontal by his son-in-law (1828). spider's thread just covers the horizontal axis, the instrument is correct in horizontal collimation. If

Collins, ANTHONY, deist, was born 21st June 1676, at Heston, near Hounslow, in Middlesex, and was the son of a country gentleman. He studied at Eton and at King's College, Cambridge, and became the disciple and friend of John Locke. In 1707 he published his Essay concerning the Use of Human Reason ; and in 1709, his Priestcraft in Perfection. The controversy excited by this last work induced Collins to write his Historical and Critical Essay on the Thirty-nine Articles. His next work was a Vindication of the Divine Attributes, in reply to King, Archbishop of Dublin, who asserted the compatibility of Divine Predestination and Human Freedom. Collins was

a philoso. phical Necessitarian, and afterwards advocated his opinions more fully in his Philosophical Inquiry

concerning Liberty and Necessity (1715). In 1711 three solid piers stand on the meridian, so that the he visited Holland, where he made the friendship telescope to be tested can be laid between the col- of Le Clerc and other eminent literati. In 1713 limators and have its axis coincident with both of he published his Discourse on Free-thinking, the theirs, the principle of correction becomes almost best known, and the most important of all his self-obvious. Removing the great telescope, the works; to it Bentley made reply in his famous collimators (AA' and BB' in fig.) are adjusted till | Remarks. In 1713 Collins made a second visit to




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Holland; and in 1718 he was made treasurer for ways and uncertain health. He now fell into the county of Essex. In 1724 appeared his Grounds what are vaguely described as “irregular habits,' and Reasons of the Christian Religion. The con. and was at times reduced to the greatest straits. tention that no fair interpretation of the Old On one occasion Dr Johnson rescued him from the Testament prophecies will secure a correspondence hands of bailiffs by obtaining an advance from a between them and their alleged fulfilment in the bookseller on the promise of Collins to translate New Testament, created a violent controversy, the Poetics of Aristotle. It was during this period, and called forth no fewer than thirty-five replies. however, that he wrote his Odes, upon which his Two years later he defended himself in his Scheme fame as a poet now rests. They attracted no of Literal Prophecy; and in 1727 he published his notice at the time of their publication, and they last work, the Scheme of Literal Prophecy Con- were little valued even by such contemporaries as sidered. Collins died 13th December 1729.

Gray and Dr Johnson. By the death of an uncle

in 1749, Collins inherited the sum of £2000, which Collins, MORTIMER, a versatile writer, was

enabled him to retire to Chichester, and apparently born the son of a solicitor at Plymouth, June 29, 1827. He was educated at private schools, and this time that he met Home, the author of Douglas,

to pursue a regular course of study. It was about held for some years a mathematical mastership in to whom he addressed his Ode on the Popular Guernsey, which he resigned in 1856 to devote him; Superstitions of the Highlands of Scotland, a poem self entirely to literature. He settled at Knowl in which, according to Mr Russell Lowell

, the Hill in Berkshire, and kept up an incessant activity whole Romantic School is foreshadowed. The ode in the varied forms of articles on current politics, novels, and playful verses until his death, 28th Society of Edinburgh (1788). Before 1753, Collins

was first published in the Transactions of the Royal July 1876. His physical was equal to his mental felt the approaches of the mental disease to which vigour : he was tall and remarkably strong, an athlete, a lover of dogs, flowers, and outdoor-life. France. On his return he gradually became worse,

he finally succumbed, and sought relief in a visit to His old-world Toryism and hatred of irrever, and in 1753 his reason completely gave way. He ence and irreligion, his humour, his wonderful lived for six years longer in this state, though facility in extemporising clever verse, his chess with lucid intervals. He died on 12th June 1759, playing, not to say his mathematics, made him a so unknown to fame that no newspaper or magazine delightful companion, and endeared him to such

of the day has any notice of his death. friends as R. H. Horne, Frederick Locker, Edmund

Collins like Gray, holds a middle position beYates, and R. D. Blackmore. His volumes of verse were Summer Songs (1860), Idyls and Rhymes worth. In his maturer work he is almost completely

tween the school of Pope and the school of Words(1865), and The Inn of Strange Meetings (1871).

free from the so-called “poetic diction of the 18th Of his numerous novels the chief are Sweet Anne century. He has not the passionate feeling for Page (1868); The Marquis and Merchant (1871); nature of later poets, but his feeling is at least Two Plunges for a Pearl (1872); Mr Carington, real and not conventional. In respect of natural by · Robert Turner Cotton' (1873); Transmigration poetic gifts, Coleridge, and Mrs Browning, and (1874); From Midnight to Nidnight (1875); and A other high authorities, place him above his conFight with Fortune (1876). died March 17, 1885, collaborated with him in temporary, Gray. His choice of subjects, however


and his subtler modes of treatment, debar him from Frances (1874), Sweet and Twenty (1875), and in two novels published posthumously, The Village most highly finished ode is that To Evening, which

the popularity of the author of the Elegy. His Comedy (1976) and You Play me False (1878); is unsurpassed for exquisiteness of tone and diction. and wrote alone A Broken Lily (1882). One of his The ode entitled The Passions has merits of a differ. most popular books was The Secret of Long. Life ent order, but evinces genius of even wider scope. ( 1871), a collection of essays at first published

. The allegorical character of this ode and its comanonymously. The pious aflection of his friends panion pieces, To Liberty, To Mercy, and To Pity, kept his memory green by editing from his papers Pen Sketches by a Vanished Hand, by Tom Taylor, Collins was capable of simplicity and pathos, how.

removes them from direct human sympathy. That (1879); Attic Salt, a selection of epigrammatic sayings from all his books, by F. Kerslake (1880); the Death of the Poet Thomson, and his lines begin

ever, is shown by his two most popular poems, On and Thoughts in My Garden, by E. Yates (1882). See his wife's account of his Life (1877), and his ning How sleep the brave.' Select Poetical Works (1886).

Collins, WILLIAM, R. A., landscape and figure

painter, was born in London, September 8, 1788, of Collins, WILLIAM, a distinguished English a Wicklow family. In 1807 he entered the Royal poet, was born at Chichester, 25th December 1721. Academy as a student, and in the same year he His father was a hatter in that town, of which lie exhibited two small landscapes. In 1812 his ‘Sale was several times mayor. Collins received the of the Pet Lamb' was sold for 140 guineas, and rudiments of his education at the prebendal school from this time his pictures became popular. He of his native town. At the age of twelve he was exhibited 169 works, of which the best known are sent to Winchester School, where he remained seven the Blackberry Gatherers' and 'The Birdcatchers' years. While there he wrote his Oriental Eclogues, (1814), which gained his associateship ; "Scene on which in his own day, and for a considerable period the Coast of Norfolk' (1815), now at Windsor; afterwards, were the most popular of his produc- “The Fisherman's Departure (1826), “ As Happy as tions. He was himself convinced that this pre- a King'(1836), and “Early Morning' (1846). Collins ference was misplaced, and the world has long was elected R.A. in 1820. He studied and sketched since come round to his opinion. In 1741 he in Italy in 1836–38, and in 1839 sent to the Acad

Two pictures on ‘lis genius and indolence. Having taken the sacred subjects (1840-41) were not particularly degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1743, he shortly after successful, and he wisely fell back on his green wards left the university for reasons which are not fields, his sea-beaches, his rustics, and his children accurately known. His private means being but at their games. A visit to the Shetland Islands slender, he obtained the title to a curacy, but was dis- in 1842 supplied materials for the illustrations of suaded from entering the church. As his only other Scott's Pirate. Collins died in London, February alternative, he took up his residence in London, and 17, 1847. See his Life (1848) by his elder son, sought to make a living by literature, a profession William Wilkie Collins. - His second son, CHARLES for which he was utterly unfitted by his desultory 'Allston COLLINS ( 1828–73), in early life painted

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a number of pictures which are highly valued by troublesome. Collodion plays a very important collectors. In 1860 he married the younger part in Photography (q.v.). daughter of Charles Dickens, and having already Colloid is a name applied by Graham to any turned his attention to literature, produced The soluble substance which, when exposed to Dialysis Eye-witness essays (1860), several novels, and other (q.v.), does not pass through the porous membrane. works, all exhibiting high promise.

Starch, yum, albumen, and gelatin are examples Collins, WILLIAM WILKIE, novelist, elder son of colloids; and the name is used in contradisof William Collins, R. A., was born in London, 8th | tinction to crystalloids. January 1824. He was educated partly at High

Collot d’llerbois, JEAN MARIE, a French bury, but during 1836-39 was with his parents in revolutionist of infamous notoriety, was born in Italy. After his return he spent four years in busi- Paris in 1750. Originally a provincial actor, he was ness, and then entered Lincoln's Inn; but gradually attracted by the Revolution to Paris, where his imtook to literature, the Life of his father (1848) being pudence, his loud voice, and his Almanach du Père his earliest production. To it succeeded Antonina, Gérard, secured him the public ear and his election or the Fall of Rome (1850); Basil (1852); Hide and for Paris to the National Convention. In 1793 he Seek (1854); The Dead Secret (1857); The Woman

became president of the Convention and a member in White (1860); No Name (1862); Armadale (1866); of the murderous Committee of Public Safety. The Moonstone (1868); The New Magdalen (1873), Sent by Robespierre to Lyons in November of the &c.—in all, fully a score of novels and collections of novelettes. Several of them originally appeared and grapeshot on the inhabitants for having once

same year, he took bloody revenge by guillotine in Household Words, All the Year Round, the hissed him off the stage in the theatre. Cornhill, and other periodicals. The best is The larity at length exciting the envy of Robespierre, Woman in White, whose ‘Count Fosco’ is really Collot d'Herbois for his own safety joined in the a creation, and in which the author's almost invari successful plot for the overthrow of Robespierre able method of unfolding an intricate plot by and his party in July 1794 ; but the reaction that narratives of the chief dramatis personce had not

followed this happy event proved fatal to himgrown hackneyed. The Moonstone also is a strong self.

He was expelled from the Convention, and story. Died September 23, 1889.

sentenced to deportation to Cayenne, where he Collinson, PETER, botanist, was born at Hugal died in misery that deep debauches could not Hall, near Windermere, 14th January 1694, and stupefy, January 8, 1796. became a manufacturer of hosiery, having a large business with the American colonies.

Collusion, a deceitful agreement between two

He was early distinguished as a naturalist, studied ento

or more persons to defraud or prejudice a third mology and botany, and in 1745 communicated to

person, or for some improper purpose. The most Franklin bis first intimation of the recent advance

common cases of collusion occur in arrangements of electrical science in Europe. But it was as a

between bankrupts and their creditors, such as botanist he was most distinguished.

He intro- payment by anticipation to a favoured creditor on duced the culture of numerous European plants granting preferences by circuitous transactions or

the approach of bankruptcy, arrangements for into the United States, and introduced American otherwise. Transactions in which there is evidence trees into England. He died 11th August 1768.

of collusion are reducible at common law, and A genus of labiate plants was named Collinsonia

many of the same nature are struck at by the. after him,

bankruptcy statutes. Collusion in judicial proCollisions. See RAILWAYS, WRECK, RULE ceedings is an agreement between two



one should institute a suit against the other in Collodion (Gr. kollao, I stick! is a solu- order to obtain a judicial decision for some sinister tion of Gun-cotton (q.v.) or pyroxylin. Cotton purpose. The judgment so obtained is null Col

: itself is not soluble in alcohol or ether, but when lusion between petitioner and respondent in a suit treated, either in the form of cotton wool, rags, or for dissolution of marriage bars the suit. paper, with a mixture of five parts of strony nitric

Collyrium is a term for various kinds of eyeacid, and six of sulphuric acid, it is found that it

salve or eye-wash. can now be dissolved in ether, or in a mixture of ether and alcohol. To this modification the name

Colman, GEORGE, commonly called 'the Elder,'

a dramatic author and theatrical manager, was pyroxylin is applied. There are many varieties of

In 1760 his first collodion divisible into surgical or medicated collo-born at Florence in 1732. dions, and photographic collodions.

When one

dramatic piece, entitled Polly Honeycomb, was part of pyroxylin is dissolved in thirty-six parts of produced at Drury Lane with great ether and twelve parts of alcohol, a thickish liquid Next year he gave to the world his comedy of The is obtained, which evaporates rapidly, leaving a

Jealous Wife, and in conjunction with Garrick, thin film of pyroxylin. As an application to

he wrote The Clandestine Marriage, which was

In wounds, where it is desired to keep the edges close played at Drury Lane, 20th February 1766. together, this form of collodion is of use, owing to

1767 he became one of the purchasers of Covent the contractility of the pyroxylin film which it Garden Theatre, and held the office of acting leaves, but for general purposes a flexile or flexible

manager for seven years, after which period he collodion, as it is called, is desirable. This is pro

sold his share. In 1777 he purchased the patent duced by the addition of a little Canada balsam of the theatre in the Haymarket from Mr Foote. and castor oil to the ordinary variety. Flexile

In 1785 he was attacked by paralysis, which caused collodion is largely used as a covering for abraded

a gradual decay of his mental powers, and he died

Colman was surfaces, as a remedy for burns, for sore nipples, in confinement on 14th August 1794. &c., and it is also the basis for many medicated

an industrious author; besides poetry and translacollodions, such as styptic collodion, cantharidal tions, he wrote and adapted upwards of thirty or blistering collodion, &c. Salicylated collodion dramatic pieces. is well known as a popular corn cure, and it is Colman, GEORGE, “the Younger,' son of the certainly most effectual in removing hard or soft preceding, was born October 21, 1762. His bent corns with but slight inconvenience. It contains, | lay in the same direction as his father's, during in addition to salicylic acid, the active principle, whose illness he acted as manager of the Haya little extract of Indian liemp, which prevents market Theatre; and on the death of the elder the slight pain, which might otherwise prove | Colman, George III. transferred the patent to his






Colman held, for a considerable time, the of Africa.—The name False Colocynth is someoffice of Examiner of Plays, to which he was times given to the Orange Gourd (Cucurbita aur. appointed on 19th January 1824, and in which he antia), sometimes cultivated as an ornamental behaved with great arrogance. In industry he plant in our gardens, on account of its globose, rivalled his father, and he received large sums for deep-orange fruit. The pulp of the fruit possesses his dramatic writings, some of which continue in the properties of colocynth, but in a milder degree. possession of the stage. He was twice married, Colocynth is generally administered in the form and died on the 17th October 1836. In 1830 he of pills, in which the extract is associated with published a very imperfect autobiography, which aloes, scammony, and in some cases with calomel he named Records of My Life ; but his most notori- or with extract of hyoscyamus. In small doses, ous work is the preface to his play of The Iron the colocynth acts as a safe and useful purgative; Chest, in which he furiously attacked John Kemble. and when accompanied by hyoscyamus, the latter

Colman, SAMUEL, American painter, born in prevents much of the pain and griping which are Portland, Maine, in 1832, studied in Europe in attendant on the use of colocynth" by itself. In 1860–62, was elected a member of the National large doses, colocynth is a poison. Colocynth Academy nipr 11862, Savidt first president in 19662-7er


enters into the composition of some moth powders, of the American Society of Painters in Water and renders them very efficacious. colours. He has travelled extensively, and his Cologne (Ger. Köln), a city and free port on pictures include scenes from Algeria, Germany, the left bank of the Rhine, 362 miles by rail France, Italy, and Holland.

WSW. of Berlin, 175 SE. of Rotterdam, 149 E. Colmar, the capital of the German district of of Brussels, and 302 NE. of Paris. Formerly an Upper Alsace, stands on a plain near the Vosges, independent city of the German empire, it is 42 miles SSW. of Strasburg by rail. Among the now the capital of Rhenish Prussia. Cologue principal public buildings of Colmar are the church is a fortress of the first rank, forming a semiof St Martin (1263), the Dominican convent of circle, with the Rhine as its chord, and the town Unterlinden, now a museum, the college, court- of Deutz on the opposite bank as a tête-du-pont. house, and town-hall. Colmar is one of the chief It- is connected with this suburb by a bridge of seats of the cotton manufacture in Alsace. Other boats, and an iron bridge 1362 feet in length, manufactures are paper, leather, ribbons, and for railway and carriage traffic. Pop. (1871) hosiery. Colmar is an old place, having been 129,233 ; (1885) 161,401, only 25,115 of whom were raised to the rank of a free imperial city in 1226.

Protestants. The old streets are mostly narrow It rapidly became one of the most prosperous towns

and crooked ; but the area freed by the removal in Upper Alsace. Fortified in 1552, its fortifica

of the ancient fortifications, which dated origtions were razed in 1673 by Louis XIV. Pleasant inally from the 13th century, is laid out on a boulevards now occupy their place. Colmar was

more spacious plan. This area, which doubles formally ceded to France in 1697, but was recovered that occupied by the old town, was purchased in by Germany in 1871. Pop. (1875) 23,778; (1885) | 1882 by the corporation for about £600,000; its 26,537.

most prominent feature is the handsome ‘Ring. Colne, a town in the east of Lancashire, on a

strasse' or boulevard, nowhere less than 60 feet high ridge near the source of the Calder, a western

wide, which encircles the entire old town. The branch of the Ribble, 26 miles N. of Manchester by

new fortifications include a number of detached rail. It has manufactures of cotton calicoes and forts, planted round Cologne and Dentz, within a mousselines-de-laine ; and it was formerly a seat of

radius of about 4 miles from the cathedral. The the woollen industry. Slate and lime abound. Many ancient buildings in Cologne, both secular and Roman coins have been found at Colne. Pop. with ecclesiastical, are of great architectural interest; Marsden (1881) 11,971 ; (1891) 16,774.

the Romanesque and Transition styles are specially Colney Jatch, a village of Middlesex, 6.1 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. The church of St

well represented in the numerous churches of the miles N. of London, with a great lunatic asylum, Maria im Capitol, consecrated in 1049, is the opened in 1851.

earliest example in Cologne of a church with a Colocasia. See Cocco.

trefoil-shaped ground-plan for transepts and choir. Colocynth (Gr. kolokynthis), a well-known in the church of St. Ursula are preserved the bones medicine, much used as a purgative, is the dried of the 11,000 virgins, companions of St Ursula and powdered pulp of the Colocynth Gourd, Colo- (q.v.). The church of St Gereon boasts of the quintida, Bilter Apple, or Bitter" Cucumber, a glo- possession of the bones of St Gereon, and of hose fruit about the size of an orange, of a uniform the 308 martyrs of the Theban legion, slain yellow colour, with a smooth, thin, solid rind. during Diocletian's persecution. The church of The plant which produces it, Cucumis (or Citrul. St Peter contains the altar-piece of the cruci. lus) Colocynthis, is nearly allied to the Cucumber fixion of St Peter by Rubens, and that of the (9.v.). It is found very widely distributed over Minorites the tomb of the famous scholastic, Duns the Old World, growing in immense quantities on Scotus. the sand hillocks of Egypt and Nubia. It is also The chief object of interest in the city, however, common in India, Portugal, Spain, and Japan. It as well as its greatest ornament, is the cathedral, has long been known for its purgative properties, one of the noblest specimens of Gothic architecand as early as the 11th century was in use in ture in Europe. This cathedral is said to have had Britain. The main supplies of the drug are its origin in an erection by Archbishop Hildebold, obtained from Mogador, Spain, and Syria. The during the reign of Charlemagne in 814. Frederic fruit is gathered when it begins to turn yellow, Barbarossa bestowed upon it, in 1162, the bones peeled, and dried quickly either in a stove or in of the three Magi (q.v.), which he took from the sun. It is chiefly in the form of a dried extract Milan, and this gift greatly increased its importthat it is used in medicine. It owes its properties ance. The bones are retained as precious relics to to a bitter principle called Colocynthine, which is this day; but the old structure was burned in 1248. more or less abundantly present in the fruits of According to some accounts, the present cathedral many of the gourd family. It is a curious fact, was begun in the same year, but others fix the but to which there are many analogies, that the date of its commencement in 1270-75. To whom seeds of the colocynth plant, produced in the midst the design of this noble building is to be ascribed of its meclicinal pulp, are perfectly bland, and they is uncertain. The choir, the first part completed, even form an important article of food in the north was consecrated in 1322. The work was carried on,

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