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sometimes more actively, sometimes more slowly, but a colony being planted here in 50 A.D. by
included in Austrasia ;
against them the inde. Cologne Cathedral.
pendence of the city; and
the archiepiscopal resithe beginning of the 19th century, however, the dence was therefore removed to Bonn. The archnecessary funds to repair and complete it according bishopric was secularised in 1801, when the city also to the original design, have been supplied by sub- lost its independence, and the congress of Vienna scriptions from all parts of Germany. The work did not attempt to restore to it its former character, of renovation began in 1823, and" in 1842 the but assigned the whole territories to Prussia. The foundation-stone of the new part was laid, The archbishop; therefore, has not how the political naves, aisles, and transepts were opened in 1848 ; rights and power that belonged to his predecessors. the magnificent south portal was completed in Colombia, a republic occupying the north1859; in 1860 the iron central flèche was added ; west corner of the South American continent, and with the exception of the western spires, the and including also the Isthmus of Panamá. church was completed in 1863. The spires, the Its limits were officially stated in 1887 as 12° crown of the edifice, were finished in 1880, and on 25' N.-5° 8' S. lat., and 70° 40'—82° 40' W. October 15 the completion of the work was cele- long., and its area was estimated at 513,938 sq. brated before the Emperor William I. The body of miles (nearly as large as Great Britain, France, the church measures 410 feet in length, and 240 and Spain together), exclusive of most of its feet in breadth ; the spires rise 515 feet above the hundreds of islands and keys, which stretch as pavement of the nave. Since 1823, upwards of far north as the Mosquito coast. The population £1,000,000 has been expended on the building; amounts to about 4,000,000, including some 200,000 the total cost of the whole is estimated at uncivilised Indians who inhabit the remote forests. £2,000,000. For the ‘Kaiserglocke,' see BELL. The situation of Colombia, washed by two oceans, Among the chief secular buildings of Cologne are with a total coast-line of nearly 3000 miles, possesthe town-house, begun in the 14th century upon sing all along the Atlantic shore and on the Pacific Roman foundations"; the Gürzenich (1441-52), the side of Panamá commodious bays and lagoons, and finest secular Gothic erection in Cologne, a public with several fair harbours even on the less favoured banqueting-hall, now containing the exchange ; coast to the south, presents great commercial posthe moderu law-courts; and the Wallraf-Richartz sibilities, which should be increased by the opening Musenm, containing a good collection of paintings. of the canal from Colón to Panamá through the
The- educational and benevolent institutions of north-west department. The surface of the country Cologne are numerous and well equipped. The is extremely varied, with lofty mountains in the town has recently acquired a high reputation for west, and vast plains in the east scarcely above the music.
The situation of Cologne is extremely level of the sea. For the mountains, see ANDES. favourable for commerce.
Various branches of This system spreads out in three great ranges, like manufacture are carried on, of which the chief are the rays of a fan, from the extensive plateau of the making of beet-sugar, tobacco, glue, carpets, Pasto in the south-west ; thus forming valley's soap, leather, furniture, pianos, chemicals, and running from north to south parallel to the three spirits of wine, besides the characteristic manufac chains, except where disproportionate activity of ture of Eau-de-Cologne (9.v.). In 1886, 4859 craft the volcanic forces has caused an upheaval of the entered, and 3190 cleared, the port of Cologne. country near them. The fundamental formations Cologne has extensive and important railway con of the country are igneous and metamorphic, and nections. -The city was founded by the Ubii, about everywhere are traces of the disturbances (still not 37 B.C., and was at first called Uliorum oppidum ; l unfrequent in the form of earthquakes) that have
upheaved plateaus and opened fractures that now (of which no less than seventeen species are
Climate and Productions. In the course of one been found west of the Magdalena. Iron, copper,
more consequence than the direct commerce. with flowers and creepers, and steeped in the The foreign trade proper is mainly with Great perfume of the delicate vanilla orchid. In the Britain and the United States. The imports are temperate zone, from 3200 to 8500 feet above the mostly food-stuffs, textiles, machinery, and ironsea, many of these plants are equally common, but
wares; the exports, coffee, gold, silver, and other the cocoa-nut palm gives place to the oak, the ores, caoutchouc, ivory-nuts, divi-divi, tobacco, encenillo, groups of laurels, and arborescent ferns, cacao, cotton, cinchona, cattle, balsams, timber and here fourislı the coffee plant, the odorous and dyewoods, hides and wool. The average Cherimoya (q.v.) and curibano, the fig, and the annual value of imports in the period 1875-84 cinchona-tree. The Wax-palm (q.v.) extends was $9,662,806, of exports, $13,584,890; in 1886 beyond this region, and is found at a height the value of imports was $6,726,992, and of of nearly 11,000 feet, and large crops of potatoes, exports, $13,032,278; but it is difficult to reduce grain, and leguminous plants are raised in the these figures to British currency, for although the cold region; but from 10,000 feet rises the bleak dollar has a nominal value of four shillings
, the páramo, with its scanty vegetation, ending in
rate of exchange has since 1878 varied between fichens at the snow-line. The fauna of Colom five and a half and nine dollars to the pound bia is very extensive. Both coasts abound with sterling. The nation has for some years been turtles and pearl-oysters; the rivers swarm with undergoing a severe financial crisis. For the fish and alligators, and on their marshy banks fiscal year 1888-89 the expenditure was estimated the capybara is found ; the forests are the haunt at $23,852,806, and the revenue at $18,173,700, of the tapir, armadillo, cavy, opossum, and deer, showing a deficit of $5,679,106 ; in 1888 the in and during the day are alive with monkeys ternal debt, floating and consolidated, amounted
to $29,605,552, the foreign debt was calculated at explored part of the country, and endeavoured to $13,435,178, and $10,129,527 of government paper found on the Isthmus of Panamá the first Spanish money was in circulation. There appears, how- colony on the American mainland. In 1513 Balboa ever, some reason to expect that the measures (q.v.) discovered the Pacific, and Pizarro and adopted to meet the nation's liabilities may prove | Almagro sailed along the western coast of Colombia effectual, and the present financial condition of on their way to Peru in 1526. Ten years later the republic is said to be comparatively hopeful. Jimenez de Quesada broke the power of the For the rest, the government can only look to rigid Muyscan empire, and the Nuevo Reino de Granada economy and the development of its rich mines, was formed. As the country was opened up, the which it is endeavouring to encourage to the utmost, Indians sank, in spite of legislation designed for for relief from its embarrassments. All enterprise, their protection, to the condition of serfs, and however, is sadly hampered by the difficulty of com the policy of the crown, aided by the Inquisimunication. The Magdalena and the other great tion, which was introduced in 1571, put an end streams are the principal arteries of commerce, and to the democratic institutions of the early settlers. a good deal of steamer traffic is carried on; but, The region was administered by the Council of besides that of Panamá, there were in 1888 only the Indies ; nearly all posts were sold to Spanish six railways open for traffic, with a total length speculators, who recouped themselves at the of 215 miles, although several others were expected expense of the colonists; and even the comto be completed shortly. The telegraph system has merce of the new possessions was granted as a 2357 miles of lines, and this and the postal service monopoly to the merchants of Seville. The country (including a parcel post with Great Britain since formed a presidency (except during the years 1718– 1888) are worked as efficiently as the condition of 24) from 1564 to 1739, a period memorable for the the country will permit. For the railway, canal, disastrous descents of Drake, Morgan, Dampier, and and other information as to the Isthmus, see the others on the coast towns; it was then raised to a article PANAMÁ.
viceroyalty, which lasted until the war of indePopulation.—The chief aborigines of the country, pendence. the Chibchas or Muyscas, who inhabited the plateau On the 20th July 1810 the colony shook off the of Bogotá, ranked among the nations of the New yoke of the mother-country, and entered upon World second to the Aztecs and Peruvians alone. the long struggle which ended in the election of They worshipped the sun, had a calendar, and Bolivar (9.v.) to the presidency of the Republic of a government closely resembling that of Japan, Colombia, a term which, like the viceroyalty, emlived in communes, were industrious farmers, and braced all that now belongs to Venezuela, Colombia, dressed in garments of cotton. Their rich, and Ecuador. Independently of the singular dillibeautiful language has been forgotten by their culties of communication, and of the resulting descendants, but is preserved in a grammar absence of anything like natural unity, this unpublished at Madrid by the Dominican mission wieldy state contained from the beginning the ary, Bernardo de Lugo, in 1619. The rest of the germs of its own dissolution in the national characcountry was occupied by a great number of ter of its inhabitants. So long as union was necestribes, with as many dialects as divisions, sinking sary to meet external dangers, it maintained an from the grade of the Chibchas to the naked imposing attitude in the eyes of the world; but savages of the plains, who were little above the gradually sectional interests and political jealousies level of the brutes they hunted. Some of the inter did their work, and in 1831 the ill-assorted elements mediate races, while understanding Spanish, have of the confederation were separated for ever. What preserved their primitive speech ; the uncivilised is now Colombia was then formed under the title of Indians are now mostly confined to the eastern the Republic of New Granada ; but in 1861 a fresh plains, the northern portion of Magdalena, and the civil war led to the establishment of the United States district of Darien and the Atrato. The pure whites of Colombia. In 1863 a constitution was adopted, form about a fifth of the entire population, and the based on that of the United States of America, with Indian half-breeds more than half; there are now a president elected for two years ; but this proved scarcely any pure negroes left in the country, but altogether unsuited to the Colombians, and, after the mulattoes and zambos, resulting respectively twenty years' trial, brought about the revolution from the union of negroes with whites and Indians, of 1884-85. In 1886 à fresh constitution was exceed a sixth of the whole. Slavery was finally adopted for the new Republic of Colombia, placing abolished in 1852, and in 1870 a system of com the central authority in the strengthened hands pulsory education was adopted which has on the of the federal government, and reducing the nine whole proved successful. Parochial, secondary, former self-governing states of Antioquia, Bolivar, normal," and technical schools are now within Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Pageneral reach, and all the departments boast univer- namá, Santander, and Tolima to subordinate sities of more or less efficiency, except Magdalena, departments, which still, however, retain the Tolima, and Panamá. Journalism is largely repre management of their own finances. The executive sente in most of the large towns; and at the capital authority is vested in a president, whose term is a considerable number of books are published every extended to six years, assisted buy a vice-president, year. The state church is the Roman Catholic, seven ministers, and a council of state, and the which in the management of its own affairs is inde legislative power rests with a senate and House of pendent of the civil authority; religious orders Representatives. Capital punishment has been were suppressed in 1863, and toleration in matters again established, and the members of the supreme of religion is guaranteed; but, by the terms of court of justice are made immovable. The strenyth & concordat entered into with the holy see in | of the army is fixed at 6500 in time of peace, but in 1888, in the universities and all educational case of war the executive can raise this as circuniestablishments public instruction is directed in stances may require. conformity with the dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church, religion is one of the obligatory | Marthe" i Paris, 1861); Colonel F. Hall, Colombia (Phila.
See E. Reclus, Voyage à la Sierra-Nerada de Saintesubjects of study, and diocesans are empowered 1871); Esguerra, Diccionario Geográfico de Colombia to suspend teachers or professors who neglect or (Bogotá, 1879); Pereira, Les États-Unis de Colombie disobey this order.
(Paris, 1883); Perez, Geografía General (Bogotá, 1883); History. The northern coasts of Colombia were Etienne, Nourelle Grenade (Geneva, 1887); Dr W. visited by Ojeda and Amerigo Vespucci in 1499, Sievers, Reise in der Sierra Verada de Santa Marta and afterwards by Bastidas; in 1502 Columbus ! (Leip. "1887); and the same author's Cordillere con
Mérida (Vienna, 1888) contains some notes on eastern the Plata, about 100 miles above Monte Video, has
a good harbour, & dock for vessels of 1000 tons,
Colonial Animals, organisms which cannot be merciale (Paris, 1888); and papers by F. A. A. Simons fairly regarded as unities, but consist of numerous (1879, '81, '85) and R. B. White (1883) in the Proceed
more or less similar individuals united in a common ings of the Royal Geographical Society.
life. Among the usually single-celled simplest Colombo, the capital of Ceylon, is situated animals or Protozoa, loose colonies not unfrequently on the western side of the island. Since the con
occur, and are of not a little importance as suggesstruction of the great breakwater begun in 1875
tions of the bridge between the single-celled and (see BREAKWATER), the harbour has been greatly many-celled animals. Such colonies arise when the improved, and commerce has largely increased"; original cell, instead of reproducing discontinuously, Colombo having superseded Galle as a Coaling retains its daughter-cells in union with itself or Station (q.v.) for large steamers. It contains the
with one another, just like the egg-cell of a higher government offices, is the seat of an Anglican animal. By sacrifice of individuality at the epoch bishop, and is an important centre of missionary
of reproduction, a higher unity is formed. In enterprise. Among the chief buildings are the the same way a simple cup-shaped sponge, by government house, court-house, town-lall, asylum, continuous budding, forms à colony of similar St Thomas's College, and Wesley College." The forms, which may possess more or less distinct fortifications of Colombo were constructed by the individuality. The common fresh-water Hydra, to Dutch. Colpetty, a beautiful suburb, shaded by mount a step higher, buds off daughter Hydre, groves of the cocoa-nut palm, is a favourite retreat.
which remain for a while connected with the The humble, mud-constructed dwellings of the parent organism, and make it temporarily colonial. Dutch, Portuguese, Eurasians, Singhalese, Tamils, This becomes constant in the myriad colonies of Moors, and Malays are outside the city walls.
hydra-like forms which are known as Zoophytes, or The pettah or Black Town, the only ancient Hyclroids (q.v.). The same formation of colonies quarter, extends to the river Kalany-ganga. Pop.
is well illustrated in the higher polyps of the sea(1871) 100,238; (1891) 126,926. Colombo is con anemone type, where in dead-men's fingers and nected with Kandy by railway. The early name in most corals, compound or colonial organisms of Colombo, Kalan-totta, the “Kalany Ferry,' the
are beautifully illustrated. Some jellyfish-like or Moors corrupted into Kalambu, and by this desig. medusoid types also become compound, and lead nation it was described by Ibn Batuta about 1340 on to the order Siphonophora, where, as in the A.D. as the finest city of Serendib. The Portu- Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia) or in Velella, guese, who fortified it 1517 A.D., wrote the name the occurrence of compound forms is a constant Colombo, in honour of Christopher Columbus. The
character. But in this last case a further step has Dutch succeeded to the Portuguese, and Colombo been made, for the individuals not only share a was taken by the British, 16th February 1796. See common nutritive life, but are bound together in a CEYLON.
more intimate way into a true unity of a higher Colon. See ASPINWALL.
order. Among simple worm-like forms, chains of Colon, that portion of the large intestine which and these point to the probable origin of the higher
individuals are occasionally formed, as in Catenula, extends from the Cæcum (q.v.) to the rectum, which is the terminal portion of the intestinal similar joints.” Even among the higher worms,
or segmented worms which consist of a series of canal. See INTESTINES. Colonel (from the Italian colonello, the 'leader in the fresh-water Nais or the marine Šyllis. The
temporary compound forms occasionally occur, as of a column')
is the grade of officer next below that Polyzoa afford good illustration of colonial life as of general. The chief officer of an English regi. an almost constant character of a class. Finally, ment at one time bore the title of captain, but passing beyond the limit of invertebrate animals
, since 1588 that of colonel has been substituted. In
we find the last examples of true colonial organisms the British army, except in the Artillery and
in the Ascidians (q.v.) or Tunicata.
The occaEngineers, the office of regimental colonel, as dis- sional development of double or multiple forms tinct from a colonel on the staff, is a sinecure, the from a single ovum is among higher animals the commander of the infantry battalion or cavalry only suggestion of compound organisms. regiment being the lieutenant-colonel. Regimental From the above illustrations a few general con: colonels are general officers, who have had a
clusions may be drawn. The process of asexual regiment given to them, as it is called, as a budding, which leads to the formation of compound reward for long service, and virtually as a retire organisms, is commonest in relatively passive vegement. The pay, except in the Guards (where it is tative animals, like sponges, hydroids, corals, higher), is £1000 a year. In 1888 it was decided polyzoa, and ascidians, and is an expression of their to discontinue these appointments as soon as those general physiological constitution. When the colowho have a vested right to succeed to them have nial organism is free living, as in Siphonophora been satisfied, and it has been decided that no
and some Tunicata, the individual members are officer shall ohtain the rank of colonel except by more closely knit together, and the colony is more Brevet (q.v.) for distinguished conduct, or on being perfectly integrated. As above suggested, some selected for certain appointments carrying with colonial forins are of importance as illustrating in them that rank; such as aide-de-camp to the loose union an order of individuality, which in sovereign, assistant-adjutant general, and com
higher types becomes more firmly unified. We mander of a regimental district. See COMMIS
first find loose "aggregates ;' at a higher level In the German, Austrian, and these become “integrated.'
The loose colonies Russian armies, where the regiments are very
of some medusoid types are thus succeeded by large, the colonelcies are mostly honorary posts, more perfectly integrated forms in the Siphonoheld by royal and other distinguished personages. phora. Finally, colonial organisms are of the
Colonia, a department of Uruguay, on the highest physiological interest in illustrating divi.
In a compound organism the barren, but in the fertile valleys and plains are internal and external conditions of life are not uni. numerous European colonies, engaged in agriculture form for all the members ; certain persons,' as the and stock-raising: Area, 2185 sq. m.; pop. (1885) | individuals are technically called, exhibit the pre33,209. The capital, Colonia del Sacramento, on dominance of one function, and others of another;
229 British. 1585 Native.
163 Native. 1034
638 Native. 1106 British. 433
the differences in function thus started bring about (see canto xxxvii. of the Orlando), and the intimate
Colonial Corps were regiments of the regular first published at Parma in 1538 ; the most perfect
Alethea Lawley (1888).
The family is still distinguished in Italy, three of
its four lines being princely. The Colonna palace,
situated at the base of the Quirival (Rome), is celeCeylon Rifles...
brated for its splendid gallery and treasures of art.
Colonna, GIOVANNI PAOLO, composer, born
Boers and natives.
about 1640, either at Brescia or Bologna, became
principal of the musical academy at Bologna. Of
some 14 works, nearly all were for the church ; his
351 Negro. Falkland Islands Company.
one opera, Amilcare, was first performed in 1693. African Artillerymen.
He died 28th November 1695.
Colonsay and Oronsay, two of the Argyll-
curious effigies ; whilst in the former are standing
an obelisk to the memory of the lawyer, Duncan
Colony (Lat. coloniu), a
somewhat Colonial Office. See SECRETARY OF STATE. vaguely applied to the foreign dependencies of a Colonial System, also called COMMERCIAL state. In accordance with its etymology (colonus, SYSTEM, a name for the theory long acted on by cultivator”), a Roman colonia onght to have been European nations, that their settlements abroad an agricultural community ; but as a matter of fact it were to be treated as proprietary domains, exploited
was a military settlement, urban rather than rural,
the colonists should remain citizens, who thus both
extended and knit together the power of Rome.
a band of emigrants, who were impelled by political
dissension or some similar cause to seek a new home LAWS, SPAIN, UNITED STATES.
beyond the sea, and who were connected with their Colonisation Society. See LIBERIA.
mother-city (metropolis) by no tie stronger than Colonna, CAPE (ancient Sunium Promon- that of sentiment. According to the legend emtorium), a headland of Greece, forming the south- | balmed by Virgil in his Æneid, Rome itself was a most point of Attica, and crowned by the ruins colony, in the Greek sense, of Troy. No Greek of a temple of Minerva, thirteen of whose white colonists penetrated far inland; but the shores of marble columns, from which the cape derives its Asia Minor, Sicily, Southern Italy, and even the modern name, are still standing.
Crimea, were at an early date fringed with
the wide empire of Carthage was based partly upon
Colonisation is an incident of a comparatively
When four years old, she was of Europe and Asia belong to a different category. betrothed to a boy of the same age, Ferrante Thus it happens that, after the break-up of the d'Avalos, son of the Marchese de Pescara ; at seven Roman empire, the very idea of a colony is teen they were married. After her husband's death not learl again until the great outburst of in the battle of Pavia (1525), Vittoria Colonna maritime enterprise in the 16th century. Spain found her chief consolation in solitude and the cul and Portugal led the way, followed by Holland, tivation of her poetical genius. During seven years England, and France. Love of adventure, thirst of her widowhood she resided alternately at Naples for gold, the missionary spirit-all combined and Ischia, and then removed to the convent of to attract the energies of Europe, set free by the Orvieto, afterwards to that of Viterbo. In her later Renaissance, to the New World and to the farther years she left the convent, anıl resided in Rome, East. The long and bitter struggle for territorial where she died in February 1547. She was the aggranılisement beyond the seas went on with loved friend of Michael Angelo, admired by Ariosto various vicissitudes until, at the close of thie 18th