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they have been excavated in conglomerate, as in blind insects, of which in some cases (Machærites)
the case of Hobbie Noble's Cave, Roxburghshire. only the females are blind ; blind spiders and myria-
In volcanic regions it is the softer tuffs or ashes pods; many Crustaceans (Niphargus puteanus,
that are usually holed, as in the caves of the Titanethes albus, Crangonyx, Asellus sieboldii, &c.);
Canary Islands. There the Guanches have also a few univalves and other forms.
excavated caves under the lavas, by simply raking It is noteworthy that the blindness may exist in
out the more or less loose scoriæ and cinders which various degrees, some being totally blind and others
so commonly occur in that position. Vast areas in possessing rudimentary eyes. It is also to be
Central China are covered with a coherent loam remembered that not all cave-animals are blind,
(of the same character as the Loess (q.v.) of the but forms with well-developed organs of vision also
valleys of the Rhine and Danube), in which dug occur. Fish, insects, spiders, myriapods, and crus-
out dwelling-places are of common

taceans with well-developed eyes have been recorded
And a similar deposit, exposed along the bluffs from various caves, and the explanation of this
of rivers in the far west of North America, has persistence of organs in such environment is still
been utilised by some of the early inhabitants in to find. See DEGENERATION, ENVIRONMENT, and
the same way. In Arizona, parts of Colorado, Semper's Natural Conditions of Existence as
Nevada, Utah, and south-east California, the rocky they affect Animal Life (International Science
precipitous walls of deep canons are in places Series, 1881).
riddled with human habitations, so as to look like CAVE BEAR, HYÆNA, LION, &c.--(1) Ursus
honeycombs. The strata forming the walls of the spelaeus, a fossil bear, like those now living, found
cañons have been eroded in different degrees, and very abundantly in the Pleistocene caves of Europe,
horizontal caves larger and smaller have been (2) Hyæna speica, once abundant in Britain and
formed. The cliff dwellings are often adobe or other parts of Europe, and very closely allied to
stone structures built on the ledges overhung by the H. crocuta now found in Africa. (3) Felis
projecting rock masses ; smaller caves have served spelea, a fossil lion, very like the modern form,
as dwellings, and been partially completed by abundant in caves of England and Europe gener-
adobe walls. Some of these houses are at a height ally. The prefix cave obviously refers to the fact
of 700 feet above the level of the valley, and are that in caves the fossil remains of recent animals
with difficulty accessible. They seem to have been are well preserved and abundantly found.
made as places of refuge and defence by the same Cave, EDWARD, the founder of the Gentleman's
ancient races as left the pueblos or stone ruins in Magazine, was born at Newton, Warwickshire, in
the valleys, like those occupied by the Pueblos and 1691 ; received some schooling at Rugby; and after
Moqui Indians now. Some assume them to have

many vicissitudes, became apprentice to a printer. been the ancestors of the present Pueblos; others Obtaining money enough to set up a small printingthat they were akin to the Aztecs. See Hayden in office, in 1731 he started the Gentleman's Niugazine, Stanford's North America; Nadaillac's Prehistoric the earliest literary journal of the kind. Samuel America (Eng. trans. 1885); and the U.S. Survey Johnson became its parliamentary reporter in 1740; Reports since 1874

and with his hand in Johnson's, Cave died on 10th Hermitages, belonging to all ages, some of very January 1754. simple, others of a more elaborate construction,

Cave, WILLIAM, divine, born at Pickwell, have in like manner been excavated in rocks of

Leicestershire, in 1637, from Oakham school passed very different kinds ; so that we are presented with to St John's College, Cambridge (1653), and was every variety of artificial rock-excavation, from appointed to the vicarage of Islington (1662), to simple hollows scraped out of some soft yielding material to the richly ornamented grottoes and and to the vicarage of Isleworth, Middlesex (1690).

the rectory of Allhallows the Great, London (1679), temples of Ellora, near Daulatabad, which are cut

He died at Windsor, 4th July 1713. Among his out in red granite. And so again in the matter of twelve works on church history are Lives of the kinds—from mere holes picked out without much Apostles, Lives of the Fathers, and Primitive Christrouble in loess, tuff, sandstone, or other yielding

tianity, which once were standard authorities. substance, to the great rock-cut sepulchres of

Caveat is a formal warning, entered in the Egypt, and the no less famous catacombs of Rome.

books of a court or a public office, that no step shall Many caves have been doubtless partly natural,

be taken in a particular matter without notice to partly artificial-the cells of the monks of the the person lodging the caveat, so that he may Thebaïd in Egypt, St Serf's cave at Dysart, St appear and object. Thus, caveats are frequently Ninian's at Whithorn. For the cave-dwellers known entered at the Patent Office to prevent the unto the ancients, see TROGLODYTES, PETRA. For opposed granting of letters-patent; or at the the Indian cave-temples, see ELEPHANTA, ELLORA.

Probate Court to prevent the unopposed making up CAVE-ANIMALS.- Various caverns, both of the

a title to the property of deceased persons; or at the Old and New World, are tenanted by animals which Admiralty Court to prevent the unopposed arrestare usually more or less blind. From one point of ment of a ship. The term is also used in ecclesiview the eyes have degenerated from disuse and astical practice in England; although a caveat from the absence of the necessary light stimulus; I e.g. against an institution to a particular benefice from another point of view they have degenerated Canon Law. In Scotland the term is contined to

has not now the high effect attributed to it by the by that natural selection which through the struggle such notices as are placed in the Bill Chamber for existence is supposed by many to be necessary (the summary department of the Supreme Civil not only for the establishment, but for the main Court) or in the Sheriff Courts to prevent any tenance of organs. The fauna of the Mammoth interdict being granted without notice to the person . Cave of Kentucky has been most studied, and is

interested. Such caveats require to be renewed catalogued with figures in Putnam and Packard's every month. description of that famous cavern. Leydig has

Cavedoné, GIACOMO, an Italian artist of the made a special study of the highly developed tac Caracci school, born in 1577 at Sassuola,

assisted tile organs borne by some fishes frequenting German Guido Reni at Rome, and finally settled in Bologna, caves. Among the cave-animals may be noticed where many of his religious pictures are preserved. the amphibian Proteus (q.v.) with eyes in an en

He died in poverty in 1660. bryonic state; various Blind Fish (q.v.), such as Cavendish, the surname of the ducal House of Amblyopsis (9.v.), Typhlichthys, &c.; hundreds of Devonshire, a family directly descended from the

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chief-justice Sir John Cavendish, who in 1381 was Cavendish, GEORGE, the biographer of Wolsey, beheaded at Bury St Edmunds by Jack Straw's was born about 1500, and became Wolsey's gentlefollowers; and from Sir William Cavendish of man-usher at least as early as 1527. He remained Cavendish, Suffolk (circa 1505-57), a brother of in close attendance upon his great master till the Wolsey's biographer. His third wife, the cele- end (November 28, 1530), after which he retired to brated · Bess of Hardwick,' afterwards Countess of his house at Glemsford, in Suffolk, where he lived Shrewsbury, brought Chatsworth (q.v.) into the quietly with his wife, a niece of Sir Thomas More, family; and William, their second son, was in 1618 till tlie close of his own life in 1561 or 1562. His made Earl of Devonshire. His great-grandson, affection for the great cardinal was most devotedWilliam (1640–1707), was, under the last two he had attached himself to his household, in Stuarts, a steadfast member of the Whig opposi- Wolsey's own words, abandoning his own country, tion, Russell's friend to the death, and an active wife, and children, his own house and family, his promoter of the Habeas Corpus Act. He succeeded rest and quietness, only to serve me.'

He never as fourth earl in 1684, and, for his services at the laid aside his loyalty to his memory, but in the Revolution, was in 1694 raised to be Duke of quiet meditation of after-years brooded over his Devonshire and Marquis of Hartington. His fall, and from it learned for himself “the blessedgreat-grandson, William (1720-64) succeeded as ness of being little.' Thirty years after he wrote fourth duke in 1755, and was prime-minister from his Life of Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most inNovember 1756 to the following May. William, teresting short biographies in the English language. fifth duke (1748-1811), was a bit of a poet; but Its pensive wisdom and simple sincerity reflect a is less remembered than his beautiful duchess, pleasing picture of the gentle and refined nature of whom Gainsborough and Reynolds painted. Wil its author, and enable us to see intimately with our liam, sixth duke (1790–1858), was chiefly distin own eyes, but with singular clearness, the outlines guished by his sumptuous embassy to St Petersburg of one of the grandest figures in our history. The (1826); and William, seventh duke (born 1808), book, written by a devout Catholic, full of regrets for had inherited the earldom of Burlington in 1834, the past, could not well be printed in Elizabeth's twenty-four years before he succeeded his cousin in reign, but circulated pretty freely in manuscript the Devonshire title.

copies, as many as twelve of which are still extant. His eldest son, the Right Hon. SPENCER COMP. It is almost certain that Shakespeare had read it TON CAVENDISH, Marquis of Hartington, was born before writing or collaborating in Henry VIII., as 23d July 1833, and was educated at Trinity College, all the redeeming features in the picture of the great Cambridge, graduating B.A. in 1854. He entered cardinal, and the lesson of his fall as a solemn parliament in 1857, being first returned for North homily upon human ambition, are directly due to Lancashire, then in 1869 for the Radnor boroughs, the tender and loyal touch of Cavendish. The in 1880 for North-east Lancashire, and in 1885 book was first printed imperfect, for party purposes, for the Rossendale division of that county. The in 1641. The best edition is that of s. 'W. Singer representative of a great Whig house, he was chosen (2 vols. 1815), the text of which was reprinted as early as 1859 to move the vote of want of confi with a good introduction in Professor "Henry dence that overthrew the Derby government, and Morley's Universal Library' (1886). between 1863 and 1874 held office as a Lord of the

Cavendish, HENRY, natural philosopher, eldest Admiralty, Under-secretary for War, War Secre

son of Lord Charles Cavendish, and a grandson of tary, Postmaster-general, and, from 1871, Chief- the second Duke of Devonshire, was born at Nice, secretary for Ireland. Neither a born statesman October 10, 1731. From a school at Hackney he nor great orator, he had yet shown an 'infinite passed in 1749 to Peterhouse, Cambridge, but capacity for taking pains,' when, in February 1875, quitted it three years later without a degree; on Mr Gladstone's temporary abdication, he was thereafter he devoted the whole of his long life chosen leader of the Liberal opposition. He led it to scientific investigations, a large fortune beadmirably, and in the spring of 1880, on the down- queathed him by an uncle enabling him to fall of the Beaconsfield administration, was invited follow uninterruptedly his favourite pursuits. A by the Queen to form a ministry. He rejected the silent, solitary man, he hated so to meet strangers, offer, and served under Mr Gladstone, first as Secre- that he had his library-a magnificent onen tary of State for India, and then as War Secretary in London, four miles from his residence on Clapfrom 1883 to 1885. But he wholly dissented from

ham Common, so that he might not encounter Mr Gladstone's scheme of Irish Home Rule; and persons coming to consult it ; whilst his female since 1886, as head of the Liberal Unionists, he has domestics had orders to keep out of his sight, on firmly supported Lord Salisbury's Conservative pain of dismissal. His dinner he ordered daily by a government.

note placed on the hall-table. He died, unmarried, His younger brother, Lord FREDERICK CAVEN

at Clapham, 10th March 1810, leaving more than a DISH, was born 30th November 1836, and was also million sterling to his relatives. As a philosopher, educated at Trinity, taking his B. A. in 1858. He Cavendish is entitled to the highest rank. To him sat in parliament as Liberal member for the it may almost be said we owe the foundation of northern

division of the West Riding of Yorkshire pneumatic chemistry, for prior to his time it had from 1865 till the spring of 1882, when he succeeded hardly an existence. In 1760 he discovered the Mr Forster as Chief-secretary for Ireland. Between

extreme levity of inflammable air, now known as seven and eight o'clock, on the evening of 6th May, hydrogen gas-a discovery which led to balloon having only that morning reached Dublin, he and

experiments and projects for aërial navigation ; Mr Burke, an unpopular subordinate, were stabbed and later, he ascertained that water resulted from to death in the Phoenix Park. Eight months later, the union of two gases—a discovery which has twenty "Irish Invincibles' were tried for the erroneously been claimed for Watt (q.v.; see also murder

, and, Carey and two others having turned WATER). The famous Cavendish Experiment was three sentenced to penal servitude for life, and the the Earth (q.v.). The accuracy and completeness of remaining nine to various terms of imprisonment. Cavendish's processes are remarkable. So high an Carey himself disappeared ; but in July news came authority as Sir Humphry Davy declared that they from the Cape that he had been shot dead by an


al of a finished nature, and though many of Irishman named O'Donnell on board an emigrant them were performed

in the very infancy of chemiship. O'Donnell was brought back to London, cal science, yet their accuracy and their beauty and hanged.

have remained unimpaired.' Căvendish also wrote

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on astronomical instruments; and his Electrical kegs. More than 400,000 lb, have been prepared
Researches (1771–81) were edited by Professor Clerk in the Caspian fishery in a single year.
Maxwell (1879). See his Life by G. Wilson, form-
ing vol. i. of the Cavendish Sociéty's Works (1846). Philippines, 12 miles SW. of the capital. Pop.

Cavité, a decayed seaport of Luzon, one of the
Cavendish, THOMAS, circumnavigator, was 2500.
born about 1555 at Trimley St Martin, near
Ipswich, and, after squandering his patrimony at

Cavour, COUNT CAMILLO BENSO DI, the recourt, shared'in Grenville's expedition to Virginia storer of Italian unity and nationality, was born at (1585). On 21st July of the following year he Turin, August 10, 1810. He was descended from sailed from Plymouth with 122 men and three ships one of the ancient noble families of Piedmont, and of 40, 60, and 140 tons, and, by Sierra Leone and being the younger son was destined for a military Brazil, reached the Strait of Magellan, whose pass

At the military school he distinguished age took seven weeks. During the nine months himself by his mathematical talent, and at an early that he cruised in the Pacific, he burned three age was appointed to a post in the engineers. Spanish towns and thirteen ships; then, with a

But as his liberal opinions proved unfavourable to rich booty, but only the largest of his three his stay in the army, he left it in 1831. His good vessels, he returned by way of the Indian Archi

sense, however, taught him that the deliverance of pelago and the Cape of Good Hope to England, Italy could not be accomplished by secret conspiracy 10th September 1588. Elizabeth knighted him, and and spasmodic revolutionary outbreaks. There was he took to his old mode of life, till in August 1591 nothing for him therefore but to retire into private he sailed on a second expedition, intended to rival life. Here he devoted himself to agriculture, introthe first. It ended in atter disaster, and in 1592 ducing great improvements in the cultivation of Cavendish died broken-hearted off Ascension.

the family estates; and his efforts generally to

raise the economic condition of Piedniont were Cavendish, WILLIAM, Duke of Newcastle, son

thorough and enlightened. But he had a further of Sir Charles Cavendish, and nephew of the first end in view ; he saw that economic improvenient Earl of Devonshire, was born in 1592, and educated must be the basis for a better social and political at St John's College, Cambridge. His learning order. And he widened his knowledge of economic and winning address made him a favourite at the court of James I., who in 1610 created him Knight in France and England.

and political questions by foreign travel, especially

Constitutionalism as of the Bath, and in 1620 Viscount Mansfield. established and practised in England was on the Charles I., who was splendidly entertained by him whole the form of government he most admired. at Welbeck and Bolsover, in 1628 created him Earl During a residence in England he made himself of Newcastle, and in 1638 appointed him governor intimately acquainted with the political organisa, to his son, afterwards Charles 11. His support of tion of the country, and also with its industrial the king during the contest with the parliament institutions ; knowledge of which he maxle good was munificent. He contributed £10,000 to the

use on his return to his own country. treasury, and raised a troop of 200 knights and

In this way for sixteen years Cavour energetically gentlemen, who served at their own cost. As laboured as a private gentleman. No opportunity general of all the forces north of the Trent, he

presented itself for any effective influence in bad power to issue declarations, confer knight: politics, and he wisely abstained.

It was very bood, coin money, and raise men; and the last part different when the spirit of freedom and innovaof his commission he executed with great zeal. tion once more awoke towards the revolutionary After the battle of Marston Moor (1644), Cavendish period of 1848. In conjunction with Count Cesare retired to the Continent, where he resided, at times | Balbo, he in 1847 established a newspaper, Il Risor. in great poverty, till the Restoration. In 1665. he gimento, in which he advocated a representative was created Duke of Newcastle; and he died 25th system, somewhat after the pattern of the English December 1676. He was author of two works on

constitution, as opposed alike to absolutism on horsemanship, and of several plays, not of a char the one hand, and mob rule on the other. On acter to increase any man's reputation for intelli- his suggestion, the king was petitioned for a constigence. See his Life by his second wife (1667; tution, which was granted in February 1848. In new ed. by C. H. Firth, 1886).-She, MARGARET | the Chamber of Deputies, during the stormy LUCAS (1624-74), the daughter of an Essex house, period which succeeded Charles Albert's declawhere all the brothers were valiant, and all the ration of war against Austria in March, Cavour sisters virtuous,' had married him in 1645, and was strenuously opposed the ultra-democrats, and herself the author of a dozen folio volumes of counselled an alliance with England as the surest poems, plays, letters, &c.

guarantee for the success of the Italian arms. In Caviare, the salted roes (immature ovaries ) of the Marquis d'Azeglio's ministry, formed soon the common sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) and other after the fatal battle of Novara, Cavour was sucfishes of the same genus (see STURGEON). It is cessively Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, chiefly prepared in Russia, where, as in various Minister of Marine, and Minister of Finance. In other countries, it is a favourite delicacy, and is 1852 he was appointed to succeed D’Azeglio as largely made in the United States ; though the premier. From this time until his resignation in phrase "Caviare to the general, shows that 1859, in consequence of the conclusion of the peace the taste is an acquired one. The species of of Villafranca, Cavour was the originator as well sturgeon from the roe of which it is chiefly pre

as the director of the Sardinian policy. Taking pared inhabit the Caspian and Black seas and upon himself at different times, in addition to the their tributary rivers. Among them are the Bie- premiership, the duties of the Ministers of Finance, laga, or Great Sturgeon (A. huso), the Osseter | Commerce, and Agriculture, and latterly of Home

2. güldenstädtii), the Scherg or Sevruga (A. stel- and Foreign Affairs, he greatly improved the latus)

, and the Sterlet (A. ruthenus). The caviare financial condition of the country, introduced made from the roe of the last-named species is measures of free trade, consolidated constituesteemed particularly delicious. Astrakhan is a

tionalism, weakened clerical influence, and made principal seat of the preparation of caviare. The Sardinia a power of some account in Europe. eggs are more or less roughly separated from the

Hitherto the work of Cavour had been to reform connecting tissue, and, after salting, are packed in Piedmont, and place its affairs on a sound basis. small barrels, or the roes may be salted in long The Crimean war afforded him an opportunity to troughs, and the eggs passed through a sieve into begin the task of restoring the unity and national

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independence of Italy. It was through his advice Cavy (Cavia), a genus of Rodents, best known and influence that Sardinia took part in the war, | by the domesticated species (Cavia cobaya), the and as a result of this he managed to bring the common Guinea-pig (q.v.). Italian question before the Congress of Paris in Cawdor, a village in Nairnshire, 53 miles SW. 1856. In 1858 Cavour had with the Emperor Napo. of Nairn. Cawdor Castle, near by, the seat of the leon a secret meeting, at which the programme for Earl of Cawdor, was founded in 1454, but is one of driving Austria out of Italy was drawn up, and the three places which tradition has assigned as during the early part of 1859 there followed a

the scene of King Duncan's murder by Macbeth diplomatic contest with Austria, which Cavour in 1040. A series of papers from the charter-room conducted with masterly tact and astuteness. The at Cawdor was edited by Cosmo Innes under the peace of Villafranca, coming after the successful title of The Book of the Thanes of Cawdor (1859)

. war of 1859, and leaving Austria in possession of See CAMPBELL. Venetia, was a bitter disappointment to Cavour. He resigned his office; yet he had no reason for

Cawk, a popular name for a massive variety

of the mineral called Heavy Spar or Sulphate of despair, as the power of Austria in the Italian peninsula was now really broken. On returning to Baryta. See BARYTA. office in 1860 he resumed his great undertaking,

Cawnpore' (Kanhpur), a city of the Northbut by new methods. Popular feeling in central western Provinces, on the right bank of the Ganges, Italy declared itself in favour of union with the 42 miles SW. of Lucknow, 266 SE. of Delhi, and north, and thus Parma, Modena, and Tuscany 628 NW. of Calcutta. The river in front, varying, came under the sway of Victor Emmanuel. It was according to the season, from 500 yards in width to the part of Cavour to guide opinion towards this more than a mile, presents a large and motley end, gaining time for it while he negotiated with the assemblage of steam-vessels and native craft; the great powers ; but he had to purchase the acquies- principal landing place is the beautiful Sarsiya cence of France by the surrender of Nice and Savoy. ) ghát. Cawnpore, at least as a place of note, is of He secretly encouraged the expedition of Garibaldi, recent origin, being indebted for its growth, besides which in 1860 achieved the deliverance of Sicily its commercial facilities, partly to military and and southein Italy. When a Sardinian army political considerations. In 1777, being then an marched southwards and on the plains of Campania appendage of Oudh, it was assigned by the nawab met the volunteers of Garibaldi, the unity of Italy as the station of a subsidiary force ; and in 1801 was already an accomplished fact. In 1861 an it became, in name as well as in fact, British Italian parliament was summoned, and_Victor property. Its cantonments, having accommodation Emmanuel was declared king of Italy. For the for 7000 troops, contain a population of about 38,000. completion of Italian unity only Rome and Venetia Pop. of the city (1891) 182,310, giving a total of were wanting; with a little patience they too about 220,000, of whom 125,000 were Hindus, and could be won.

5000 Christians. At the outbreak of the nutiny Thus had Cavour achieved the task of his life. in May 1857, Cawnpore contained about 1000 But it had not been accomplished without a fearful Europeans, 560 of whom were women and children. strain on his health. He had to manage the Sar- The hasty, ill-chosen entrenchments into which dinian parliament, to meet the artifices, protests, they had thrown themselves, were speedily invested and reproaches of many of the great powers, to by overwhelming numbers of the mutineers, led on prevent revolutionary parties from upsetting the by the infamous Nana Sahib. For three weeks practical mission on which he was engaged, and to the few defenders held gallantly out; but at last direct a great popular and national movement they surrendered on promise of^a safe-conduct to towards à reasonable and attainable goal by Allahabad. The sepoys accompanied them to the methods involving the minimum of delay and banks of the Ganges, and scarcely were they emviolence. For the real power of Sardinia was com barked on the boats, when a murderous fire was paratively limited, and a false step might have been opened upon them, and only four men escaped. serious. The constant strain was too much for him, The women and children, 125 in number, were and he died June 6, 1861, only a few months after reserved for a crueller fate, and were carried back the unity of Italy had been proclaimed. The last to Cawnpore. Hearing that Havelock was within words he was heard to utter were those so familiar two days march of the place, Nana Sahib adas expressing an important feature of his policy : vanced to meet him. He was driven back, and, * Brothers, brothers, the free church in the free smarting under defeat, returned to Cawnpore, and state.' Cavour is admitted to be the beau ideal of a gave orders for the instant massacre of his helpless practical and constructive statesman, who, aiming prisoners, who, dead and dying, were cast into & at just and reasonable ends, seeks to achieve them well. Havelock and his small army arrived on by effectual and legitimate methods. He made 16th July, only to find to their unutterable horror a reformed Piedmont the basis for attaining, the that they came too late to rescue the women and unity and regeneration of Italy. The ambition children. A memorial church, a Romanesque redof Napoleon, the military gallantry of the king, the brick building, now marks the site of General enthusiasm of Garibaldi, were all made to Wheeler's entrenchment; whilst the scene of the operate towards his plan for satisfying the national massacre is occupied by the memorial gardens. aspirations of Italy under a lasting constitutional Over the well itself a mound has been raised, its rule. Through his early death much of the work summit crowned by an octagonal Gothic inclosure

, necessary for a sound and healthy national life was with Marochetti's white marble angel in the centre. left unfinished, yet the subsequent history of Italy But Sir George Trevelyan's Cawnpore (1865) is the proves that Cavour had built on a solid foundation. best memorial of the tragedy. The district of He deserves a place among the greatest statesmen Cawnpore has an area of 2370 sq. m., of modern times.

tion of about 200,000.

It is an alluvial plain of The title is taken from the small Piedmontese great fertility. The vine is cultivated, and indigo town of Cavour, 28 miles SW. of Turin. See De grows wild. Besides its two mighty rivers

, the la Rive, Le Comte de Cavour, Récits et Souvenirs Ganges and Jumna, and their navigable tributaries

, (Paris, 1863 ; Eng. trans. of same date); Bianchi, the Ganges Canal' traverses the country for 60 La Politique de Cavour (Turin, 1885); his Lettere, miles, and there is ample communication by rail. edited by Chiala (6 vols. 1883-87); also the bio Caxias, (1) a town of Brazil, in the province of graphies of him by Massari (Turin, 1873) and Maranhão, on the navigable Itapicuru, 190 miles Mazade (Paris, 1877; Eng. trans. of same date). from its mouth, with an active trade in cotton.


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Pop. 10,000.- (2) An Italian agricultural colony Europeans, large numbers of the convicts having
in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul, been carried off by various malignant fevers. The
founded in 1875. Pop. (1884) 13,680.

French took possession of the island in 1604, and
Caxton, WILLIAM, the first English printer, Dutch, in 1677. The name of the capital is some

again, after it had been held by the English and
was born in the Weald of Kent about 1422.
was apprenticed in 1438 to Robert Large, a wealthy times used for the whole of French Guiana (q.v.).
London mercer, who was Lord Mayor in 1439-40.

Pop. about 10,000. On his master's death in 1441, he went to Bruges ;

Cayenne Cherry. See EUGENIA. he prospered in business, and became in 1462 Cayenne Pepper consists of the powder of governor of a chartered association of English the dried pods, and more especially of the dried merchants in the Low Countries. In 1471 he seeds of species of Capsicum (q.v.). abandoned commerce and attached himself to the

Cayes, or Aux CAYES, a seaport of Hayti, on household of Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, the the south-west coast, 95 miles WSW. of Port-ausister of Edward IV.; and apparently towards the Prince. Pop. 8000. end of 1476 he set up his wooden printing-press Cayley, ARTHUR, mathematician, was born at at the sign of the Red Pale in the Almonry at Richmond, Surrey, in 1821. He was educated at Westminster. The art of printing he had acquired King's College, London, and Trinity College, Cam. during his sojourn in Bruges, doubtless from Colard bridge, and graduated as senior wrangler and first Mansion, a well-known printer of that city; and in Smith's prizeman in 1842, He was called to the 1474 he put through the press at Bruges the first bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1849, and established a book printed in the English tongue, the Recuyell

In 1863 he was elected of the Historyes of Troye, a translation of Raoul practice as a conveyancer.

first Sadlerian Professor of pure Mathematics at Lefevre's work. The Game and Playe of the Chesse Cambridge, and in 1875 to a fellowship of Trinity was another of Caxton's earliest publications ; bụt College. He has received honorary degrees from the Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers, pub- Oxford, Dublin, and Leyden. He was president of lished in 1477, is the first book which can with

the Royal Astronomical Society (1872–73), and of certainty be maintained to have been printed in the British Association at its Southport meeting in England. All the eight founts of type from which 1883, where his address on the ultimate possibili. Caxton printed may be called Black Letter. Of

ties of mathematics attracted much attention. In the ninety-nine known distinct productions of his

1882 he gave a course of mathematical lectures at press, no less than thirty-eight survive in unique the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and in the copies or in fragments only. His books have no

same year received the Copley medal of the Royal title-pages, although many have prologues and Society. His chief book is an Elementary Treatise colophons. Some have no points at all others

on Elliptic Functions (1876); a ten volume edition the full-stop and colon alone. The semicolon

of his Mathematical Papers was begun in 1889. never occurs; the comma is usually marked by short (1) or by long (1) lines. The pages are not

Caylus, ANNE CLAUDE PHILIPPE DE TUBInumbered and have no catch words. For Caxton's FRES, COMTE DE, archæologist, was born in Paris imprint, see article Book.) Caxton enjoyed the

in 1692. After serving in the Spanish War of Sucpatronage and friendship of some of the chief men

cession, he travelled in Greece and the East, returnof his time. He was diligent in the exercise of his ing to Paris in 1717 to devote himself to the study craft or in translation till within a few hours of his

of antiquities, and the promotion of the fine arts. death, which seems to have happened about the If his industry sometimes ontran his intelligence, close of the year 1491. Gibbon denounces Caxton's

it is still true that he did vast service to archæ choice of books, and complains that the world is ology. He died at Paris in 1765. His chief work not indebted to England for one first edition of a

is liis Recueil l'Antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, classic anthor; but it should be remembered that grecques, romaines, et gauloises (7 vols. 1752-67). Caxton had to make his printing business pay, and

His copperplate engravings have had a longer life that he could therefore supply only books for which

than his stories of Eastern life.
there was a demand. Nor can it be said that a Cayman, a local name loosely applied to
printer had no regard for pure literature who pro various species of alligator–e.g. to Alligator
duced editions of Chaucer, Lydgate, Gower, Sir | mississippiensis, the single species of the United
Thomas Malory's King Arthur, and translations States, or more frequently to other species found
of Cicero's De Senectute and De Amicitia. Caxton's in tropical or subtropical America. The name has
industry was marvellous. He was an accomplished also been used, to all appearance unnecessarily, as
linguist, and the translations which he executed the scientific title of a genus, and as such has been
himself fill more than 4500 printed pages, while the most frequently applied to A. palpebrosus and A.
total produce of his press, exclusive of the books trigonatus. It seems more reasonable to regard all
printed at Bruges, reaches to above 18,000, nearly the alligators as within the limits of a single genus.
all of folio size. At the Osterley Park sale in 1885, See ALLIGATOR.
no less than ten Caxtons were sold; one of them, Caymans, three fertile coral islands of the
the Chesse, bringing £1950. In 1877 the printer and Caribbean Sea, 165 miles NW. of Jamaica, of which
his work were fittingly commemorated by a typo. they form a dependency. Discovered by Columbus,
graphical exhibition in London. See The Old Printer they were by him called Tortugas, from the
and the New Press, by Charles Knight (1854); Life abundance of turtle, still the staple production
and Typography of William Caxton (1861–63), by of the group. Area, 225 sq. m. ; pop. 2400, 2000
W. Blades ; and the Biography and Typography of inhabiting the largest island, Grand Cayman.
Caxton (1877; 2d. ed. 1882), by the same author. Cazalla de la Sierra, a town of the Spanish

Cayenne, a fortified seaport, capital of French province of Seville, 38 miles ENE. of Seville city,
Guiana, on an island at the mouth of a river of the on the southern slope of the Sierra Morena, with

A new town is connected with the important mines, and a trade in olives and wine.
older portion by the Place d'Armes, bordered with Pop. 8322.
prange-trees. The harbour is the best on the coast, Cazem bé, the title of an African prince, whose
but insecure and shallow. Cayenne, though it is territory, also called Cazembė, extends between
the entrepôt of all the trade of the colony, is chiefly the Moero and Bangweolo lakes, west of 30° E.
known as a great French penal settlement (since long: The people are industrious and skilful hus-
1852). The climate is extremely unwholesome for bandmen and smiths, and carry on a brisk trade

same name.

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