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century, the foreign possessions of the several states Australia to the rock of Gibraltar; from Hong-kong, of Europe stood pretty much as they do now. Out the emporium of Chinese trade, to Heligoland, the of her once mighty empire, Portugal retained only favourite watering-place of Hamburgers. Adopting a few petty settlements in India, an indeterminate another principle of division, the colonies may be authority over long strips on both coasts of Africa, classified according to the modes by which they and Brazil

, which has since become independent were acquired : (1) as conquered by force of arms under a scion of the house of Braganza. Spain has or ceded by an independent power ; (2) as occupied lost Southern and Central America within the pres- by settlers, where no rights were recognised in the ent century; but she keeps her hold of Cuba and aboriginal inhabitants. The former class would Porto Rico in the West Indies, and of the Philip- comprise the Cape and Hong-kong, the latter class pine and Caroline groups of islands in the remote Australia and British Columbia. The classification eastern seas. Holland, having been deprived by adopted by the colonial office is based upon differEngland of Ceylon and the Cape, still draws a rich ences of administration, as follows: (1) Crown tribute from Java and the adjoining Spice Islands. colonies, in which the crown has the entire control France, which entered last upon the struggle, has of legislation, while the administration is carried suffered most severely of all, as the result of the on by public officers under the control of the home fortune of war with England. At one time it government. Of this class examples are Gibraltar, seemed as if half North America, and perhaps all Ceylon, and Jamaica. (2) Colonies possessing India, would become French. But the twin stars representative institutions, but not responsible of Wolfe and Clive influenced the fate of two con- government, in which the crown has no tinents. The acquisition of Algeria dates from than a veto on legislation, but the home govern1830 ; and within the last decade France has again ment retains the control of public officers. In this pushed forward in Tunis, Tonquin, and Mada- class are Natal, Western Australia, and Barbadoes. gascar. Italy has no foreign possessions except the (3) Colonies possessing representative institutions port of Massowah on the African shore of the Red and responsible government, in which the crown Sea; and those which Germany has recently has only a veto on legislation, and the home acquired with so much eagerness, in Africa and government has no control over any public officer in New Guinea and the adjoining islands, must except the governor. This class comprises Canada, be regarded rather as possible outlets for trade Newfoundland, the Cape, and the Australasian

han as true coloni The surplus population of group. According to the Colonial Office List for Germany will doubtless continue to pour into the 1888, the total area of all the colonies and depend. western states of North America, just as the encies (excluding India) is 7,475,896 sq. m., with Italians and Basques will continue to be attracted an estimated population of 18,346,614. Of these to the River Plate.

totals the nine self-governing colonies possess After this brief survey of the foreign possessions between them 5,884,020 sq. m. and 9,413,855 souls. of continental states, we pass on to those of (For Cyprus, North Borneo, the Niger Protectorate, Britain, which alike in area, in population, and in and all British dependencies, see GREAT BRITAIN.) promise for the future, surpass tenfold all the rest From an historical point of view, the expansion put together. If it be permissible, on historical of the Anglo-Saxon race divides itself into three grounds, to regard the United States as one with periods : (1) The 17th century, when the first Britain, it may be said that the story of modern beginnings were made, in rivalry with other colonisation is the story of the expansion of the European states which had taken the lead ; Anglo-Saxon race. In North America, Austral- (2) the close of the 18th century, when, as a result asia, and South Africa, that race is already in of the French wars and the command of the sea, occupation of the only large tracts of uninhabited Britain had won a preponderant position, despite territory where white men can work and multiply. the loss of the United States; (3) the 19th century, In India, England owns the most fertile and most which has been a continuous period of growth and easily governed of tropical countries ; while her consolidation. Newfoundland boasts herself the minor possessions are dotted over every land and premier British colony, having been annexed_by

These advantages abroad-gained by the the ill-fated Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583. The valour of her children, who have known how East India Company was incorporated in 1600 ; the to make the most of their good fortune—are first permanent settlement of Virginia dates from maintained by a teeming population at home, 1607, the historic Mayflower sailed from Plymouth superabundant capital, and maritime supremacy. to New England in 1620; Barbadoes was occupied Above all, it should ever be remembered that first of the islands in the West Indies in 1625. this great colonial empire, as it was won with no The second period—a period of war

-begins with deliberate plan of aggression, so it is preserved the capture of Gibraltar in 1704 ; its decisive point solely through the conscious recognition of mutual was reached at the peace of 1763, when the French rights and duties. Even in India, British rule yielded alike in Canada and in India ; and it exists by the consent of the natives and for their culminated in the Napoleonic war, when Malta, benefit; while the autonomous colonies of Australia Mauritius, and many West Indian islands were are as free from British interference and as loyal to captured from France, and Ceylon and the Cape the British name as the Channel Islands or Man. from Holland, then a French dependency. The

The colonial empire of England is as varied in its last period, which is almost co-extensive with the composition as it is vast in its extent. In the reign of Victoria, has witnessed the consolidation political sense, it ought to include every foreign of India under the crown; the marvellous developpossession or dependency of the crown. It is only ment of Australia under the stimulus of gold disby an accident of administration that India the coveries; the erection of Canada into a dominion charge of a distinct secretary of state, that some of confederated provinces ; the extension of British indeterminate protectorates (such as that of the influence throughout South Africa; the commerNiger) are controlled through the Foreign Office, and cial growth of Hong-kong and Singapore; and the that the island of Ascension is borne as a ship on gradual advance of the British flag over new prothe books of the Admiralty. So again, the colonies tectorates and isolated Coaling Stations (q.v.). It proper-i.e. those in subordination to the Colonial is estimated that the population of the colonies Secretary-vary in character from a settled country, has multiplied more than fourfold since 1837, with a civilisation more than a century old, like while the external trade has multiplied nearly Lower Canada, to an unexplored wilderness of ninefold. savages, like New Guinea ; from the continent of Though colonisation is by no means synonymous


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with emigration, it is perhaps natural for the of a state scattered over such immense distances mother-country to regard her colonies primarily and with such divergent interests. Above all, it was as affording an outlet for her own surplus popula. doubted whether the slender link existing could tion. As a matter of fact, the inhabitants of stand the strain of a great European war. What Australia are almost exclusively British ; so, too, concern has Canada with Constantinople, or Ausare the inhabitants of Canada, with the notable tralia with Afghanistan? But there were always exception of the province of Quebec, which remains some to whom such calculations appeared to be a to this day thoroughly French in language, in base abandonment of England's historic place religion, and in sentiment. At the Cape, again, among nations; and the colonists themselves have the descendants of the Dutch settlers still form always professed the most perfect loyalty to the about one-half of the whole population. But when British connection, exactly in proportion as they the statistics of emigration are looked into, it will have been intrusted with autonomy in their own be found that the United States prove much more local atlairs. Canadian voyageurs took a prominent attractive than all the colonies added together. part in Lord Wolseley's boat expedition up the Nile In 1887 the total number of emigrants from the in 1884 ; and a battalion of 500 volunteers from United Kingdom, of British and Irish origin, New South Wales fought by the side of British amounted to 281,487, of whom as many as 72 per soldiers round Suakin in 1885. The sense of cent. selected the United States ; while only 34, 183, distance has been largely obliterated by the maror 12 per cent., went to the Australasian colonies, vellous progress of steam and electricity. The and 32,025, or 11 per cent., to British North circumnavigation of the globe is now accomplished America. Nor was that year at all exceptional. as easily and as frequently as was the grand tour The census returns of the United States in 1880 in the 18th century. Many of the younger politishow 2,772, 169 persons born in the United King. | cians make it part of their education to visit India, dom ; while the corresponding figures are 912,935 Australia, and Canada; the colonists, too, bave for all the Australasian colonies, and 470,092 for ceased to be strangers in England-home,' as they Canada; total 1,383,027, or less than half the always call it, though born thousands of leagues number in the United States. The home govern- away.

In this connection the future historian will ment has taken no measures to direct emigration not think it beneath his dignity to record the to the colonies, beyond establishing in 1886 an beneficent influence of cricket An English team Emigrants’ Information Office in London, for the first went to Australia in 1862; while Australian collection and publication of trustworthy infor- elevens have played on equal terms with the best mation. Queensland alone gives free passages. cricketers of England in every alternate year

since Natal and Western Australia give assisted pass- 1878. The increase of intercourse has brought with ages to farın labourers and domestic servants.

See it an increase of mutual knowledge and of mutual EMIGRATION,

respect. The holding of a great exhibition of The tie between the mother-country and the colonial and Indian produce at South Kensington colonies is more manifest in the case of commerce. in 1886, and the plan of commemorating the jubilee The old practice has long ago been abandoned of of the Queen by an Imperial Institute, have given compelling the colonies to trade only with the concrete expression to the feeling of solidarity that mother-country; and those of them that are self- was everywhere growing: Few persons, either in governing have even been allowed to impose pro- England or in the colonies, would now be found tective tariff's against British manufactures. But, to advocate the weakening, still less the severing, nevertheless, the trade of Britain with her colonial of the present political ties. possessions has maintained itself more steadily With regard to the scheme known as Imperial Conthan her trade with the rest of the world. During federation, less agreement is to be found. It may the fourteen years from 1872 to 1886, the imports be suspected that many of its British supporters into the United Kingdom from British possessions have been influenced chiefly by their greater dislike (including India), notwithstanding the fall in of separation ; while in the colonies it has nowhere value, increased from £79,372,853 to £81,884,043, been received with enthusiasm. The essence of while the proportion of these imports to the the scheme is that the existing parliament of total imports rose from 22 to 23 per cent. In Great Britain and Ireland should divest itself the same period the exports to British possessions of its sovereignty in favour of a federal council, increased from £65,609,212 to £82,067,711, while formed by election out of all the constituent parts their proportion to the total exports rose from of the empire. To this council would be delegated 21 to 31 per cent. Taking the returns from colonial the initiative in foreign affairs, the power of treatysources, 42 per cent. of the aggregate trade of all making, the right of declaring war, with the conthe colonies in 1886 was conducted with the mother- trol of the army and navy that necessarily follows country. Such, expressed in dry figures, is the therefrom. Putting aside the difficulties that would meaning of the maxim that “trade follows the arise from the inequality of the colonies among tlay. Though statistics are not so readily obtain themselves, it is easy to see that Britain must, able, there can be no doubt that the investment of for a long time to come, exercise the decisive preBritish capital in the colonies, and the consequent eminence in such a council. return of interest, forms a bond of a still closer In the meantime something has already been nature than the interchange of commodities. In done, and more may be, to strengthen the position 1886 the aggregate public debt of all the colonies of the colonies in the English political system. (escluding India) amounteil to about 245 millions Canada, the Australasian colonies, and the Cape, sterling

each have an agent-general resident in London, The most interesting question that remains to be whose functions are steadily growing in dign considered is the political relation between the It has become the custom for every new Colonial colonies and the mother-country. Not so many Secretary to invite the agents-general to a cereyears ago it was tacitly assumed that the grant of monious reception on his appointment; they are responsible government to the greater colonies consulted, either singly or collectively, in all implied the further concession of complete inde- matters affecting the colonies which they reprependence whenever the colonies should care to It is not impossible that their status may demand it. History seemed to afford support for ultimately develop into something intermediate in no other conclusion. Quite apart from the case of authority and honour between the council of the the United States, it was argued that any form of India Office and the corps diplomatique. The elastic political union was impracticable between members powers of the Privy-council might easily be utilised





so as to constitute them (with other representatives Green and Grand rivers the main affluent in Utah for the crown colonies ) into a committee for the is the San Juan, which drains an interesting region general control of colonial affairs.

in the south-west of Colorado and the north-west of A still more important step forward was taken New Mexico. In Arizona the main affluents are in 1887, when a conference was held in London, the Colorado Chiquito or Flax River, the Bill under the presidency of the Colonial Secretary, at Williams, and the Rio Gila, all from the left. The which delegates specially appointed by all the only important affluent the Colorado receives from colonies were present. Many of the subjects dis- the right is the Rio Virgen. From the junction of cussed were of a commercial or legal character; the Grand and Green, the general course of the but a large measure of agreement was also arrived stream is to the south-west, through the southern at with regard to the burning question of colonial part of Utah and the north-west of Arizona ; and it defence. Broadly speaking, the self-governing afterwards separates Arizona from Nevada and colonies have undertaken to provide for their own California. The lower part of its course is in Mexidefence by land by maintaining a trained force of a can territory, where it flows into the north extrespecified strength ; while England will supply ships mity of the Gulf of California. The most striking and guns for the protection of commerce and coal. features of the Colorado basin are its dryness, and ing stations. This agreement has been embodied, the deeply channelled surface of the greater part of so far as the mother country is concerned, in a the country. Almost every stream and waterstatute passed in 1888. It is not to be expected course, and most of all the Colorado itself, has that such conferences will become a permanent cut its way through stratum after stratum of institution. They would form too severe a tax rock, until now it flows, in a great part of its upon colonial politicians of the first rank. But course, at the bottom of a deep trench or cañon. the precedent is valuable as showing the mothercountry consulting with her daughters in a family council. Whatever may come of Colonial Confederation, British statesmanship will have ere lony to face the duty of reconciling local selfgovernment with imperial unity; and the history of the Anglo-Saxon race encourages us to believe that the problem will not prove insoluble.

The colonies of the chief countries will be found under GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY, SPAIN, &c. The following are some of the more important books on the subject: Heeren's Manual of the Political System of Europe and its Colonies (Eng. trans. in 2 vols. 1841); Sir G. Cornewall Lewis's Essay on the Government of Dependencies (1811); Herman Merivale's Lectures on Colonisation (1841-42; new ed. 1861); Sir C. W. Dilke's Greater Britain (1863); J. A. Doyle's The American Colonies Previous to the Declaration of Independence (1869); E. J. Payne's History of European Colonies (1877); Colonies and Dependencies, in the English Citizen’series (1883); J. R. Seeley's The Expansion of England (1885); J. A. Froude's Oceana (1886), and The English in the West Indies (1888); the various Handbooks published in connection with the Colonial and Indian Exhibition (1886); and especially the volume entitled Her Majesty's Colonies, and the annual Colonial Office List, published by Messrs Harrison & Sons. Also see the articles on the various colonies.

Coʻlophon, an Ionian city of Asia, about 9 miles N. of Ephesus, and near the sea-coast. The river Halesus, noted for the coolness of its water, flowed past it. It was the native city of Mimnermus, the elegist, and claimed to be the birthplace of Homer. In its neighbourhood was the famous oracle of Apollo Clarius. The Greek proverb, 'to put the colophon to it,' meaning to terminate an affair, is explained by Strabo as arising from the belief that the cavalry of Colophon was so excellent that their charge always decided a battle. Hence, in old printed books, any device, or printer's name, or the place and year of printing, printed at the end, was called a colophon (see BOOK). It gave

Grand Cañon of the Colorado, looking up. its name also to colophony, a kind of black resin,

(From a Photograph by E. Baer, of Prescott, Arizona.) for which see Rosin. Coloquin'tida. See COLOCYNTH.

The main stream for nearly 400 miles below the Colorado (Span, for 'red' or 'reddish'), a mouth of the Colorado Chiquito, thus makes its remarkable river of North America, formed in 39° way through a great plateau, forming what is 17' N. lat., 109° 50' W. long., by Copyright 1889 in U.S.

called the Grand Cañon of the Colorado, the most the union of the Grand and Green

extensive and marvellous example of the kind any. rivers. The Green River rises in

where known. The cañon-walls throughout the Wyoming, U.S., and drains the south-west por- upper part of the great cañon are from 4000 to 7000 tion of that territory ; it also receives affluents from feet in height, and are often nearly perpendicular. Utah and the north-west angle of the state of At some points the walls on either side rise sheer Colorado. The Grand River rises in Colorado, from the water ; at others there is a talus of fallen where its more common name is the Gunnison. Its rock, or occasionally a strip of fertile soil, on one main tributaries in that state are the Bunkara, or or both banks. This over-drained river basin has Blue, and the Dolores. Below the junction of the an area of 240,000 sq. m. Its former adaptedness

by J. B. Lippincott Company.



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