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century, the foreign possessions of the several states Australia to the rock of Gibraltar; from Hong-kong, of Europe stood pretty much as they do now. Out the emporium of Chinese trade, to Heligoland, the of her once mighty empire, Portugal retained only favourite watering-place of Hamburgers. Adopting a few petty settlements in India, an indeterminate another principle of division, the colonies may be authority over long strips on both coasts of Africa, classified according to the modes by which they and Brazil, which has since become independent were acquired : (1) as conquered by force of arms under a scion of the house of Braganza. Spain has or ceded by an independent power ; (2) as occupied lost Southern and Central America within the pres by settlers, where no rights were recognised in the ent century; but she keeps her hold of Cuba and aboriginal inhabitants. The former class would Porto Rico in the West Indies, and of the Philip comprise the Cape and Hong-kong, the latter class pine and Caroline groups of islands in the remote Australia and British Columbia. The classification eastern seas. Holland, having been deprived by adopted by the colonial office is based upon differEngland of Ceylon and the Cape, still draws a rich ences of administration, as follows: (1) Crown tribute from Java and the adjoining Spice Islands. colonies, in which the crown has the entire control France, which entered last upon the struggle, has of legislation, while the administration is carried suffered most severely of all, as the result of the on by public officers under the control of the home fortune of war with England. At one time it government. Of this class examples are Gibraltar, seemed as if half North America, and perhaps all Ceylon, and Jamaica. (2) Colonies possessing India, would become French. But the twin stars representative institutions, but not responsible of Wolfe and Clive influenced the fate of two con government, in which the crown has no more tinents. The acquisition of Algeria dates from than a veto on legislation, but the home govern1830 ; and within the last decade France has againment retains the control of public officers. In this pushed forward in Tunis, Tonquin, and Mada class are Natal, Western Australia, and Barbadoes. gascar. Italy has no foreign possessions except the (3) Colonies possessing representative institutions port of Massowah on the African shore of the Red and responsible government, in which the crown Sea ; and those which Germany has recently has only a veto on legislation, and the home acquired with so much eagerness, in Africa and government has no control over any public officer in New Guinea and the adjoining islands, must except the governor. This class comprises Canada, be regardled rather as possible outlets for trade Newfoundland, the Cape, and the Australasian than as true colonies. The surplus population of group. According to the Colonial Office List for Germany will doubtless continue to pour into the 1888, the total area of all the colonies and dependwestern" states of North America, just as the encies (excluding India) is 7,475,896 sq. m., with Italians and Basques will continue to be attracted an estimated population of 18,346,614. Of these to the River Plate.
totals the nine self-governing colonies possess After this brief survey of the foreign possessions between them 5,884,020 sq. m. and 9,413,855 souls
, of continental states, we pass on to those of (For Cyprus, North Borneo, the Niger Protectorate, Britain, which alike in area, in population, and in and all British dependencies, see GREAT BRITAIN.) promise for the future, surpass tenfold all the rest From an historical point of view, the expansion put together. If it be permissible, on historical of the Anglo-Saxon race divides itself into three grounds, to regard the United States as one with periods: (i) The 17th century, when the first Britain, it may be said that the story of modern beginnings were made, in rivalry with other colonisation is the story of the expansion of the European states which had taken the lead; Anglo-Saxon race. In North America, Austral-(2) the close of the 18th century, when, as a result asia, and South Africa, that race is already in of the French wars and the command of the sea, occupation of the only large tracts of uninhabited Britain had won a preponderant position, despite territory where white men can work and multiply: the loss of the United States ; (3) the 19th century, In India, England owns the most fertile and most which has been a continuous period of growth and easily governed of tropical countries ; while her consolidation. Newfoundland boasts herself the minor possessions are dotted over every land and premier British colony, having been annexed by
These advantages abroad-gained by the the ill-fated Sir Humphrey Gibert in 1583. The valour of her children, who have known how East India Company was incorporated in 1600 ; the to make the most of their good fortune-are first permanent settlement of Virginia dates from maintained by a teeming population at home, 1607, the historic Mayflower sailed from Plymouth superabundant capital, and maritime supremacy to New England in 1620 ; Barbadoes was occupied Above all, it should ever be remembered that first of the islands in the West Indies in 1625
. this great colonial empire, as it was won with no The second period—a period of war-begins with deliberate plan of aggression, so it is preserved the capture of Gibraltar in 1704 ; its decisive point solely through the conscious recognition of mutual was reached at the peace of 1763, when the French rights and duties.
Even in India, British rule yielded alike in Canada and in India ; and it exists by the consent of the natives and for their culminated in the Napoleonic war, when Malta
, benefit; while the autonomous colonies of Australia Mauritius, and many West Indian islands were are as free from British interference and as loyal to captured from France, and Ceylon and the Cape the British name as the Channel Islands or Man. from Holland, then a French dependency. The
The colonial empire of England is as varied in its last period, which is almost co-extensive with the
Though colonisation is by no means synonymous
with emigration, it is perhaps natural for the of a state scattered over such immense distances
In this connection the future historian will
respect. The holding of a great exhibition of
In Great Britain and Ireland should divest itself
, there can be no doubt that the investment of for a long time to come, exercise the decisive pre-
each have an agent-general resident in London,
Not so many Secretary to invite the agents-general to a cereyears ago it was tacitly assumed that the grant of monious reception on his appointment ; they are responsible government to the greater colonies consulted, either singly, or collectively, in all implied the further concession of complete inde matters affecting the colonies which they reprependence whenever the colonies should care to sent. It is not in possible that their status may demand it. History seemed to afford support for ultimately develop into something intermediate in no other conclusion. Quite apart from the case of authority and honour between the council of the the United States, it was argued that any form of India Office and the corps diplomatique. The elastic political union was impracticable between members powers of the Privy-council might easily be utilised
so as to constitute them (with other representatives Green and Grand rivers the main affluent in Utah for the crown colonies) into a committee for the is the San Juan, which drains an interesting region general control of colonial affairs.
in the south-west of Colorado and the north-west of A still more important step forward was taken New Mexico. In Arizona the main affluents are in 1887, when a conference was held in London, the Colorado Chiquito or Flax River, the Bill under the presidency of the Colonial Secretary, at Williams, and the Rio Gila, all from the left. The which delegates specially appointed by all the only important affluent the Colorado receives from colonies were present. Many of the subjects dis the right is the Rio Virgen. From the junction of cussed were of a commercial or legal character; the Grand and Green, the general course of the but a large measure of agreement was also arrived stream is to the south-west, through the southern ad with regard to the burning question of colonial part of Utah and the north-west of Arizona ; and it defence. Broadly speaking, the self-governing afterwards separates Arizona from Nevada and colonies have undertaken to provide for their own California. The lower part of its course is in Mexidefence by land by maintaining a trained force of a can territory, where it flows into the north extrespecified strength ; while England will supply ships mity of the Gulf of California. The most striking and guns for the protection of commerce and coal features of the Colorado basin are its dryness, and ing stations. This agreement has been embodied, the deeply channelled surface of the greater part of so far as the mother-country is concerned, in a the country. Almost every stream and waterstatute passed in 1888. It is not to be expected course, and most of all the Colorado itself, has that such conferences will become a permanent cut its way through stratum after stratum of institution. They would form too severe a tax rock, until now it flows, in a great part of its upon colonial politicians of the first rank. But course, at the bottom of a deep trench or cañon, the precedent is valuable as showing the mothercountry consulting with her daughters in a family council. Whatever may come of Colonial Confederation, British statesmanship, will have ere long to face the duty of reconciling local selfgovernment with imperial unity; and the history of the Anglo-Saxon race encourages us to believe that the problem will not prove insoluble.
The colonies of the chief countries will be found
Coʻlophon, an Ionian city of Asia, about 9
(From a Photograph by E. Baer, of Prescott, Arizona.)
The main stream for nearly 400 miles below the
mouth of the Colorado Chiquito, thus makes its 17' N. lat., 109° 50' W. long,, by Copyright 1889 in U.S. called the Grand Cañon of the Colorado, the most the union of the Grand and Green
extensive and marvellous example of the kind any. rivers. The Green River rises in Company.
The cañon-walls throughout the Wyoming, U.S., and drains the south-west por- upper part of the great cañon are from 4000 to 7000 tion of that territory ; it also receives affluents from feet in height, and are often nearly perpendicular
. Utah and the north-west angle of the state of At some points the walls on either side rise sheer Colorado. The Grand River rises in Colorado, from the water; at others there is a talus of fallen where its more common name is the Gunnison. Its rock, or occasionally a strip of fertile soil, on one main tributaries in that state are the Bunkara, or or both banks. This over-drained river basin has Blue, and the Dolores. Below the junction of the an area of 240,000 sq. m.
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