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century, the foreign possessions of the several states of Europe stood pretty much as they do now. Out of her once mighty empire, Portugal retained only a few petty settlements in India, an indeterminate authority over long strips on both coasts of Africa, and Brazil, which has since become independent under a scion of the house of Braganza. Spain has lost Southern and Central America within the pres: ent century; but she keeps her hold of Cuba and Porto Rico in the West Indies, and of the Philippine and Caroline groups of islands in the remote eastern seas. Holland, having been deprived by England of Ceylon and the Cape, still draws a rich tribute from Java and the adjoining Spice Islands. France, which entered last upon the struggle, has suffered most severely of all, as the result of the fortune of war with England. At one time it seemed as if half North America, and perhaps all India, would become French. But the twin stars of Wolfe and Clive influenced the fate of two contiments. The acquisition of Algeria dates from 1830; and within the last decade France has again pushed forward in Tunis, Tonquin, and Madagascar. Italy has no foreign possessions except the port of Massowah on the African shore of the Red Sea; and those which Germany has recently acquired with so much eagerness, in Africa and in New Guinea and the adjoining islands, must be regarded rather as possible outlets for trade than as true colonies. The surplus population of Germany will doubtless continue to pour into the western states of North America, just as the Italians and Basques will continue to be attracted to the River Plate. After this brief survey of the foreign possessions of continental states, we pass on to those of Britain, which alike in area, in population, and in promise for the future, surpass tenfold all the rest put together. If it be permissible, on historical grounds, to regard the United States as one with Britain, it may be said that the story of modern colonisation is the story of the expansion of the Anglo-Saxon race. . In North America, Australasia, and South Africa, that race is already in occupation of the only large tracts of uninhabited territory where white men can work and multiply. In India, England owns, the most fertile and most easily governed of tropical countries; while her minor possessions are dotted over every land and sea. These advantages abroad—gained by the valour of her children, who have known how to make the most of their good fortune—are maintained by a teeming population at home, superabundant capital, and maritime supremacy. Above all, it should ever be remembered that this great colonial empire, as it was won with no deliberate plan of aggression, so it is preserved solely through the conscious recognition of mutual rights and duties. Even, in India, British rule exists by the consent of the natives and for their benefit; while the autonomous colonies of Australia are as free from British interference and as loyal to the British name as the Channel Islands or Man. The colonial empire of England is as varied in its composition as it is vast in its extent. In the political sense, it ought to include every foreign possession or dependency of the crown. It is only oy an accident of administration that India is the charge of a distinct secretary of state, that some indeterminate protectorates (such as that of the Niger) are controlled through the Foreign Office, and that the island of Ascension is borne as a ship on the books of the Admiralty. So again, the colonies proper—i.e. those in subordination to the Colonial Secretary—vary in character from a settled country, with a civilisation more than a century old, like Lower Canada, to an unexplored wilderness of savages, like New Guinea; from the continent of
Australia to the rock of Gibraltar; from Hong-kong, the emporium of Chinese trade, to Heligoland, the favourite watering-place of Hamburgers. Adopting another principle of division, the colonies may be classified according to the modes by which they were acquired : (1) as conquered by force of arms or ceded by an independent power; (2) as occupied by settlers, where no rights were recognised in the aboriginal inhabitants. The former class would comprise the Cape and Hong-kong, the latter class Australia and British Columbia. The classification adopted by the colonial office is based upon differ. ences of administration, as follows: (1) Crown colonies, in which the crown has the entire control of legislation, while the administration is carried on by public officers under the control of the home government. Of this class examples are Gibraltar, Ceylon, and Jamaica. (2) Colonies possessing representative institutions, but not responsible government, in which the crown has no more than a veto on legislation, but the home govern. ment retains the control of public officers. In this class are Natal, Western Australia, and Barbadoes, (3) Colonies possessing representative institutions and responsible government, in which the crown has only a veto on legislation, and the home government has no control over any public officer except the governor. This class comprises Canada, Newfoundland, the Cape, and the Australasian group. According to o: Colonial Office List for I888, the total area of all the colonies and depend: encies (excluding India) is 7,475,896 sq. m., with an estimated population of 18,346,614. Of these totals the nine self-governing colonies possess between them 5,884,020 sq. m. and 9,413,855 souls, (For Cyprus, North Borneo, the Niger Protectorate, and all British dependencies, see GREAT BRITAIN) From an historical point of view, the expansion of the Anglo-Saxon race divides itself into three |. (1) The 17th century, when the first eginnings were made, in rivalry with other European states which had taken the lead; (2) the close of the 18th century, when, as a result of the French wars and the command of the sea, Britain had won a preponderant position, despite the loss of the United States; (3) the 19th century which has been a continuous period of growth i consolidation. Newfoundland boasts herself the premier British colony, having been annexed by the ill-fated Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583. The East India Company was incorporated in 1600; the first permanent settlement of Virginia dates from 1607; the historic Mayflower sailed from Plymooth to New England in 1620; Barbadoes was occupi first of the islands in the West Indies in 16% The second period—a period of war-begins wit the capture of Gibraltar in 1704; its decisive point was reached at the peace of 1763, when the French yielded alike in Canada and in India; and it culminated in the Napoleonic war, when Malta, Mauritius, and many West Indian islands Were captured from France, and Ceylon and the Coyo from Holland, then a French dependency. The last period, which is almost co-extensive with the reign of Victoria, has witnessed the consolidation of India under the crown; the marvellous develop. ment of Australia under the stimulus of gold dis. coveries; the erection of Canada into a dominion of confederated provinces; the extension of British influence throughout South Africa; the commer cial growth of Hong-kong and Singapore; and the gradual advance of the British flag over new pro. tectorates and isolated Coaling Stations (q.v.). It is estimated that the population of the colo. has multiplied more than fourfold since 18, while the "external trade has multiplied nearly ninefold. Though colonisation is by no means synonymous
with emigration, it is perhaps natural for the mother-country to regard her colonies primarily as affording an outlet for her own surplus popula: tion. As a matter of fact, the jo. of Australia are almost exclusively British ; so, too, are the inhabitants of Canada, with the notable o of the province of Quebec, which remains to this day, thoroughly French in language, in religion, and in sentiment. At the Cape, again, the descendants of the Dutch settlers still form about one-half of the whole population. But when the statistics of emigration are looked into, it will be found that the Únited States prove much more attractive than all the colonies added together. In 1887 the total number of emigrants from the United Kingdom, of British and Irish origin, amounted to 281,487, of whom as many as 72 per cent, selected the United States; while only 34,183, or 12 per cent., went to the Australasian colonies, and 32,025, or 11 per cent., to British North America. Nor was that year at all exceptional. The census returns of the United States in 1880 show 2,772,169 persons born in the United Kingdom; while the corresponding figures are 912,935 for all the Australasian colonies, and 470,092 for Canada; total 1,383,027, or less than half the number in the United States. The home government has taken no measures to direct emigration to the colonies, beyond establishing in 1886 an Emigrants' Information Office in London, for the collection and publication of trustworthy information. Queensland alone gives free passages. Natal and Western Australia give assisted passages to farm labourers and domestic servants. See EMIGRATION.
The tie between the mother-country and the colonies is more manifest in the case of commerce. The old practice has long ago been abandoned of compelling the colonies to trade only with the mother-country; and those of them that are selfgoverning have even been allowed to impose protective tariffs against British manufactures. But, nevertheless, the trade of Britain with her colonial possessions has maintained itself more steadily than her trade with the rest of the world. During the fourteen years from 1872 to 1886, the imports into the United Kingdom from British possessions (including India), notwithstanding the fall in value, increased from £79,372,853 to £81,884,043, while the proportion of these imports to the total imports rose from 22 to 23 per cent. . In the same period the exports to British possessions increased from £65,609,212 to £82,067,711, while their proportion to the total exports rose from 21 to 31 per cent. Taking the returns from colonial sources, 42 per cent. of the aggregate trade of all the colonies in 1886 was conducted with the mothercountry. Such, expressed in dry figures, is the meaning of the maxim that ‘trade follows the flag.' Though statistics are not so readily obtainable, there can be no doubt that the investment of British capital in the colonies, and the consequent return of interest, forms a bond of a still closer lature than the interchange of commodities. In 1886 the aggregate public debt of all the colonies song India) amounted to about 3.5 millions Sterling.
The most interesting question that remains to be considered is the political relation between the colonies and the mother-country. Not so many years ago it was tacitly assumed that the grant of Responsible government to the greater colonies implied the further concession of complete indeendence whenever the colonies should care to demand it. History seemed to afford support for no other conclusion. Quite apart from the case of the United States, it was argued that any form of Political union was impracticable between members
of a state scattered over such immense distances and with such divergent interests. Above all, it was doubted whether the slender link existing could stand the strain of a great European war. What concern has Canada with Constantinople, or Australia with Afghanistan 2. But there were always some to whom such calculations appeared to be a base abandonment of England's historic place among nations; and the colonists themselves have always professed the most perfect loyalty to the British connection, exactly in proportion as they have been intrusted with autonomy in their own local affairs. Canadian voyageurs took a prominent part in Lord Wolseley’s boat expedition up the Nile in 1884; and a battalion of 800 volunteers from New South Wales fought by the side of British soldiers round Suakin in 1885. The sense of distance has been largely obliterated by the marvellous progress of steam and electricity. The circumnavigation of the globe is now accomplished as easily and as frequently as was the grand tour in the 18th century. Many of the younger politicians make it part of their education to visit India, Australia, and Canada; the colonists, too, have ceased to be strangers in England—‘home,” as they always call it, though born thousands of leagues away. In this connection the future historian will not think it beneath his dignity to record the beneficent influence of cricket. An English team first went to Australia in 1862; while Australian elevens have played on equal terms with the best cricketers of England in every alternate year since 1878. The increase of intercourse has brought with it an increase of mutual knowledge and of mutual respect. The holding of a great exhibition of colonial and Indian produce at South Kensington in 1886, and the plan of commemorating the jubilee of the Queen by an o Institute, have given concrete expression to the feeling of solidarity that was everywhere growing. Few persons, either in England or in the colonies, would now be found to advocate the weakening, still less the severing, of the present political ties.
Wo. to the scheme known as Imperial Confederation, less agreement is to be ... It may be suspected, that many of its British supporters have been influenced chiefly by their greater dislike of separation ; while in the colonies it has nowhere been received with enthusiasm. The essence of the scheme is that the existing parliament of Great Britain and Ireland should divest itself of its sovereignty in favour of a federal council, formed by election out of all the constituent parts of the empire. To this council would be delegated the initiative in foreign affairs, the power of treaty. making, the right of declaring war, with the control of the army and mayy that necessarily follows therefrom. Putting aside the difficulties that would arise from the inequality of the colonies among themselves, it is easy to see that Britain must, for a long time to come, exercise the decisive preeminence in such a council.
In the meantime something has already been done, and more may be, to strengthen the position of the colonies in the English political system, Canada, the Australasian colonies, and the Cape, each have an agent-general resident in London, whose functions are steadily growing in dignity. It has become the custom for every new Colonii Secretary to invite the agents-general to a ceremonious reception on his appointment; they are consulted, either singly, or collectively, in all matters affecting the colonies which they represent. It is not impossible that their status may ultimately develop into something intermediate in authority and honour between the council of the India Office and the corps diplomatique. The elastic powers of the Privy-council might easily be utilised
so as to constitute them (with other representatives for the crown colonies) into a committee for the general control of colonial affairs. A still more important step forward was taken in 1887, when a conference was held in London, under the presidency of the Colonial Secretary, at which delegates specially appointed by all the colonies were present. Many of the subjects discussed were of a commercial or legal character; but a large measure of agreement was also arrived at with regard to the burning question of colonial defence. Broadly speaking, the self-governing colonies have undertaken to provide for their own defence by land by maintaining a trained force of a specisied strength ; while England will supply ships and guns for the protection of commerce and coaling stations. This agreement has been embodied, so far as the mother-country is concerned, in a statute passed in 1888. It is not to be expected that such conferences will become a permanent institution. They would form too severe a tax upon colonial politicians of the first rank. But the precedent is valuable as showing the mothercountry consulting with her daughters in a family council. Whatever may come of Colonial Confederation, British statesmanship will have ere long to face the duty of reconciling local selfgovernment with imperial unity; and the history of the Anglo-Saxon race encourages us to believe that the problem will not prove insoluble. The colonies of the chief countries will be found under GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY., SPAIN, &c. The following are some of the more important books on the subject: Heeren's Manual of the Political System of Europe and its Colonies (Eng. trans, in 2 vols. 1841); Sir G. Cornewall Lewis's Essay on the Government of Dependencies (1841); Herman Merivale's Lectures on Colonisation (1841–42; new ed. 1861); Sir C. W. Dilke's Greater Britain (1868); J. A. Doyle's The American Colonies Previous to the Declaration of Independence (1869); E. J. Payne's History of European Colonies (1877); Colonies and Dependencies, in the ‘English Citizen’ series (1883); J. R. Seeley's The Expansion of England (1885); J. A. Froude's Oceana (1886), and The English in the West Indies (1888); the various Handbooks published in connection with the Colonial and Indian Exhibition (1886); and especially the volume entitled Her Majesty's Colonies, and the annual Colonial Office List, published by Messrs Harrison & Sons. Also see the articles on the various colonies. Colophon, an Ionian city of Asia, about 9 miles N. of Ephesus, and near the sea-coast. The river Halesus, noted for the coolness of its water, flowed past it. It was the native city of Mimnermus, the elegist, and claimed to be the birthplace of Homer. In its neighbourhood was the famous oracle of Apollo Clarius. The Greek proverb, “to put the colophon to it,' meaning to terminate an affair, is ex lood by Strabo as arising from the belief that the cavalry of Colophon was so excellent that their charge always decided a battle. , Hence,
in old printed books, any device, or printer's name, or the place, and year of printing, printed at the end, was called a colophon (see BOOK). It gave its name also to colophony, a kind of black resin, for which see ROSIN. Coloquin'tida. See COLOCYNTH. Colorado (Span. for ‘red or ‘reddish'), a remarkable river of North America, formed in 39° 17' N. lat., 109° 50' W. long., by copyright iss9 in U.S. the union of the Grand and Green by J. B. Lippincott rivers. The Green River rises in Company. Wyoming, U.S., and , drains the south-west portion of that territory; it also receives affluents from
Utah and the north-west angle of the state of Colorado. The Grand River rises in Colorado, where its more common name is the Gunmison. Its main tributaries in that state are the Bunkara, or Blue, and the Dolores. Below the junction of the
Green and Grand rivers the main affluent in Utah is the San Juan, which drains an interesting region in the south-west of Colorado and the north-west of New Mexico. In Arizona the main affluents are the Colorado Chiquito or Flax River, the Bill Williams, and the Rio Gila, all from the left. The only important affluent the Colorado receives from the right is the Rio Virgen. From the junction of the Grand and Green, the general course of the stream is to the south-west, through the southern part of Utah and the north-west of Arizona; and it afterwards separates Arizona from Nevada and California. The lower part of its course is in Mexi. can territory, where it flows into the north extre. mity of the Gulf of California. The most o features of the Colorado basin are its dryness, an
the deeply channelled surface of the greater part of the country. Almost every stream and water. course, and most of all the Colorado itself, has cut its way through stratum after stratum of rock, until now it flows, in a great part of its course, at the bottom of a deep trench or Cañon.
Grand Cañon of the Colorado, looking up. (From a Photograph by E. Baer, of Prescott, Arizon")
The main stream for nearly 400 miles below the mouth of the Colorado Chiquito, thus make to way through a great plateau, forming Who". called the Grana"Cañon" of the Colorado, the most extensive and marvellous example of the kind ". where known. The casion-walls ho. upper part of the great cañon are from 4000:9 o feet in height, and are often nearly perpendie as. At some points the walls on either side rio †: from the water; at others there is a talus of fallen rock, or occasionally a strip of fertile soil, on one or both banks. This overdrained river basin."
an area of 240,000 sq. m. Its ims wo