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to the support of human life on a considerably feater scale than at present, seems to be evidenced y the presence of great numbers of abandoned and prehistoric dwellings, sometimes perched upon cliffs within some cañon, or on a high ridge or mesa, as if for protection from hostile attack. The Moqui towns in Arizona are still inhabited by interesting tribes of semi-civilised aborigines, no doubt relics of a race once very much more widely spread. The whole course of the river below the junction is about 900 miles; to its remotest sources it is 2000 miles. Navigation is possible for light-draught steamers for over 600 miles. At extreme high water, steamboats sometimes go up to the mouth of the Rio Virgen to load rock-salt. The lower portion of the river is visited at certain seasons by bores, or high tidal waves, a phenomenon to be seen in only a very few North American rivers. The non-tidal . of the river is subject to vast and frequent changes of volume, and except where confined by cañon-walls, the river channel shifts to and fro in its sandy alluvial bed to a very remarkable degree. Navigation is much impeded by rocks and sand-bars. COLORADo RIVER OF TEXAS rises by many headstreams in the south part of the Llajio Estacado, of North-west Texas. Its two main head-streams are the Concho or Salt Fork, and the Red or North Fork. The river takes a devious south-eastward course of 900 miles, and discharges its waters . two main outlets into Matagorda Bay. It is about 900 miles long, and its drainage area is put at 24,700 sq. m. Sand-bars at its mouth impede navigation. Steamboats have ascended the river as far as Austin, the capital of the state; but the stream is not much navigated. The basin of the river is in part very level, but in some parts of the course the banks are bold and bluffy. The valley of the Colorado is fairly supplied with timber, and the soil is generally fertile; }. the rains are much less abundant than in the river basins lying farther to the eastward. It is stated that this river was named Brazos by the Spanish colonists, and that the Colorado of the same settlers was what is now called the Brazos; the names having been misapplied or transposed in later times by mistake. he Colorado is the largest river wholly within the state of Texas, except only the Brazos.
Colorado, a state of the American Union, in 37’—41° N. lat., and 102°–109° W. long., traversed from north to south by ranges of copyright iss, in us. the Rocky Mountains. It takes is j. B. Lippincott its name from the river Colorado, Company. to the basin of which all the western slope of the state belongs—as the eastern to the Mississippi Valley—while part of the south is drained by the Rio Grande. The area is 103,925 sq. m., or rather more than half the extent of France; so that Colorado ranks as eighth in area among the states and territories, being surpassed by Arizona, Alaska, California, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas. The yast ranges which traverse this region have mostly an approximate north and south direction, With many deviations. The high plains and over. drained mesas to the west are not clearly marked off from the mountain-region; and much of the Western o is actually mountainous. The eastern slope, which embraces about two-fifths of the whole sole, is, apart from the foot-hills skirting the flank of the mountain-region, an open and com baratively reeless plain, with a surface singularly mond. "lous, and for the most part devoted to the Pastorage of cattle and sheep, an interest which of high importance in nearly all parts of Colorado. This level region averages 5000 feet in altitude, old its lowest point is 3000 feet above sea-level. The mountain-region contains many peaks exceeding 14,000 feet in height, the loftiest being Blanca
Peak (14,464 feet); while the summits exceeding 13,000 feet are stated to be more than one hundred in number. The mountains, notwithstanding their general parallelism, are greatly broken into short and variously named chains, there being no one ridge that can distinctly claim to rank everywhere as the main range of the system. Six passes cross mountain-ranges at points over 12,000 feet high ; the Argentine Pass is 13,000 feet in altitude. Railways are led across many of these passes, and their construction through the valleys and cañons has called for many brilliant displays of engineering skill and boldness. A marked feature of the mountain-region is presented in the parks, or rich mountain valleys, often very spacious, and generally bearing evidence of being the basins of lakes once extensive, but now nearly or quite dried up. The central mountain-region, with its parks, cañons, and hot springs, and its rich o deposits, has attracted most attention. The western part of the state is far less accessible and less developed, although its mineral wealth and the construction of railways have led to the settlement of some parts of the region. The rainfall of Colorado is small ; yet the great altitude causes a considerable local fall of rain and snow, and several important streams take their rise in the state, including several tributaries of the Colorado; the Arkansas and South-Platte, flowing to the Mississippi; and the Rio Grande, the only stream which reaches the sea under its own name. Extensive and important irrigationworks are fed by some of these streams. Colorado has a great reputation as a health-resort, especially for persons with pulmonary disease. The dryness of the air is the great factor in the recovery of consumptive patients in this region ; but some invalids only after a considerable period become so habituated to the rarefaction of lo atmosphere as not to be seriously annoyed by it. The medicinal and thermal springs of the state are numerous, and are visited by large numbers. A peculiar disease called ‘mountain fever' is endemic in some lo. attacking principally strangers from lower evels of country. Wheat, maize, barley, oats, hay, potatoes, fruits, and garden and dairy products are the staples of agriculture, which is remunerative in all sections where irrigation can be effected. Proposals have been made for a yely great extension of irrigationworks at the public expense, and engineering ex}. have reported that the scheme is entirely easible, Visitations of insect-plagues, including the well-known Colorado potato-beetle, have hitherto proved very destructive in this state; but the Rocky-mountain locust (see LOCUST), formerly a terrible enemy to the farmers, has of late years been comparatively harmless. Cattle and sheep raising are important industries; the stock in 1887 was valued at over $17,000,000. Lumber-cutting also o a number of hands, o The discovery of gold (1858) in the neighbourhood of Pike's Peak led to the first important settlements of English-speaking people in this region. The earliest discoveries were of placer. deposits; but quartz-mining soon followed, and although many of the quartz-lodes yield a highly sulphuretted material, the introduction of improved methods of treatment has finally rendered these ores, so refractory under the old processes, highly important as a source of gold. In more recent years a considerable proportion of gold has been afforded by the richly argentiferous lead-carbonate ores, for which the state is famous. . Since 1873 the silver production has far exceeded that of gold in importance. . The state ranks as the first in the United States in out-turn of silver, second or third in its gold, and first or second in the production of
the precious metals in general. In the working of the best silver ores much lead is obtained, and Colorado takes rank as the first state in leadproduction. Vast sums of money have been invested in the construction of works for hoisting and reducing the ores; and railways have been built along the mountain-cañons, generally at a very high cost, so as to make the mines accessible. Mining and smelting operations have been much facilitated by the discovery of large beds of coal, usually of good quality, though classed as a lignite. The most moderate estimates place the total outturn of gold from its discovery to the end of 1886 at about $55,000,000, and that of silver at more than $41,000,000. Iron and Bessemer steel rails are among the manufactures of the state; copper, cement, fireclay, and manganese are wrought to a greater or less extent; and there are thirty petroleum wells near Florence. History.-Not quite one-half of this region was acquired by the United States from France in the Louisiana purchase of 1804; the remainder was ceded by Mexico under the treaty of 1848, together with California and New Mexico, of which last it formed a portion. The southern part of Colorado has for many years had a small Spanishspeaking population, partially of Indian descent. Colorado was organised as a territory in 1861, and was admitted as a state in 1876. . The population is of mixed origin, but is largely deo from the older states of the Union. The distinctly American traits of enterprise and progress, shown alike in business methods and in measures for the spread of popular education, are nowhere more conspicuous than here. The principal towns are Denver, the capital, Leadville, in the carbonate-mining district of the Rocky Mountains (10,200 feet above sealevel), and Pueblo ; and there are a number of minor towns of considerable importance, most of them mining centres. Pop. of Colorado (1860) 34,277; (1870) 39,864; (1880) 194,327 ; (1885) 243,910; (1890) 412,198. Colorado Beetle (Chrysomela or Dor/phora decembineata), a North American beetle which commits fearful ravages among potatoes. First discovered near the upper Missouri in 1824 by Thomas Say, it belongs to the sub-order of Coleop. tera known as Tetramera or Cryptopentamera, and is a good type of the family §. It is an oval insect, from 9 to 11 millimetres in length, of an orange colour, with black spots and lines as seen in the figure. The antennae are clubshaped. The larvae and adults live on the potatoplant, and have sometimes (as in 1859) quite destroyed the crop in certain parts of America. They pass the winter underground, and emerge from their hiding-places in the beginning of May. The
Colorado Beetle : a, beetle, natural size; b, caterpillar; c, eggs. (From Miss Ormerod's Injurious Insects.)
female lays many hundreds of eggs in groups of twelve to twenty on the under side of potato leaves. The larvæ, which emerge in about a week, are reddish and afterwards orange. They grow up quickly and, produce a second generation, Wii. may again produce a third in the same summer. Their rate of multiplication is therefore very rapid.
The home of ". Colorado beetle is in the western states; ‘from Nebraska and Iowa it
travelled eastward, until, in 1873–76, it reached the eastern shores of America. In 1877 it was found at Liverpool in a cattle-boat from Texas.” Owin in great measure to the stringent regulations 0 an order in council, which provides that “it shall not be lawful for any person to sell, keep, or dis. tribute living specimens of the Colorado beetle in any stage,’ this pest has fortunately not succeeded in establishing itself in Britain. The surest remedy in case of attack is said to be a preparation of arsenic known as ‘Paris Green’’ or ‘Scheele's Green.’ The genus Chrysomela (‘golden beetle') to which the ği. beetle belongs, is represented by many hundred often beautifully metallic species in temperate and tropical countries. C. cerealis, sometimes injurious to grasses and cereals, 0. staphylea, C. or Lina populi, found on poplars, are common species. Colorado Springs, a popular summer-resort of Colorado, situated in the midst of beautiful scenery on the Fontaine qui Bouille Creek, 75 miles S. of Denver by rail, and about 10 miles E. of Pike's Peak. Pop. (1880) 4226; (1890) 11,140. Colossae. Colossae was a town of Asia Minor, in the southern part of the province of Phrygia, situated on the river Lycus, a tributary of the Maeander, 12 miles east of Laodicea. It is mentioned by Xenophon as ‘a populous city, prosperous and great,” but in the time of Strabo had become “a small town. It was ruined by an earthquake in 61 A. D. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 27); but it was again rebuilt, and in the middle ages was named Chonae. See COLOSSIANs. Colosse'um. See AMPHITHEATRE, Colossians, THE EPISTLE TO THE, an epistle sent from Rome by the Apostle Paul about the year 63, in charge of Tychicus, to the church founded at Colosse apparently by Epaphras, Here Archippus exercised |. ‘ministry’ (iv. 17), and Philemon, together with Apphia “the sister, was the entertainer of the to. To Philemon Paul persuaded the runaway slave Onesimus, whom he had converted to Christianity, to return. The Colossian church consisted chiefly of Gentile Christians, but was distracted by certain Judaising teachers, who laid stress on circumcision and ordinances respecting food and festivals (ii. 11 and 16), teaching a thorough-going asceticism, with angel. worship, based on theosophic speculations regarding the higher world of spirits, io may be regarded as the forerunners of the Judaising Gnostics (q.v.). To counteract these was the chief aim of the epistle (see BIBLE). Its genuineness has been contested by recent criticism. Hilgenfeld, following Baur, holds that “the Colossian #. has to do with an already fully developed Gnosticism, and this carries it not merely beyond Paul's lifetime, but beyond the first century.’ See the commentaries by Ellicott (3d ed. 1865), Bleek (edited by Nitzsch, 1865), and Klöpper (1882); also Holtzmann, Kritik der Ephestr und Kolosserbriefe (1872); and especially Lightfoot, St Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon (8th ed. 1886). Colossus, a Greek word of unknown origin, used to denote a statue of gigantic size. The colossal was a common feature of all ancient art, and in particular of Egyptian and Assyrian architecture and sculpture. e image set up by Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel, iii. 1) was of enormous |. ortions. Even Greek art, through Aristotle, aid down the principle that only the large can be noble, and carried it out in its statues ofgods and heroes. Of the many colossi of which accounts have come down to us, the most famous was the bronze colossus of Rhodes, representing Helios (the Sun), the national deity of the Rhodians, won
was reckoned among the seven wonders of the world, though it was by no means a masterpiece of Greek sculpture. It is said to have been the work of Chares of Lindus, a distinguished pupil of Lysippus, who gave twelve years to the casting, and completed his work in 280 B.C. Its height is variously given at from 90 to 120 feet. It stood near the harbour; but the legend that placed it astride the entrance is certainly apocryphal, and probably arose from a misunderstanding of the statement that it was so high that a ship might sail between its legs. Fifty-six years after its erection it was thrown down by an earthquake, and there its ruins lay, the marvel of the place, till in 653 A.D. an Arab general sold them to a Jew from Edessa for old metal. Other famous colossi of antiquity were the Chryselephantine (q.v.) statues of Athena on the Acropolis, 37 feet, and of Zeus at Olympia, 40 feet, both by Phidias; the Zeus at Tarentum, by Lysippus, 107 feet; a bronze Apollo, 66 feet, brought from Apollonia to Rome by Lucullus; and a marble statue of Nero, 131 feet, set up by the emperor before the palace, but removed by Vespasian to the Via Sacra, where Commodus afterwards superseded the head by one of himself. Colossi came in again with the Renaissance, and in later times the most noteworthy have been the S. Cluarles Borromeo (1697), on the bank of the Lago Maggiore, 72 feet; the “Bavaria’ national statue at Munich, 67 feet; the Arminius (q.v.) statue, 90 feet to the point of the upraised sword ; the Virgin of Puy, 51 feet ; the figure of Germania in , the national monument on the Niederwald, 112 feet ; and Bartholdi’s ‘Liberty enlightening the World' (1886), in New York harbour, 156 feet to the tip of the torch. There are enormous images in Japan, Polynesia, and elsewhere. See Lesbazeilles, Les Colosses Anciens et Modernes (1876); Torr, Rhodes in Ancient and Modern Times (2 vols. 1885–87).
Colostrum. See BEESTINGs.
Colour is not a material existence; it is a sensation. The colour of an object varies slightly with the brilliancy of the light emanating from it to the eye; and where the eye is abnormal, as in the ‘colour-blind,’ the apparent colours of objects may differ widely from their colour as perceived by normal eyes. Light is due to waves—or other periodic disturbances whose recurrence resembles that of waves—in the ether of space; and just as air-waves of a certain definite frequency of recurrenee will induce in the ear the sensation of a sound of a particular pitch, so will the impact of ‘ether-waves' of a certain particular frequency induce in the eye a sensation of light of a particular colour. We are experimentally acquainted with ether-waves whose frequencies range between 20,000,000,000,000 and 40,000,000,000,000,000 per second ; but the eye is blind to all except a omparatively narrow range of these—viz, Fo 392 billion to 757 billion per second. Within that §omparatively small range, however, we have a large choice of fractional and integral numbers; and each number, each frequency, has its own !olour. When we look at the spectrum or rain: bow we have marshalled before us a series of colours, of which the extreme visible red is produced by about 392 billion, the extreme visible Yiolet by about 757 billion vibrations per second. Between these the eye may rest upon certain distinctive colours, such as yellow, blue, and so on ; And the frequencies corresponding to these respective colours are, taking the centre of each distingtive, colour as displayed in the spectrum—red, 924; orange-red, 484-1 : orange, 503-3; orangeyellow, 51.1%; yellow, 517-5; green, 570; bluegreen, 5914; cyan-blue, 606; blue, 635'2; violet
blue, 685-8; puce-violet, 740:5—all in billions (1,000,000,000,000)—per second. Light due to wave-motion of one simple frequency would be ‘homogeneous” or “monochromatic light; it would produce the simplest colour-sensation ; but no such thing is experimentally attainable. The light from burning sodium is a compound of two yellow lights, very near one another in the spectrum, and corresponding to the respective wavefrequencies of 508-9 and 510-6 billions per second ; and this is the nearest attainable approximation to monochromatic light. The eye takes up, singularly enough, any congeries of several monochromatic lights impinging simultaneously upon the same spot in the retina, and the resulting sensation is always that of a single colour, not necessarily resembling any of the components. The retina is composed of numerous ultimate nerve-elements, each of which is capable of perceiving one of three physiologically primary colours. These colours are red, green, and violet (Young and Helmholtz); vermilion, emerald green, and ultramarine blue (Clerk Maxwell); or red, green, and blue (Fick). Simultaneous affection of the elements sensitive to red and of those sensitive to green produces, according to the ratio between the respective irritations, any colour of the spectrum from red through orange and yellow up to green ; similarly, green and violet lights blended in different proportions produce all the intermediate blues; and when the whole three sets of nerve-elements are irritated, the sensation is still that of a simple colour, or, it may be by due adjustment, of white light. Coloured lights may be mixed so as to show this, either by causing coloured lights from different sources to coincide in the eye or on a screen, or else, as in the colour:top, by causing ocular impressions of different colours to succeed one another in the eye with such rapidity that the eye or the brain blends them. But nearly every example of what we call coloured light is in reality an admixture of several monochromatic lights— e.g. the light passing through a Fo of green glass is composed—as will be found on trying to make a spectrum of it by means of a prism—not only of green light, but also of blue and yellow, and, often enough, of red and violet ; but the resultant sensation is that of green, a simple colour. White light is in general due to a simultaneous impact of wave-motions of all visible frequencies. But the sensation of whiteness may also be produced by the simultaneous impact on the retina of two suitable spectral colours, such as yellow and ultramarine blue; and such a pair of colours are said to be complementary to one another; other examples are red and greenish-blue, greenishyellow and violet, orange and cyan-blue (a rather greenish blue). It will be observed that it is said that yellow and ultramarine blue lights make white light, while it is well known that yellow and blue pigments make, a green pigment. The explanation of this is that the light from the o pigment is not pure ; it contains green ight : similarly that from the blue pigment contains green light; when the pigments are mixed, the eye receives a simultaneous impression of blue, yellow, and green ; but the blue and the yellow destroy one another, being, to the eye, comple. mentary colours; jointly they produce ". light; and thus the green alone remains, diluted with white. Complementary coloured lights may both or either be of any degree of complexity; if an aggregate impression of blue light and an aggregate impression of yellow be superimposed on the same part of the retina, whatever be the mode of their production, the result may be the same—an impression of white light.