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to the support of human life on a considerably | Peak (14,464 feet); while the summits exceeding greater scale than at present, seems to be evidenced 13,000 feet are stated to be more than one hundred by the presence of great numbers of abandoned and in number. The mountains, notwithstanding their prehistoric dwellings, sometimes perched upon clitt's general parallelism, are greatly broken into short within some cañon, or on a high ridge or mesa, as and variously named chains, there being no one if for protection from hostile attack. The Moqui ridge that can distinctly claim to rank everywhere towns in Arizona are still inhabited by interesting as the main range of the system. Six passes cross tribes of semi-civilised aborigines, no doubt relics mountain-ranges at points over 12,000 feet high ; of a race once very much more widely spread. The the Argentine Pass is 13,000 feet in altitude. Railwhole course of the river below the junction is ways are led across many of these passes, and their about 900 miles; to its remotest sources it is 2000 construction through the valleys and cañons has miles. Navigation is possible for light-draught called for many brilliant displays of engineering steamers for over 600 miles. At extreme high skill and boldness. A marked feature of the water, steamboats sometimes go up to the mouth of mountain-region is presented in the parks, or rich the Rio Virgen to load rock-salt. The lower por- mountain-valleys, often very spacious, and generally tion of the river is visited at certain seasons by bearing evidence of being the basins of lakes once bores, or high tidal waves, a phenomenon to be extensive, but now nearly or quite dried up. The seen in only a very few North American rivers. central mountain-region, with its parks, cañons, The non-tidal portion of the river is subject to vast and hot springs, and its rich mineral deposits, has and frequent changes of volume, and except where attracted most attention. The western part of the confined by cañon-walls, the river channel shifts to state is far less accessible and less developed, and fro in its sandy alluvial bed to a very remark- although its mineral wealth and the construction able degree.' Navigation is much impeded by rocks of railways have led to the settlement of some and sand-bars.

parts of the region. COLORADO RIVER OF TEXAS rises by many head The rainfall of Colorado is small; yet the great streams in the south part of the Llaño Estacado, of altitude causes a considerable local fall of rain and North-west Texas. Its two main head-streams snow, and several important streams take their are the Concho or Salt Fork, and the Red or rise in the state, including several tributaries of North Fork. The river takes a devious south-east the Colorado; the Arkansas and South-Platte, ward course of 900 miles, and discharges its waters flowing to the Mississippi ; and the Rio Grande, by two main outlets into Matagorda Bay. It is the only stream which reaches the sea under its about 900 miles long, and its drainage area is pụt

Extensive and important irrigationat 24,700 sq. m. Sand-bars at its mouth impede works are fed by some of these streams. Colorado navigation. Steamboats have ascended the river as has a great reputation as a lealth-resort, especially far as Austin, the capital of the state; but the for persons with pulmonary disease. The dryness stream is not much navigated. The basin of the of the air is the great factor in the recovery of river is in part very level, but in some parts of the consumptive patients in this region ; but some course tlie banks are bold and blutty: The valley invalids only after a considerable period become of the Colorado is fairly supplied with timber, and so habituated to the rarefaction of the atmosphere the soil is generally fertile ; but the rains are much as not to be seriously annoyed by it. The metliless abundant than in the river basins lying farther cinal and thermal springs of the state are numerous, to the eastward. It is stated that this river was and are visited by large numbers. A peculiar named Brazos by the Spanish colonists, and that disease called mountain fever' is endemic in some the Colorado of the same settlers was what is now places, attacking principally strangers from lower called the Brazos; the names having been mis levels of country. applied or transposed in later times by mistake. Wheat, maize, barley, oats, hay, potatoes, fruits, The Colorado is the largest river wholly within the and garden and dairy products are the staples of state of Texas, except only the Brazos.

agriculture, which is remunerative in all sections Colorado, a state of the American Union, in where irrigation can be effected. Proposals have 370-41° N. lat., and 102°— 109° W. long., traversed been made for a very great extension of irrigationfrom north to south by ranges of Copyright 1989 in U.S.

works at the public expense, and engineering exthe Rocky Mountains. It takes luy J. B. Lippincott perts have reported that the scheme is entirely its name from the river Colorado,

feasible. Visitations of insect-plagues, including to the basin of which all the western slope of the well-known Colorado . potato-beetle, have the state belongs—as the eastern to the Mississippi hitherto provedl very destructive in this state ; but valley—while part of the south is drained by the

the Rocky-mountain locust (see LOCUST), formerly Rio Grande. The area is 103,925 sq. m., or rather

a terrible enemy to the farmers, has of late years more than half the extent of France; so that Colo been comparatively harmless.

Cattle and sheep rado ranks as eighth in area anong the states and raising are important industries ; the stock in 1887 territories, being surpassed by Arizona, Alaska, was valued at over $17,000,000. Lumber-cutting California, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas. also employs a number of hands. The vast ranges which traverse this region have The discovery of gold (1858) in the neighbourmostly an approximate north and south direction, hood of Pikes Peak led to the first important with many deviations. The high plains and over

settlements of English-speaking people in this drained mesas to the west are not clearly marked region, The earliest discoveries were of placeroff from the mountain-region; and much of the deposits; but quartz-mining soon followed, and western slope is actually mountainous. The stern although many of the quartz-lodes vield a highly slope, which embraces about two-fifths of the whole sulphuretted material, the introduction of improved state, is, apart from the foot-hills skirting the tank methods of treatment has finally rendered these of the mountain-region, an open and comparatively

ores, so refractory under the old processes, highly treeless plain, with a surface singularly mono- important as a source of gold. In more recent tonous, and for the most part devoted to the years a considerable proportion of gold has been pasturage of cattle and sheep, an interest which afforded by the richly argentiferous Teadl-carbonate is of high importance in nearly all parts of Colorado. ores, for which the state is famous. . Since 1873 This level region averages 5000 feet in altitude, the silver production has far exceeded that of gold and its lowest point is 3000 feet above sen-level in importance. The state ranks as the first in the The mountain-region contains many peaks exceed- !nited States in out-turn of silver, second or third ing 14,000 feet in height, the loftiest being Blanca in its gold, and first or second in the production of

Company.

362

COLORADO BEETLE

COLOSSUS

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the precious metals in general. In the working of travelled eastward, until, in 1873–76, it reached the
the best silver ores much lead is obtained, and eastern shores of America. In 1877 it was found
Colorado takes rank as the first state in lead at Liverpool in a cattle-boat from Texas.' Owing
production. Vast sums of money have been in- in great measure to the stringent regulations of
vested in the construction of works for hoisting an order in council, which provides that 'it shall
and reducing the ores; and railways have been not be lawful for any person to sell, keep, or dis-
built along the mountain-cañons, generally at a tribute living specimens of the Colorado beetle in
very high cost, so as to make the mines accessible. any stage,' this pest has fortunately not succeeded
Mining and smelting operations have been much in establishing itself in Britain. The surest remedy
facilitated by the discovery of large beds of coal, in case of attack is said to be a preparation of
usually of good quality, though classed as a lignite. arsenic known as * Paris Green’or Scheele's
The most moderate estimates place the total out Green.'
turn of gold from its discovery to the end of 1886 at The genus Chrysomela ('golden beetle') to which
about $55,000,000, and that of silver at more than the Colorado beetle belongs, is represented by
$41,000,000. Iron and Bessemer steel rails are many hundred often beautifully metallic species
among the manufactures of the state; copper, in temperate and tropical countries. C. cerealis

, cement, fireclay, and manganese are wrought to sometimes injurious to grasses and cereals, C. a greater or less extent; and there are thirty staphylea, C. or Lina populi, found on poplars, petroleum wells near Florence.

are common species. History;—Not quite one-half of this region was Colorado Springs, a popular summer-resort acquired by the United States from France in the of Colorado, situated in the midst of beautiful Louisiana purchase of 1804 ; the remainder was scenery on the Fontaine qui Bouille Creek, 75 miles ceded by Mexico under the treaty of 1848, together S. of Denver by rail, and about 10 miles E. of Pike's with California and New Mexico, of which last Peak. Pop. (1880) 4226 ; (1890) 11,140. it formed a portion. The southern part of Colo

Colossæ. Colossae was a town of Asia Minor, rado has for many years had a small Spanish in the southern part of the province of Phrygia

, speaking population, partially of Indian descent.

situated on the river Lycus, a tributary of the Colorado was organised as a territory in 1861, and Meander, 12 miles east of Laodicea. It is mentioned was admitted as a state in 1876. The population by Xenophon as is of mixed origin, but is largely derived from the great,' but

in the time of Strabo had become a

a populous city, prosperous and older states of the Union. The distinctly American small town.' It was ruined by an earthquake in 61 traits of enterprise and progress, shown alike in business methods and in measures for the spread and in the middle ages was named Chonæ. See

A.D. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 27); but it was again rebuilt

, of popular education, are nowhere more conspicuous COLOSSIANS. than here. The principal towns are Denver, the

Colosse'um. See AMPHITHEATRE. capital, Leadville, in the carbonate-mining «listrict of the Rocky Mountains (10,200 feet above sea

Colossians, THE EPISTLE TO THE, an epistle level), and Pueblo ; and there are a number of sent from Rome by the Apostle Paul about the minor towns of considerable importance, most of year 63, in charge of Tychicus, to the church them mining centres. Pop. of Colorado (1860) founded at Colosse apparently by Epaphras. Here 34,277; (1870) 39,864; (1880) 194,327 ; (1885) Archippus exercised his ministry? (iv. 17), and 243,910; (1890) 412,198.

Philemon, together with Apphia 'the sister,' was Colorado Beetle (Chrysomela or Doryphora the entertainer of the brethren. To Philemon decemlineata), a North American beetle which

Paul persuaded the runaway

slave Onesimus, commits fearful ravages among potatoes.

First

whom he had converted to Christianity, to return. discovered near the upper Missouri in 1824.Ly Christians, but was distracted by certain Judaising

The Colossian church consisted chiefly of Gentile Thomas Say, it belongs to the sub-order of Coleop- teachers, who laid stress on circumcision and ordintera known as Tetramera or Cryptopentamera, and is a good type of the family Chrysomelidæ.

ances respecting food and festivals (ii. 11 and 16), It is an oval insect, from 9 to í millinetres in teaching a thorough-going, asceticism, with angellength, of an orange colour, with black spots and worship, based on theosophic speculations regarding lines as seen in the figure. The antenna are club.

the higher world of spirits, and may be regarded as shaped. The larvæ and adults live on the potato. To counteract these was the chief aim of the epistle

the forerunners of the Judaising Gnostics (q: v.).
plant, and have sometimes (as in 1859) quite (le-
stroyed the crop in certain parts of America. They (see BIBLE). Its genuineness has been contested
pass the winter underground, and emerge from by recent criticism. Hilgenfeld, following Baur,
their hiding-places in the beginning of May. The already fully developed Gnosticism, and this carries

it not merely beyond Paul's lifetime, but beyond
the first century." See the commentaries by Ellicott
(3d ed. 1865), Bleek (edited by Nitzsch, 1865), and
Klöpper (1882); also Holtzmann, Kritik der Epheser
und Kolosserbriefe (1872); and especially Lightfoot,
St Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon

(8th ed. 1886).
Colorado Beetle :

Colossus, a Greek word of unknown origin, a, beetle, natural size; b, caterpillar ; c, eggs.

used to denote a statue of gigantic size. The (From Miss Orierod's Injurious Insects.)

colossal was

common feature of all ancient

art, and in particular of Egyptian and Assyrian female lays many hundreds of eggs in groups architecture and sculpture. The image set up by of twelve to twenty on the under side of potato Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel, iii. 1) was of enormous leaves. The larva, which emerge in about a week, proportions. Even Greek art, through Aristotle, are reddish and afterwards orange. They grow up laid down the principle that only the large can be quickly and, produce a second generation, which noble, and carried it out in its statues of gods and may again produce a third in the same summer. heroes. Of the many colossi of which accounts Their rate of multiplication is therefore very rapidl. have come down to us, the most famous was the

The home of the Colorado beetle is in the bronze colossus of Rhodes, representing Helios (the western states; 'from Nebraska and Iowa it | Sun), the national deity of the Rhodians, which

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was reckoned among the seven wonders of the blue, 685-8; puce-violet, 740-5—all in billions
world, though it was by no means a masterpiece (1,000,000,000,000)-per second. Light due to
of Greek sculpture. It is said to have been the wave-motion of one simple frequency would be
work of Chares of Lindus, a distinguished pupil 'homogeneous' or ‘monochromatic light; it
of Lysippus, who gave twelve years to the casting, ıld produce the simplest colour-sensation ; but
and completed his work in 280 B.C. Its height no such thing is experimentally attainable. The
is variously given at from 90 to 120 feet. It light from burning sodium is a compound of two
stood near the harbour ; but the legend that yellow lights, very near one another in the spec-
placed it astride the entrance is certainly apocry. trum, and corresponding to the respective wave-
phal, and probably arose from a misunderstanding frequencies of 508:9 and 510.6 billions per second ;
of the statement that it was so high that a ship and this is the nearest attainable approximation
might sail between its legs. Fifty-six years after to monochromatic light.
its erection it was thrown down by an earthquake, The eye takes up, singularly enough, any con-
and there its ruins lay, the marvel of the place, geries of several monochromatic lights impinging
till in 653 A.D. an Arab general sold them to a simultaneously upon the same spot in the retina,
Jew from Edessa for old metal. Other famous and the resulting sensation is always that of a
colossi of antiquity were the Chryselephantine single colour, not necessarily resembling any of
(q.v.) statues of Athena on the Acropolis, 37 the components. The retina is composed of
feet, and of Zeus at Olympia, 40 feet, both by numerous ultimate nerve-elements, each of which
Phidias; the Zeus at Tarentum, by Lysippus, 107 is capable of perceiving one of three physio-
feet; a bronze Apollo, 66 feet, brought from Apol- logically primary colours. These colours are red,
lonia to Rome by Lucullus ; and a marble statue green, and violet (Young and Helmholtz); ver-
of Nero, 131 feet, set up by the emperor before milion, emerald green, and ultramarine blue
the palace, but removed by Vespasian to the Via (Clerk Maxwell); or red, green, and blue (Fick).
Sacra, where Commodus afterwards superseded the Simultaneous affection of the elements sensitive
head by one of himself. Colossi came in again to red and of those sensitive to green produces,
with the Renaissance, and in later times the most according to the ratio between the respective
noteworthy have been the S. Charles Borromeo irritations, any colour of the spectrum from red
(1697), on the bank of the Lago Maggiore, 72 through orange and yellow up to green ; similarly,
feet; the Bavaria' national statue at Munich, green and violet lights blended in different pro-
67 feet; the Arminius (9.v.) statue, 90 feet to portions produce all the intermediate blues ; and
the point of the upraised sword; the Virgin of when the whole three sets of nerve-elements are
Puy, 51 feet; the figure of Germania in the irritated, the sensation is still that of a simple
national monument on the Niederwald, 112 feet; colour, or, it may be by due adjustment, of white
and Bartholdi's 'Liberty enlightening the World' | light. Coloured lights may be mixed so as to
(1886), in New York harbour, 158 feet to the tip show this, either by causing coloured lights from
of the torch. There are enormous images in Japan, different sources to coincide in the eye or on a
Polynesia, and elsewhere. See Lesbazeilles, "Les screen, or else, as in the colour-top, by causing
Colosses Anciens et Modernes (1876); Torr, Rhodes ocular impressions of different colours to succeed
in Ancient and Modern Times (2 vols. 1885–87). one another in the eye with such rapidity that the

eye or the brain blends them. But nearly every
Colostrum. See BEESTINGS.

example of what we call coloured light is in reality
Colour is not a material existence; it is a an admixture of several monochromatic lights-
sensation. The colour of an object varies slightly e.g. the light passing through a piece of green
with the brilliancy of the light emanating from it glass is composedl--as will be found on trying to
to the eye ; and where the eye is abnornial, as in make a spectrum of it by means of a prism-not
the colour-blind,' the apparent colours of objects only of green light, but also of blue and yellow,
may differ widely from their colour as perceived | and, often enough, of red and violet ; but the re-
by normal eyes. "Light is due to waves—or other sultant sensation is that of green, a simple colour.
periodic disturbances whose recurrence resembles White light is in general due to a simultaneous
that of waves--in the ether of space; and just as impact of wave-motions of all visible frequencies.
air-waves of a certain definite frequency of recur But the sensation of whiteness may also be pro-
rence will induce in the ear the sensation of a duced by the simultaneous impact on the retina
sound of a particular pitch, so will the impact of of two suitable spectral colours, such as yellow and
ether-waves' of a certa particular frequency ultramarine blue ; and such a pair of colours are
induce in the eye a sensation of light of a par- said to be complementary to one another; other
ticular colour. We are experimentally acquainted examples are red and greenish-blue, greenish-
with ether-waves whose frequencies range be- yellow and violet, orange and cyan-blue (à rather
tween 20,000,000,000,000 and 40,000,000,000,000,000 greenislı blue). It will be observed that it is said
per second ; but the eye is blind to all except a that yellow and ultramarine blue lights make
comparatively narrow range of these—viz. from white light, while it is well known that yellow
392 billion to 757 billion per second. Within that and blue pigments make a green pigment. The
comparatively small range, however, we have a explanation of this is that the light from the
large choice of fractional and integral numbers ; yellow pigment is not pure; it contains green
and each number, each frequency, has its own light; similarly that from the blue pigment con-
colour. When we look at the spectrum or rain: tains green light; when the pigments are mixed,
bow we have marshalled before us a series of the eye receives a simultaneous impression of blue,
colours, of which the extreme visible red is pro- yellow, and green; but the blue and the yellow
duced by about 392 billion, the extreme visible destroy one another, being, to the eye, comple-
violet by about 757 billion vibrations per second. mentary colours; jointly they produce white
Retween these the eye may rest upon certain dis- light; and thus the green alone remains, diluted
tinctive colours, such as yellow, blue, and so on ;

with white. Complementary coloured lights may
and the frequencies corresponding to these respec- both or either be of any degree of complexity; if
tive colours are, taking the centre of each distinc an aggregate impression of blue light and
tive colour as displayed in the spectrum-red, aggregate impression of yellow be superimposed
492:4; orange-red, 4811 ; orange, 503-3; orange on the same part of the retina, whatever be the
yellow, 511-2; yellow, 517.5; green, 570 ; blue mode of their production, the result may be the
green, 591•; cyan-blue, 606; blue, 635-2 ; violet same--an impression of white light.

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