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COLOUR

COLOUR-BLINDNESS

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Colours vary in hue, in purity, and in luminosity. looked at by the yellow light of burning sodium
The hue, determines the name of the colour—e.g. or of a spirit-lamp with common salt in the wick,
vermilion, scarlet; the purity or absence of admix- will all appear black or colourless except those
ture with white light determines its richness-ver which are yellow. Surface-reflection modifies the
milion reflects 80 per cent. of red light mixed with result.
20 of white; the luminosity or brightness deter- Ther is one cla of cases in which colour is
mines the shade or tone of colour. Interfere with not due to absorption. A haze is blue if its
any of these and the impression produced upon the particles be fine enough : if it be composed of
eye is modified. Take for example a definite red coarse particles it at once reflects white light in
light, saturated or unadulterated with white light, all directions ; but fine particles cause repeated
such a red as may be found in the spectrum; pro- reflection, and at each reflection the reflected light
gressively lower its purity by mixing it with white becomes bluer; because those rays which would
light-it becomes brighter, but passes through light have been most refracted (the blue and violet) are
red and pink to pinkish-white tints ; lower its lum in fact most largely reflected. The colour of the
inosity by mixing with black-it passes through sky is that of a haze, reflecting light downwards ;
terra-cotta tones to brown, which is a dull red; if there were no dust-haze or water-haze above us,
interfere with both purity and luminosity by mixing the sky would be black. The light which is not
with various greys-it goes through russets and reflected from such a haze is either transmitted
maroons, the so-called tertiary colours. Any colour through it, yellower or redder in colour, or else
in nature can be matched either by a spectral it is entirely absorbed. The sun thus appears
colour or by a purple, treated in this way; and for yellower than it would do if our atmosphere did
each such modification of the original colour there not intervene. See also DICHROISM, INTERFER-
will be a different complementary.

ENCE, IRIDESCENCE, LIGHT, OPTICS, PHOSPHORThe colour of transparent objects is due to ESCENCE, PLEIOCHROISM, RAINBOW, SPECTRUM, Selective Absorption. Look at red object DYEING, and the articles on the several colours; through a suitable piece of greenish-blue glass, and for further information, consult Colour by A. and it appears black; the greenish-blue glass is H. Church (Lond. 1887), and Colour by C. T. opaque to the light proceeding from the red object. Whitmell (Cardiff : 1888). For Heraldic Colours

, Hold the same piece of glass up to the sky, and see HERALDRY; for the Ecclesiastical Colours, the red lights, which are components of the white VESTMENTS; and for Colour in Animals, PIGMENT.

Colour-blindness, a term introduced by Sir produces a sensation of greenish-blue. The red, David Brewster to denominate a defect of vision which is cut off by absorption, and the greenish- owing to which some persons are unable to dis: blue, which passes through, are complementary tinguish certain colours correctly. It is also called to one another—both being really complex, not Achromatopsia (Gr.) and Daltonism, from Dalton monochromatic. The colour of a transparent body the chemist, who suffered from the defect, and who will also apparently depend upon the thickness of

gave the first detailed description of it (1794). Of the layer examined: a thin layer of iodine-vapour this defect there are several degrees, classified as absorbs all the constituents of visible white light follows (by Holmgren of Upsala): (1) Total colourexcept blue and red ; it therefore appears in day-blindness, where there is no perception of colours as light to be purple; a thicker layer effects the com- such, but only of gradations of light and shade; plete absorption of the red but not that of the

(2) Complete partial colour-blindness, where some blue, and a thicker layer of iodine-vapour there- bright colours, different different cases, are confore appears blue. If looked at in red light, a

fused with each other, though other colours are thin layer of iodine-vapour appears red, wliile a correctly perceived ; (3) Incomplete partial colour. thick layer will present the blackness of opacity. blindness, where bright colours are recognised, but Before a non-luminous object can

be seen

more delicate shades are confused. The first form otherwise than by transmitted light it must reflect is rare, and generally, perhaps always, associated light; if it reflect none it will appear black; a with other defects in the eyes; the third is probdustless pool in a mountain-hollow, a liquid in a

ably common, though not of great importance; to deep black vessel, may reflect no light to the eye the second attention will mainly be directed here. of the observer, and will appear black. (Black is With regard to the classification of the cases of the negation of colour, because it implies that complete partial colour-blindness authorities are there is no sensation of light; gray, prodnced by not agreed; the important practical point is that mixing white and black, is white deficient in lum in the vast majority red and green are the colours inosity). Let the pool become turbid, and there confused. Some confuse a bright red with a green will be some light reflected towards the observer. that appears to a normal eye a much lighter colour; A coloured liquid in a deep black vessel will have

some with a green that appears darker. But if its colour revealed by sprinkling a white powder suitable tests be applied it will be found that they into it. White light (daylight) enters the liquid ; do not distinguish red and green as such. Experiit is reflected in all directions by the white powder; ence, however, and observation of the different but it is in part absorbed by the liquid, which apparent brightness of ordinary reds and greens, accordingly appears coloured

of precisely the enables them to distinguish between them in most same kind is the reflection of light by a solid

cases with wonderful accuracy, so that they may object. Bodies allow light to traverse them to a

remain unconscious of their defect till some strikvery small depth, and then the light is, by internal ing mistake, or the application of a systematic reflection, turned back in all directions; absorption, test, reveals it. Cases of colour-blindness for meanwhile, comes into play, and the result is that yellow and blue, if they occur at all, are extremely the object appears to have a definite colour, the

rare. Experience proves that this defect is generpurity of which is marred by surface-reflection. ally hereditary, and is quite incurable. The eyes The white light reflected from the surface of a

may be, and isnally are, perfect in every metal masks its true colour, which is brought out respect; no difference has been detected in their by repeatedl reflection.

Gold is deep orange ; structure, either during life or after death ; so the copper, scarlet ; silver, yellowish-bronze; brass, á

cause of their defective perception remains absorich golden red.

lutely unknown. If the light supplied to an object do not contain

Numerous careful and extensive researches both those

kinds of light which it can reflect, the object in various countries of Europe and in the United will appear

black or colourless ; a bunch of flowers | States have shown that this defect is present

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in about 4 per cent. of the males (or one in writings of Sir David Brewster, George Wilson,
twenty-five), and less than 0.5 per cent. of the Clerk Maxwell, &c.
females in those countries. Now red and green

Colour-printing. See LITHOGRAPHY, PRINTare the very colours which are most largely

used

ING. for the purpose of signalling both at sea and on railways; and it must be obvious that most dis

Colours, MILITARY, are the flags carried by astrous results may follow if the person whose duty certain regiments of the British army. Those of it is to distinguish them from each other is unable

the infantry were originally called ensigns, a name to do so. It is then an important practical ques- still used in the navy. In former times there was tion how the defect may best be recognised.

one for each company, but now there is, in each Authorities on the subject are agreed that any test

Battalion (9.v.), a pair of colours,' one (the which requires the naming of colours is unsatisfac- Union Jack,' on a blue ground) called the royal or tory, and that for two reasons. First, a person queen's colour, is the more important, and of the may perceive colours correctly, but may make

same pattern for all regiments; the other, or mistakes through imperfect knowledge of their regimental colour, matches the facings of the reginames ; second, a person may be colour-blind, and ment, and has in one corner the blue union, in the yet by his perceptions of different brightness in the

centre a wreath of roses, shamrocks, and thistles, tests, may name the colours correctly. The most

with the name, crest, and motto of the regiment, perfect test yet devised is known by the name of

and the campaigns in which it has taken part. its introducer, Holmgren of Upsala, and consists in The facings of all regiments having the title a number of skeins of wool of different shades.

'Royal' are blue, otherwise they are white for One of these is placed before the person to be English, yellow for Scottish, and green for Irish. tested, generally in the first instance a pale green,

The East Kent Regiment, formerly famous as the and he is asked to select from the remainder those Butis, retains the buff facings, and is the only which most resemble it. If colour-blind, he is sure

exception. English regiments have the St George's to pick out some of the confusion colours,' pale.

cross in red on their white colours. All colours grays, buffs, &c., to match the green ; and further

are made of silk, 3 feet 9 inches by 3 feet, fringed similar tests may then be applied to determine

with gold, and have crimson and gold cords and more precisely his defect. Within recent years the tassels, on a staff 8 feet 7 inches long. They are importance of this defect has been recognised by

carried on paracle by the two junior sub-lieutenants the railway companies and the Board of Trade (formerly ensigns), and guariled by two sergeants in Britain ; though the tests applied are not in

and two men, forming what is called the colour either case so satisfactory as is to be desired, Since the Franco-German war of 1870-71 it has

no longer taken into battle. as they consist in requiring the candidate to name coloured cards, lights, &c. Moreover, the been recognised that they make too conspicuous a Board of Trade examination is required only of park. The last time British colours were taken men applying for certificates as mates or masters

into the field was in the Zulu war of 1880. An of vessels; there is no compulsory examination

officer trying to save them after Isandula, was of ordinary seamen, though one of their most

drowned in the Tugela, and the colours were important duties is to keep a lookout at night for found wrapped round his body. Regiments of signal-lights, many of which are red and green. guard cavalry, have oblong standards, 30 inches This arrangement is also productive of much hardly 27, and dragoon regiments have guidons, ship to those unaware of their defect, who have 41 inches by 27, slit in the fly, with the upper spent valuable years in the drudgery of preparation and lower corners rounded off at one foot from for a calling to which colour-blindness should be an

These flags are all of crimson silk, absolute disqualification, and only find out their with gold fringe, cord, and tassels, and bear the unfitness when they should begin to reap the crest and campaigns of the regiment. The Royal reward of their labour. Further, in certain cases

Artillery, Royal Engineers, Lancers, Hussars, and colour-blindness does not prevent the granting of Rifle regiments have no colours. When a regiment a certificate by the Board of Tracle ; the fact that obtains new colours, they are usually solemnly its holuler is colour-blind is indorsed upon it, but presented by a royal personage or some ladly of he is permitted to act as master or mate notwith distinction, with much military pomp, after a standing, if he can find a shipowner to employ him. special religious service. The old colours are hung

There are difficulties in the way of substituting up in the cathedral or parish church at the terriBlue and yellow are the only others sufficiently College is ' inspector of regimental colours.' Camp definite and contrasted for the purpose

. But blue colours are small blags matching the facings of is much more quickly lost in passing through the

the regiment, to designate the part of the camp air than other colours ; and yellow is just the

it occupies. colour to which baze or distance reduces white. Colour-sergeant (so called as being a ser

Colour-blindness more or less complete may also geant who, in addition to other duties, guariled occur as the result of disease of the eyes, particn- the colours ) is the chief non-commissionel officer larly atrophy of the optic nerve and excessive use of in a ('ompany (9.1.) of British infantry. On his tobacco. See EYE (vol. iv. p. 513), and AMAUROSIS. efficiency its good order mainly depends, as he is In the former, the distance from the direct line the channel of communication between the Captain of sight at which colours can be recognised is 9.v.) and the men in almost everything. The diminished; in the latter, the colour of a small

distinctive bailge consists of crossed colours worn disc is not recognised when it is in the lirect

on the sleeve above the Chevrons (q.v.). The pay line of sight, though it may still be perceived is 3s. a day in the line, and 3s. 21. in the guards. at a little distance from it. As in the latter case,

The corresponding rank in the cavalry is troop the perception of red and green is specially affected sergeant-major (corporal of horse in the Life and its presence in engine-drivers, &c. may cause even

Horse Guarils). In the United States army each greater risk than the congenital forni of colour

battalion has a colour-guard, composed of a colourblindness. For further information, see article sergeant and seven corporals. The colour-sergeant Colonr-blindness' in Dictionary of Practical carries the national colours. Surgery (1886); Colour-blindness, its Dangers and Colquhoun, Joux, second son of Sir James Detection, by Joy Jeffries (Boston, U.S.); Dr A. Colquhoun of Luss, was born in Edinburgh, 6th Koenig in the Brit. Assoc. Report (1886); and the March 1805, studied at Edinburgh University,

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366

COLQUHOUN

COLUMBA

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served in the army 1829–34, and became a nately very little is known of the way in which he supreme authority on sport in Scotland. The effected his purpose. Bede speaks simply of his famous record of his experiences, The Moor and preaching and example.' Adamnan, extolling his Loch, published in 1840, was much extended and gift of miracles, tells how the gates of the Pictish improved in the 4th (1878) and 5th (1884) editions. king's fort near Inverness burst open at his Rocks and Rivers appeared in 1849; Salmon Casts approach, and how, as he chanted the 45th Psalm, and Stray Shots, 1858 ; and Sporting Days, 1866. his voice was preternaturally strengthened so He died at Edinburgh, 27th May 1885.

as to be heard like a thunder-peal above the Colquhoun, PATRICK, born at Dumbarton, din and clamour by which the Pictish magicians 14th March 1745, became provost of Glasgow in

tried to silence his evening prayer under the 1782, went to London in 1789, and in 1792 Became walls of the Pictish palace. We get another a police-magistrate there. He was indefatigable glimpse of his missionary footsteps from the in forwarding administrative legislation, educa- Book of Deer (q.v.), which records how Colum-cille tional and commercial reforms, wrote innumerable and Drostan, the son of Cosreg, his disciple, came pamphlets, and published two important works- from Hy, as God had shown them, to Aberdour, Police of the Metropolis (1795); and Population, in Buchan; how ‘Bede, a Pict, was then highWealth, Power, and Resources of the British Empire steward of Buchan, and gave them that town in (1814). He died 25th April 1820.

freedom for evermore ;' how they came after that

to another town, and it was pleasing to Colum-cille, Colston, EDWARD. See BRISTOL.

for that it was full of God's grace; and he asked of Colt, SAMUEL, inventor, born in Hartford, Con the high-steward Bede that he would give it to him, necticut, in 1814, ran away to sea in 1827, and but he gave it not; and, behold, a son of his took about 1832 travelled over a large part of America, an illness, and he was all but dead, and the highdelivering lectures on chemistry by which he ob- steward went to entreat the clerics that they would tained the funds required to prosecute his inven- make prayer for his son that health might come to tion. In 1835 he took out his first patent for a him; and he gave in offering to them from Clochrevolving pistol, which after the Mexican war in-Tiprat to Cloch-Pette-mic-Garnait; and they was adopted as a regular weapon for the United made the prayer, and health came to him.'. In States army, and since then has been adopted some such way as this St Columba and his disciples universally. Colt expended over $2,500,000 on an seem to have traversed the Pictish mainland, the immense armoury in Hartford, where he died 10th Western Islands, and the Orkneys, establishing January 1862, and where his widow erected a humble monasteries whose inmates ministered to handsome Episcopal church to his memory. See the religious wants of the people. The parent REVOLVER.

house of Iona exercised supremacy not only over Colt’s-foot. See TUSSILAGO.

all those monasteries, but over all the monas

teries that St Columba had built in Ireland, and Coluber, a genus of non-venomous snakes, of almost world-wide distribution. It forms a type of the northern provinces of England. Thirty-four

over those that were founded by his disciples in the family Colubridlæ, in which the common Ringed years appear to have been spent by St Columba in English Snake (Tropidlonotus natrix) is also in raising up and perfecting his ecclesiastical system cluded. The Æsculapian Snake (Coluber esculapii), in Scotland. But the labour did not so wholly so familiar from ancient times as a symbol of medicine, is the best known species. It is very common

engross him but that he found time for repeated in Italy, is the species of the Schlangenbad, and is where St Kentigern or Mungo was restoring

voyages to Ireland, and for a visit to Glasgow, widely distributed in Europe. It is of a predomin Christianity among the Welsh or British tribes of antly brown colour, attains a length of 4 or 5 feet, Cumbria and Strathclyde.

The health of St and is readily tamed. All the members of the Columba seems to have begun to fail in 593, but family are very typical, exhibiting few deviations his life was prolonged till he reached his 76th year, from the general snake structure. See SNAKE.

when he breathed his last as he knelt before the Columba, ST-called also ST COLUM-CILLE altar of his church in Iona a little after midnight, (Columba of the Churches,') and ST COLM—was between the 8th and 9th June 597. He was buried born (it is believed at Garton, County Donegal) within the precinct of his monastery, and his bones in the north of Ireland, on 7th December 521. —which were afterwards enshrined--the stone He was of high descent, his father Fedhli- pillow on which he slept, his books, his pastoral midh, of the powerful tribe of the Cinel Conaill, staff, and other things which he had loved or used, being a kinsman of several of the princes then were long held in great veneration. reigning in Ireland and in the west of Scotland ; Whether any original composition of St Columba's and his mother, Eithne, was also of royal blood. still survives is doubtful, though an Altus pub; After studying under St Finnian at Moville on lished by Dr Todd in the Liber Hymnorum, and Strangford Lough, and under another St Finniau republished by the Marquis of Bute in 1882, has at Clonard (where he had as companions St Com- been ascribed to him by unbroken tradition. Be gall, St Ciaran, and St Cainnech), he spent some this as it may, he was certainly eminent as a time near Dublin ; but in 546, when no more than transcriber. A damnan tells us that on the night twenty-five, he returned to the north and founded before his death he was engaged on a transcript Derry, and, six or seven years afterwards, Durrow, of the Psalter, and in the Annals of Clonmacnois the greatest of all his Irish inonasteries. The it is stated that he (Columba) wrote three hunbelief that he had caused the bloody battle of dred books with his own hand . . ,

which books Culdremhne in 561 led to his excommunication by have a strange property, which is that if they or an Irish ecclesiastical synod, and practically to any of them had sunk to the bottom of the deepest exile from his native land.

waters they would not lose one letter, or sign, or Setting out in 563, when in his forty-second year, character of them, which I have seen tried, partly and accompanied by twelve disciples, he found á by myself on that book of them which is at resting-place in the little island of Hy or Ioua, now Dorowe.' The two existing specimens of St better known as Iona (q.v.), or I Colum-cille, and Columba's work, both preserved at Dublin, are the having planted a monastery there, he set himself Book of Durrow just mentioned, and the Psalter to the great work of his life, the conversion of the known as the Cathac or Battler. This name it has Pictish tribes beyond the Grampians. His mis- received from the custom of bearing the relics of sionary efforts were highly successful, but unfortu- | the ancient Celtic saints into battle as sacred

COLUMBAN

COLUMBIA

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victory bringing ensigns. St Columba's crosier near the Lake of Constance, he passed into Lomwas also used in this way.

bardy, and in 612 founded the famous monastery St Columba's character was very complex, but of Bobbio, in the Apennines, where he died on marked in all things by enthusiasm and earnestness. the 21st November 615. His life, written within Warlike and aggressive by temper and descent, a century after his death, by Jonas, one of his as well as from the spirit of the times, he was successors in the abbacy of Bobbio, has been naturally more inclined to action than to melan- repeatedly printed. The writings of St Columban, choly, and yet he had a tendency to expatiate which are wholly in Latin, consist of a rule for amid visions; and though his disposition was the government of his monastery, six poems on prevailingly austere, he had frequent gleams of the vanity of life, several letters on ecclesiastical tenderness and kindness. Angelic in appear- affairs, seventeen short sermons, and a commenance,' says Adamnan, 'graceful in speech, holy in tary on the Psalms (first published at Rome work, with talents of the highest order and con in 1878). The most complete edition of liis summate prudence, he lived during thirty-four works is in Patrick Fleming's Collectanca Sacra years an island soldier. He never could spend (Augsburg, 1621 ; Louvain, 1667), followed by the the space even of one hour without study, or Bibliothecæ Patrum, and Migne's Patrologice Cursus prayer, or writing, or some other holy occupation. (1844). The town of San Colombano, in the proSo incessantly was he engaged night and day in vince of Milan, takes its name from the Irish monk, the unwearied exercises of fasting and watching, as the town and canton of St Gall (q.v.), in Switzerthat the burden of each of these austerities would land, perpetuate the name of the inost favoured of seem beyond the power of all human endurance. his disciples. See the Vita by his successor Jonas And still in all these he was beloved by all ; for a of Bobbio, Montalembert's Monks of the West, holy joy ever beaming on his face revealed the joy and Wriglit's Biographia Literaria. and gladness with which the Holy Spirit filled his

Columba'rium (Lat.), a dovecot or pigeoninmost soul. In the ecclesiastical system of St Columba as

house, which probably differed little in form from

those in modern use, but was sometimes built in that of Ireland, the church was essentially monastic with neither a territorial episcopacy nor

on a much larger scale, as we read in Varro of as

many as five thousand birds being kept in the same anything like presbyterian parity, but the same anoinalous position of the episcopal order. The

house. The same name was applied to the niches bishops were under the monastic rule, and as such chamber in which the urns (ollo) containing the

or pigeon-holes in a particular kind of sepulchral were in respect of jurisdiction subject to the

ashes of dead bodies burned were deposited. Each abbot, even though a presbyter, as the head of the

niche usually contained two urns, and the four monastery ;' but while the power usually reserved

walls of the sepulchre sometimes contained as to the episcopate was thus transferred to the abbatial office, “the episcopal orders were fully of the persons were inscribed underneath. Tombs

many as one hundred niches or more.

The names recognised as constituting a grade superior to that

of this description were chiefly used by great of the presbyters, and as carrying with them the functions of ordination and celebration of the

families for depositing the ashes of their slaves and eucharist according to the episcopal rite.

St dependants. Columba himself, as well as his followers generally

Columbia, the name of nearly thirty places in till the year 716, kept Easter on a different day,

the United States, of which the most important and shaved their heads after another fashion than are: (1) The capital of South Carolina, at the head obtained in other parts of Western Christendom.

of navigation on the Congaree River, 130 miles But with these exceptions, their creed and rites

NNW. of Charleston by rail. The town is appear to have been substantially the same.

regularly built, with several handsome streets, and The chief authority for the life of St Columba is contains a fine granite state-house ($3,000,000) the account written by St Adamnan (q.v.), who was

and other official buildings. It is the seat of a abbot of Iona from 679 to 704, and who'incorpor- Presbyterian theological seminary, and of the ated in his work an earlier life by Cuimine (abbot, university of South Carolina (1806). Pop. (1890) 657-669). Of this Dr Reeves published an edition 15,353. -(2) A borough of Lancaster county, Pennin 1857 for the Bannatyne Club, and it has since sylvania, on the Susquehanna, which is here been re-issued in the Scottish Historian' series crossed by a railway bridge, 80 miles W. of (1874). See also Smith's Life of St Columba ( Edlin. Philadelphia, with several iron-furnaces and roll1798); Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History of Irelund ing-mills

, and manufactures of machinery, flour, (1822); Father Innes's History of Scotland (Spald- | &c. Pop. (1890) 10,597.-(3) The capital of Maury ing Club, 1853); Montalembert's Monks of the county, Tennessee, on the Duck River, 45 miles West, vol. iii. ; 'Forbes's Kalendars of Scottish SSW. of Nashville by rail, with manufactures of Saints (Edin. 1872); and Skene's Celtic Scotland, ploughs, furniture, and flour. Pop. (1890), with vol. ü. (Edin. 1877).

suburbs, about 7000.-(4) The capital of Boone Columban, or COLUMBANUS, St, one of the county, Missouri, 24 miles E. of Boonville, with most learned, eloquent, and devoted of the many

manufactures of flour, tobacco, and woollens. It is missionaries whom Ireland sent forth to the Con the seat of the state university (1840), which is open tinent during the Dark Ages, was born in Leinster and fifteen professors. Pop. (1890) 3985.

to both sexes, and has some five hundred students in the year 543. Having studied under St Comgall, in the great monastery of Bangor, on the coast of Columbia, or OREGON, after the Yukon the Dowņ, he passed over to France, in his fortieth year, largest river on the west side of America, rises in accompanied by twelve companions, and founded British Columbia, on the west slope of the Rocky successively the monasteries of Anegray, Luxeuil, Mountains, near Mounts Brown and Hooker, in and Fontaine, in the Vosges country. His adher- about 50° N. lat., has a very irregular course, ence to the Irish rule for calculating Easter generally soutlı-west, through Washington, forms involved him in controversy with the French the northern boundary of Oregon for about 350 bishops in 602 ; and a few years later, the courage miles, and enters the Pacific by an estuary 35 with which he rebuked the vices of the Burgundian miles long and from 3 to 7 wide. Its estimated court, led to his expulsion, largely at the instiga- length is 1400 miles. The area drained by this tion of the notorious Brunhilda, the king's grand stream and its affluents, of which the largest

After various travels and adventures, are Clarke's Fork and the Snake River (with aid having for a year or two settled at Bregenz, 1 very remarkable cañons), has been computed at

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298,000 sq. m. The river is broken by falls and 1871 and 49,459 in 1881. The principal towns on rapids into many separate portions, and the Vancouver Ísland are Victoria, the capital (pop. ingress and egress are embarrassed by a surf 1881, 5925; 1891, 16,841), and Nanaimo (5000). On beaten bar. Still, it is open

to steamboat the mainland there are New Westminster (1891, navigation from its mouth to the Cascades (160 | 6641), formerly the capital of British Columbia, and miles), and goods are carried past the obstruction, Vancouver (1891, 13,685), the terminus of the Canfor 6 miles, by railway ; the next reach, of 50 adian Pacific Railway; The Indians of British miles, extends to Dalles, where another railway, of Columbia are as a rule law-abiding and industrious. 14 miles, has been constructed past the Great The coast Indians live largely by hunting and fishDalles channel; and immediately above this are ing, and are also employed in connection with the two sections, of 185 and 250 niles respectively, lumber industry and the salmon-canneries. navigable for small steamboats. The extraordi The province is represented in the Dominion narily abundant salmon-fisheries of the Columbia Senate by three members, and in the House of have been largely developed. There are a number Commons by six. The provincial government is of canneries, mostly near the mouth of the river, administered by a lieutenant-governor, appointed and in the fifteen years ending 1881 the annual and paid by the Dominion, and a Legislative export of canned salmon rose from 4000 to 530,000 Assembly of 27 members, elected by the inhabit

ants. Education is compulsory and free between
Columbia, BRITISH, is a province of the

the ages of seven and twelve.
Dominion of Canada, bounded in the N. by The province is not likely to become an agri-
the 60th parallel of latitude; on the s. by the cultural country, but there is a considerable area
United States; on the W. by the Pacific Ocean of land available for arable and pastoral farm-
and part of Alaska ; and on the E. by the provi- ing both on Vancouver Island and on the main
sional districts of Alberta and Athabasca (North- land in the river-valleys. On the west of the island
west Territories ). The area of the province is but little arable land is to be found. The principal
recorded as 383,300 sq. m., including Vancouver settlements are upon the east and south coasts, but
Island (14,000 sq. m.) and Queen Charlotte Islands good land is still to be found on the east coast,
(5100 sq. m.). The last named consist of a group

and also on the north. The rich valley of the
of about 150 islands, their united length being 156 lower Fraser, or New Westminster district, is the
miles, lying about 200 miles north-west of Van- largest compact agricultural area on the mainland.
couver Island. British Columbia was practically There are large tracts of alluvial soil farther
under the control of the Hudson Bay Company up the Fraser and along some of its most
until 1858, when owing to the discovery of gold, important tributaries. Of the total area (say
and the consequent immigration of miners, it was 250,000,000 acres) only about 500,000 acres are as yet
made a crown colony. Vancouver Island was occupied. The fruit-growing industry is expected
made a crown colony in 1849, and leased to the to become important, but it is still in its infancy.
Hudson Bay Company for ten years. The two The principal industries of the province are con-
colonies were united in 1866, and the province nected with the mines, the fisheries, and the forests

. joined the Canadian Confederation on 20th July The minerals form one of its chief resources. Gold, 1871.

coal, silver, iron, copper, galena, mercury, platinum,
The scenery is rugged and picturesque, being antimony, bismuth, molybdenum, plumbago, mica,
diversified with mountain, lake, and river. Be- and other minerals have been discovered in different
tween the western slopes of the Rocky Moun- parts, copper being very widely distributed. Gold
tains (highest peaks, Mount Brown, 16,000 feet, was produced in 1887 to the value of $693,709, and
and Mount Hooker, 15,700 feet) and the sea the the value of the output from 1858 to 1887 was
whole of the space is occupied to a considerable $50,983,226. The quartz-mines have hardly been
extent by spurs and outlying groups belonging touched ; all the metal hitherto secured has come
to that chain. In the immediate vicinity of the from the alluvial deposits. Coal and lignite are
coast these form a nearly continuous line of known to exist in many parts of the mainland.
mountains of moderate elevation, known as the At Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island, there is a large
Cascade Range. The territory is well watered by coal-field, and the mines are the most import-
rivers which have their origin in the highlands, ant on the Pacific coast. Over 413,000 tons were
and find their way into the Pacific Ocean. Of the raised in 1887, and 334,839 tons were exported,
rivers the most important is the Fraser, 800 miles largely to the United States. Nanaimo is con-
long, and 600 yards wide at its principal outlet nected by rail with Esquimalt, the headquarters
in the Gulf of Georgia, the arm of the sea which of the Pacific squadron, and the site of a large
separates Vancouver Island from the mainland. graving-dock. Iron is found in many localities.
Other rivers in British Columbia are the Columbia The fisheries of the province are most extensive, but
(which has only its upper portion within the pro excepting the salmon-fishery have not yet been
vince), the Stickeen, the Skeena, and the Finlay. developed. The seas, bays, gulfs, rivers, and lakes

Many varieties of climate are found in this of the province swarm with food-fishes. There are
province. That of Vancouver Island and the numerous salmon-canneries in operation. The fur-
coast of the mainland is very similar to that of sealing industry in the Pacific is also a valuable one.
the south of England. The interior of the main. But little timber has yet been cut, notwithstand.
land is divided as to climate into three zones—the ing the immense forests of magnificent trees that
south, the middle, and the north. The south lies, abound in British Columbia. The important com
for the most part, between the 49th and 51st mercial trees are the Douglas pine, Menzies fir,
parallels N. lat., and the fall of rain and snow in yellow cypress, and maple, and the shipments so
this district is slight. It contains a good deal of far have been chiefly to Australia, South America,
grass or pasturage lands, but for arable purposes the Cape, and China.
the land requires irrigation. Between 51 and 53° The value of the imports in 1887 was $3,626,139,
N. lat. is the middle zone ; it includes the high of which $793,434 came from Great Britain, and
mountains west of the Columbia, contains dense $2,059,035 from the United States. The exports
forests, and the rainfall is considerable. The north were valued at $3,371,841. To Great Britain the
zone lies between 53° and 60° N. lat.

exports were $810,977, and to the United States,
Population. In 1891 the population according $2,220,092.
to the census returns was 92,767 (includiny some Until the completion of the Canadian Pacific
30,000 Indians), it having increased from 33,586 in Railway in 1885, British Columbia was isolated

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