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Colours vary in hue, in purity, and in luminosity. looked at by the yellow light of burning sodium
ENCE, IRIDESCENCE, LIGHT, OPTICS, PHOSPHORThe colour of transparent objects is due to ESCENCE, PLEIOCHROISM, RAINBOW, SPECTRUM, Selective Absorption. Look at red object DYEING, and the articles on the several colours; through a suitable piece of greenish-blue glass, and for further information, consult Colour by A. and it appears black; the greenish-blue glass is H. Church (Lond. 1887), and Colour by C. T. opaque to the light proceeding from the red object. Whitmell (Cardiff : 1888). For Heraldic Colours
, Hold the same piece of glass up to the sky, and see HERALDRY; for the Ecclesiastical Colours, the red lights, which are components of the white VESTMENTS; and for Colour in Animals, PIGMENT.
Colour-blindness, a term introduced by Sir produces a sensation of greenish-blue. The red, David Brewster to denominate a defect of vision which is cut off by absorption, and the greenish- owing to which some persons are unable to dis: blue, which passes through, are complementary tinguish certain colours correctly. It is also called to one another—both being really complex, not Achromatopsia (Gr.) and Daltonism, from Dalton monochromatic. The colour of a transparent body the chemist, who suffered from the defect, and who will also apparently depend upon the thickness of
gave the first detailed description of it (1794). Of the layer examined: a thin layer of iodine-vapour this defect there are several degrees, classified as absorbs all the constituents of visible white light follows (by Holmgren of Upsala): (1) Total colourexcept blue and red ; it therefore appears in day-blindness, where there is no perception of colours as light to be purple; a thicker layer effects the com- such, but only of gradations of light and shade; plete absorption of the red but not that of the
(2) Complete partial colour-blindness, where some blue, and a thicker layer of iodine-vapour there- bright colours, different different cases, are confore appears blue. If looked at in red light, a
fused with each other, though other colours are thin layer of iodine-vapour appears red, wliile a correctly perceived ; (3) Incomplete partial colour. thick layer will present the blackness of opacity. blindness, where bright colours are recognised, but Before a non-luminous object can
more delicate shades are confused. The first form otherwise than by transmitted light it must reflect is rare, and generally, perhaps always, associated light; if it reflect none it will appear black; a with other defects in the eyes; the third is probdustless pool in a mountain-hollow, a liquid in a
ably common, though not of great importance; to deep black vessel, may reflect no light to the eye the second attention will mainly be directed here. of the observer, and will appear black. (Black is With regard to the classification of the cases of the negation of colour, because it implies that complete partial colour-blindness authorities are there is no sensation of light; gray, prodnced by not agreed; the important practical point is that mixing white and black, is white deficient in lum in the vast majority red and green are the colours inosity). Let the pool become turbid, and there confused. Some confuse a bright red with a green will be some light reflected towards the observer. that appears to a normal eye a much lighter colour; A coloured liquid in a deep black vessel will have
some with a green that appears darker. But if its colour revealed by sprinkling a white powder suitable tests be applied it will be found that they into it. White light (daylight) enters the liquid ; do not distinguish red and green as such. Experiit is reflected in all directions by the white powder; ence, however, and observation of the different but it is in part absorbed by the liquid, which apparent brightness of ordinary reds and greens, accordingly appears coloured
of precisely the enables them to distinguish between them in most same kind is the reflection of light by a solid
cases with wonderful accuracy, so that they may object. Bodies allow light to traverse them to a
remain unconscious of their defect till some strikvery small depth, and then the light is, by internal ing mistake, or the application of a systematic reflection, turned back in all directions; absorption, test, reveals it. Cases of colour-blindness for meanwhile, comes into play, and the result is that yellow and blue, if they occur at all, are extremely the object appears to have a definite colour, the
rare. Experience proves that this defect is generpurity of which is marred by surface-reflection. ally hereditary, and is quite incurable. The eyes The white light reflected from the surface of a
may be, and isnally are, perfect in every metal masks its true colour, which is brought out respect; no difference has been detected in their by repeatedl reflection.
Gold is deep orange ; structure, either during life or after death ; so the copper, scarlet ; silver, yellowish-bronze; brass, á
cause of their defective perception remains absorich golden red.
lutely unknown. If the light supplied to an object do not contain
Numerous careful and extensive researches both those
kinds of light which it can reflect, the object in various countries of Europe and in the United will appear
black or colourless ; a bunch of flowers | States have shown that this defect is present
in about 4 per cent. of the males (or one in writings of Sir David Brewster, George Wilson,
Colour-printing. See LITHOGRAPHY, PRINTare the very colours which are most largely
ING. for the purpose of signalling both at sea and on railways; and it must be obvious that most dis
Colours, MILITARY, are the flags carried by astrous results may follow if the person whose duty certain regiments of the British army. Those of it is to distinguish them from each other is unable
the infantry were originally called ensigns, a name to do so. It is then an important practical ques- still used in the navy. In former times there was tion how the defect may best be recognised.
one for each company, but now there is, in each Authorities on the subject are agreed that any test
Battalion (9.v.), a pair of colours,' one (the which requires the naming of colours is unsatisfac- Union Jack,' on a blue ground) called the royal or tory, and that for two reasons. First, a person queen's colour, is the more important, and of the may perceive colours correctly, but may make
same pattern for all regiments; the other, or mistakes through imperfect knowledge of their regimental colour, matches the facings of the reginames ; second, a person may be colour-blind, and ment, and has in one corner the blue union, in the yet by his perceptions of different brightness in the
centre a wreath of roses, shamrocks, and thistles, tests, may name the colours correctly. The most
with the name, crest, and motto of the regiment, perfect test yet devised is known by the name of
and the campaigns in which it has taken part. its introducer, Holmgren of Upsala, and consists in The facings of all regiments having the title a number of skeins of wool of different shades.
'Royal' are blue, otherwise they are white for One of these is placed before the person to be English, yellow for Scottish, and green for Irish. tested, generally in the first instance a pale green,
The East Kent Regiment, formerly famous as the and he is asked to select from the remainder those Butis, retains the buff facings, and is the only which most resemble it. If colour-blind, he is sure
exception. English regiments have the St George's to pick out some of the confusion colours,' pale.
cross in red on their white colours. All colours grays, buffs, &c., to match the green ; and further
are made of silk, 3 feet 9 inches by 3 feet, fringed similar tests may then be applied to determine
with gold, and have crimson and gold cords and more precisely his defect. Within recent years the tassels, on a staff 8 feet 7 inches long. They are importance of this defect has been recognised by
carried on paracle by the two junior sub-lieutenants the railway companies and the Board of Trade (formerly ensigns), and guariled by two sergeants in Britain ; though the tests applied are not in
and two men, forming what is called the colour either case so satisfactory as is to be desired, Since the Franco-German war of 1870-71 it has
no longer taken into battle. as they consist in requiring the candidate to name coloured cards, lights, &c. Moreover, the been recognised that they make too conspicuous a Board of Trade examination is required only of park. The last time British colours were taken men applying for certificates as mates or masters
into the field was in the Zulu war of 1880. An of vessels; there is no compulsory examination
officer trying to save them after Isandula, was of ordinary seamen, though one of their most
drowned in the Tugela, and the colours were important duties is to keep a lookout at night for found wrapped round his body. Regiments of signal-lights, many of which are red and green. guard cavalry, have oblong standards, 30 inches This arrangement is also productive of much hardly 27, and dragoon regiments have guidons, ship to those unaware of their defect, who have 41 inches by 27, slit in the fly, with the upper spent valuable years in the drudgery of preparation and lower corners rounded off at one foot from for a calling to which colour-blindness should be an
These flags are all of crimson silk, absolute disqualification, and only find out their with gold fringe, cord, and tassels, and bear the unfitness when they should begin to reap the crest and campaigns of the regiment. The Royal reward of their labour. Further, in certain cases
Artillery, Royal Engineers, Lancers, Hussars, and colour-blindness does not prevent the granting of Rifle regiments have no colours. When a regiment a certificate by the Board of Tracle ; the fact that obtains new colours, they are usually solemnly its holuler is colour-blind is indorsed upon it, but presented by a royal personage or some ladly of he is permitted to act as master or mate notwith distinction, with much military pomp, after a standing, if he can find a shipowner to employ him. special religious service. The old colours are hung
There are difficulties in the way of substituting up in the cathedral or parish church at the terriBlue and yellow are the only others sufficiently College is ' inspector of regimental colours.' Camp definite and contrasted for the purpose
. But blue colours are small blags matching the facings of is much more quickly lost in passing through the
the regiment, to designate the part of the camp air than other colours ; and yellow is just the
it occupies. colour to which baze or distance reduces white. Colour-sergeant (so called as being a ser
Colour-blindness more or less complete may also geant who, in addition to other duties, guariled occur as the result of disease of the eyes, particn- the colours ) is the chief non-commissionel officer larly atrophy of the optic nerve and excessive use of in a ('ompany (9.1.) of British infantry. On his tobacco. See EYE (vol. iv. p. 513), and AMAUROSIS. efficiency its good order mainly depends, as he is In the former, the distance from the direct line the channel of communication between the Captain of sight at which colours can be recognised is 9.v.) and the men in almost everything. The diminished; in the latter, the colour of a small
distinctive bailge consists of crossed colours worn disc is not recognised when it is in the lirect
on the sleeve above the Chevrons (q.v.). The pay line of sight, though it may still be perceived is 3s. a day in the line, and 3s. 21. in the guards. at a little distance from it. As in the latter case,
The corresponding rank in the cavalry is troop the perception of red and green is specially affected sergeant-major (corporal of horse in the Life and its presence in engine-drivers, &c. may cause even
Horse Guarils). In the United States army each greater risk than the congenital forni of colour
battalion has a colour-guard, composed of a colourblindness. For further information, see article sergeant and seven corporals. The colour-sergeant Colonr-blindness' in Dictionary of Practical carries the national colours. Surgery (1886); Colour-blindness, its Dangers and Colquhoun, Joux, second son of Sir James Detection, by Joy Jeffries (Boston, U.S.); Dr A. Colquhoun of Luss, was born in Edinburgh, 6th Koenig in the Brit. Assoc. Report (1886); and the March 1805, studied at Edinburgh University,
served in the army 1829–34, and became a nately very little is known of the way in which he supreme authority on sport in Scotland. The effected his purpose. Bede speaks simply of his famous record of his experiences, The Moor and preaching and example.' Adamnan, extolling his Loch, published in 1840, was much extended and gift of miracles, tells how the gates of the Pictish improved in the 4th (1878) and 5th (1884) editions. king's fort near Inverness burst open at his Rocks and Rivers appeared in 1849; Salmon Casts approach, and how, as he chanted the 45th Psalm, and Stray Shots, 1858 ; and Sporting Days, 1866. his voice was preternaturally strengthened so He died at Edinburgh, 27th May 1885.
as to be heard like a thunder-peal above the Colquhoun, PATRICK, born at Dumbarton, din and clamour by which the Pictish magicians 14th March 1745, became provost of Glasgow in
tried to silence his evening prayer under the 1782, went to London in 1789, and in 1792 Became walls of the Pictish palace. We get another a police-magistrate there. He was indefatigable glimpse of his missionary footsteps from the in forwarding administrative legislation, educa- Book of Deer (q.v.), which records how Colum-cille tional and commercial reforms, wrote innumerable and Drostan, the son of Cosreg, his disciple, came pamphlets, and published two important works- from Hy, as God had shown them, to Aberdour, Police of the Metropolis (1795); and Population, in Buchan; how ‘Bede, a Pict, was then highWealth, Power, and Resources of the British Empire steward of Buchan, and gave them that town in (1814). He died 25th April 1820.
freedom for evermore ;' how they came after that
to another town, and it was pleasing to Colum-cille, Colston, EDWARD. See BRISTOL.
for that it was full of God's grace; and he asked of Colt, SAMUEL, inventor, born in Hartford, Con the high-steward Bede that he would give it to him, necticut, in 1814, ran away to sea in 1827, and but he gave it not; and, behold, a son of his took about 1832 travelled over a large part of America, an illness, and he was all but dead, and the highdelivering lectures on chemistry by which he ob- steward went to entreat the clerics that they would tained the funds required to prosecute his inven- make prayer for his son that health might come to tion. In 1835 he took out his first patent for a him; and he gave in offering to them from Clochrevolving pistol, which after the Mexican war in-Tiprat to Cloch-Pette-mic-Garnait; and they was adopted as a regular weapon for the United made the prayer, and health came to him.'. In States army, and since then has been adopted some such way as this St Columba and his disciples universally. Colt expended over $2,500,000 on an seem to have traversed the Pictish mainland, the immense armoury in Hartford, where he died 10th Western Islands, and the Orkneys, establishing January 1862, and where his widow erected a humble monasteries whose inmates ministered to handsome Episcopal church to his memory. See the religious wants of the people. The parent REVOLVER.
house of Iona exercised supremacy not only over Colt’s-foot. See TUSSILAGO.
all those monasteries, but over all the monas
teries that St Columba had built in Ireland, and Coluber, a genus of non-venomous snakes, of almost world-wide distribution. It forms a type of the northern provinces of England. Thirty-four
over those that were founded by his disciples in the family Colubridlæ, in which the common Ringed years appear to have been spent by St Columba in English Snake (Tropidlonotus natrix) is also in raising up and perfecting his ecclesiastical system cluded. The Æsculapian Snake (Coluber esculapii), in Scotland. But the labour did not so wholly so familiar from ancient times as a symbol of medicine, is the best known species. It is very common
engross him but that he found time for repeated in Italy, is the species of the Schlangenbad, and is where St Kentigern or Mungo was restoring
voyages to Ireland, and for a visit to Glasgow, widely distributed in Europe. It is of a predomin Christianity among the Welsh or British tribes of antly brown colour, attains a length of 4 or 5 feet, Cumbria and Strathclyde.
The health of St and is readily tamed. All the members of the Columba seems to have begun to fail in 593, but family are very typical, exhibiting few deviations his life was prolonged till he reached his 76th year, from the general snake structure. See SNAKE.
when he breathed his last as he knelt before the Columba, ST-called also ST COLUM-CILLE altar of his church in Iona a little after midnight, (Columba of the Churches,') and ST COLM—was between the 8th and 9th June 597. He was buried born (it is believed at Garton, County Donegal) within the precinct of his monastery, and his bones in the north of Ireland, on 7th December 521. —which were afterwards enshrined--the stone He was of high descent, his father Fedhli- pillow on which he slept, his books, his pastoral midh, of the powerful tribe of the Cinel Conaill, staff, and other things which he had loved or used, being a kinsman of several of the princes then were long held in great veneration. reigning in Ireland and in the west of Scotland ; Whether any original composition of St Columba's and his mother, Eithne, was also of royal blood. still survives is doubtful, though an Altus pub; After studying under St Finnian at Moville on lished by Dr Todd in the Liber Hymnorum, and Strangford Lough, and under another St Finniau republished by the Marquis of Bute in 1882, has at Clonard (where he had as companions St Com- been ascribed to him by unbroken tradition. Be gall, St Ciaran, and St Cainnech), he spent some this as it may, he was certainly eminent as a time near Dublin ; but in 546, when no more than transcriber. A damnan tells us that on the night twenty-five, he returned to the north and founded before his death he was engaged on a transcript Derry, and, six or seven years afterwards, Durrow, of the Psalter, and in the Annals of Clonmacnois the greatest of all his Irish inonasteries. The it is stated that he (Columba) wrote three hunbelief that he had caused the bloody battle of dred books with his own hand . . ,
which books Culdremhne in 561 led to his excommunication by have a strange property, which is that if they or an Irish ecclesiastical synod, and practically to any of them had sunk to the bottom of the deepest exile from his native land.
waters they would not lose one letter, or sign, or Setting out in 563, when in his forty-second year, character of them, which I have seen tried, partly and accompanied by twelve disciples, he found á by myself on that book of them which is at resting-place in the little island of Hy or Ioua, now Dorowe.' The two existing specimens of St better known as Iona (q.v.), or I Colum-cille, and Columba's work, both preserved at Dublin, are the having planted a monastery there, he set himself Book of Durrow just mentioned, and the Psalter to the great work of his life, the conversion of the known as the Cathac or Battler. This name it has Pictish tribes beyond the Grampians. His mis- received from the custom of bearing the relics of sionary efforts were highly successful, but unfortu- | the ancient Celtic saints into battle as sacred
victory bringing ensigns. St Columba's crosier near the Lake of Constance, he passed into Lomwas also used in this way.
bardy, and in 612 founded the famous monastery St Columba's character was very complex, but of Bobbio, in the Apennines, where he died on marked in all things by enthusiasm and earnestness. the 21st November 615. His life, written within Warlike and aggressive by temper and descent, a century after his death, by Jonas, one of his as well as from the spirit of the times, he was successors in the abbacy of Bobbio, has been naturally more inclined to action than to melan- repeatedly printed. The writings of St Columban, choly, and yet he had a tendency to expatiate which are wholly in Latin, consist of a rule for amid visions; and though his disposition was the government of his monastery, six poems on prevailingly austere, he had frequent gleams of the vanity of life, several letters on ecclesiastical tenderness and kindness. Angelic in appear- affairs, seventeen short sermons, and a commenance,' says Adamnan, 'graceful in speech, holy in tary on the Psalms (first published at Rome work, with talents of the highest order and con in 1878). The most complete edition of liis summate prudence, he lived during thirty-four works is in Patrick Fleming's Collectanca Sacra years an island soldier. He never could spend (Augsburg, 1621 ; Louvain, 1667), followed by the the space even of one hour without study, or Bibliothecæ Patrum, and Migne's Patrologice Cursus prayer, or writing, or some other holy occupation. (1844). The town of San Colombano, in the proSo incessantly was he engaged night and day in vince of Milan, takes its name from the Irish monk, the unwearied exercises of fasting and watching, as the town and canton of St Gall (q.v.), in Switzerthat the burden of each of these austerities would land, perpetuate the name of the inost favoured of seem beyond the power of all human endurance. his disciples. See the Vita by his successor Jonas And still in all these he was beloved by all ; for a of Bobbio, Montalembert's Monks of the West, holy joy ever beaming on his face revealed the joy and Wriglit's Biographia Literaria. and gladness with which the Holy Spirit filled his
Columba'rium (Lat.), a dovecot or pigeoninmost soul. In the ecclesiastical system of St Columba as
house, which probably differed little in form from
those in modern use, but was sometimes built in that of Ireland, the church was essentially monastic with neither a territorial episcopacy nor
on a much larger scale, as we read in Varro of as
many as five thousand birds being kept in the same anything like presbyterian parity, but the same anoinalous position of the episcopal order. The
house. The same name was applied to the niches bishops were under the monastic rule, and as such chamber in which the urns (ollo) containing the
or pigeon-holes in a particular kind of sepulchral were in respect of jurisdiction subject to the
ashes of dead bodies burned were deposited. Each abbot, even though a presbyter, as the head of the
niche usually contained two urns, and the four monastery ;' but while the power usually reserved
walls of the sepulchre sometimes contained as to the episcopate was thus transferred to the abbatial office, “the episcopal orders were fully of the persons were inscribed underneath. Tombs
many as one hundred niches or more.
The names recognised as constituting a grade superior to that
of this description were chiefly used by great of the presbyters, and as carrying with them the functions of ordination and celebration of the
families for depositing the ashes of their slaves and eucharist according to the episcopal rite.
St dependants. Columba himself, as well as his followers generally
Columbia, the name of nearly thirty places in till the year 716, kept Easter on a different day,
the United States, of which the most important and shaved their heads after another fashion than are: (1) The capital of South Carolina, at the head obtained in other parts of Western Christendom.
of navigation on the Congaree River, 130 miles But with these exceptions, their creed and rites
NNW. of Charleston by rail. The town is appear to have been substantially the same.
regularly built, with several handsome streets, and The chief authority for the life of St Columba is contains a fine granite state-house ($3,000,000) the account written by St Adamnan (q.v.), who was
and other official buildings. It is the seat of a abbot of Iona from 679 to 704, and who'incorpor- Presbyterian theological seminary, and of the ated in his work an earlier life by Cuimine (abbot, university of South Carolina (1806). Pop. (1890) 657-669). Of this Dr Reeves published an edition 15,353. -(2) A borough of Lancaster county, Pennin 1857 for the Bannatyne Club, and it has since sylvania, on the Susquehanna, which is here been re-issued in the Scottish Historian' series crossed by a railway bridge, 80 miles W. of (1874). See also Smith's Life of St Columba ( Edlin. Philadelphia, with several iron-furnaces and roll1798); Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History of Irelund ing-mills
, and manufactures of machinery, flour, (1822); Father Innes's History of Scotland (Spald- | &c. Pop. (1890) 10,597.-(3) The capital of Maury ing Club, 1853); Montalembert's Monks of the county, Tennessee, on the Duck River, 45 miles West, vol. iii. ; 'Forbes's Kalendars of Scottish SSW. of Nashville by rail, with manufactures of Saints (Edin. 1872); and Skene's Celtic Scotland, ploughs, furniture, and flour. Pop. (1890), with vol. ü. (Edin. 1877).
suburbs, about 7000.-(4) The capital of Boone Columban, or COLUMBANUS, St, one of the county, Missouri, 24 miles E. of Boonville, with most learned, eloquent, and devoted of the many
manufactures of flour, tobacco, and woollens. It is missionaries whom Ireland sent forth to the Con the seat of the state university (1840), which is open tinent during the Dark Ages, was born in Leinster and fifteen professors. Pop. (1890) 3985.
to both sexes, and has some five hundred students in the year 543. Having studied under St Comgall, in the great monastery of Bangor, on the coast of Columbia, or OREGON, after the Yukon the Dowņ, he passed over to France, in his fortieth year, largest river on the west side of America, rises in accompanied by twelve companions, and founded British Columbia, on the west slope of the Rocky successively the monasteries of Anegray, Luxeuil, Mountains, near Mounts Brown and Hooker, in and Fontaine, in the Vosges country. His adher- about 50° N. lat., has a very irregular course, ence to the Irish rule for calculating Easter generally soutlı-west, through Washington, forms involved him in controversy with the French the northern boundary of Oregon for about 350 bishops in 602 ; and a few years later, the courage miles, and enters the Pacific by an estuary 35 with which he rebuked the vices of the Burgundian miles long and from 3 to 7 wide. Its estimated court, led to his expulsion, largely at the instiga- length is 1400 miles. The area drained by this tion of the notorious Brunhilda, the king's grand stream and its affluents, of which the largest
After various travels and adventures, are Clarke's Fork and the Snake River (with aid having for a year or two settled at Bregenz, 1 very remarkable cañons), has been computed at
298,000 sq. m. The river is broken by falls and 1871 and 49,459 in 1881. The principal towns on rapids into many separate portions, and the Vancouver Ísland are Victoria, the capital (pop. ingress and egress are embarrassed by a surf 1881, 5925; 1891, 16,841), and Nanaimo (5000). On beaten bar. Still, it is open
to steamboat the mainland there are New Westminster (1891, navigation from its mouth to the Cascades (160 | 6641), formerly the capital of British Columbia, and miles), and goods are carried past the obstruction, Vancouver (1891, 13,685), the terminus of the Canfor 6 miles, by railway ; the next reach, of 50 adian Pacific Railway; The Indians of British miles, extends to Dalles, where another railway, of Columbia are as a rule law-abiding and industrious. 14 miles, has been constructed past the Great The coast Indians live largely by hunting and fishDalles channel; and immediately above this are ing, and are also employed in connection with the two sections, of 185 and 250 niles respectively, lumber industry and the salmon-canneries. navigable for small steamboats. The extraordi The province is represented in the Dominion narily abundant salmon-fisheries of the Columbia Senate by three members, and in the House of have been largely developed. There are a number Commons by six. The provincial government is of canneries, mostly near the mouth of the river, administered by a lieutenant-governor, appointed and in the fifteen years ending 1881 the annual and paid by the Dominion, and a Legislative export of canned salmon rose from 4000 to 530,000 Assembly of 27 members, elected by the inhabit
ants. Education is compulsory and free between
the ages of seven and twelve.
and also on the north. The rich valley of the
. joined the Canadian Confederation on 20th July The minerals form one of its chief resources. Gold, 1871.
coal, silver, iron, copper, galena, mercury, platinum,
Many varieties of climate are found in this of the province swarm with food-fishes. There are
exports were $810,977, and to the United States,