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in slaves, ivory, and copper, with the Portuguese wings, of which the maggot is vermilion coloured, settlements on the Upper Zambesi. It was in is often very destructive to crops of barley and the Cazembé's territory that Livingstone died in spelt in Germany. The little maggots live in 1873.

families between the stalk and the sheath of the Cazorla, a town of Andalusia, Spain, 40 miles leaf, abstracting the juice of the plant.--The ENE. of Jaën. Pop. 6651.

Wheat-fly (q.v.) and the Hessian Fly (q.v.) belong
to this genus.

Some of the species of Cecidomyia
Ceano'thus. See RED Root.
Ceará, a state of Brazil, on the north coast,

deposit their eggs on the young buds of trees, which

the larvæ transform into galls. with an area of 40,240 sq. m., and about 950,000 inhabitants. The interior presents a succession of economic importance, another Cecidomyia is, on

While forms like the Hessian fly are of great wooded hills and wide plateaus; cattle-raising is

account of its extraordinary mode of reproduction, of an important industry ; cotton, coffee, and sugar are

great scientific interest. According to Wagner, the largely grown; and iron and gold are found. The female lays her eggs under tree-bark or the like ; capital, Ceará, had formerly only an open road- these develop in winter into larvæ. The larvæ, stead, but in 1888 extensive harbour improvements, still immature, become reproductive and parthenowith breakwater and viaduct, were nearing completion. It is the terminus of a railway to Baturité | the body-cavity, where the stimulus of fertilisation

genetic. The ovaries rupture, the eggs fall into (90 miles), and has a large trade. Pop. 25,000.

is somehow replaced, for the ova develop into Cebadilla. See SABADILLA.

larvae. These eat their parent larva, and after
Ce'bes, a Theban, disciple and friend of Socrates, finishing the viscera, leave the empty skin. The
and reputed author of the Pinax, or 'votive nemesis of reproduction overtakes them also, for
tablet, a philosophical dialogue, representing within them again, though likewise only larvæ, a
allegorically the temptations of this life, and fresh batch of larvæ develops in similar fashion,
teaching that True Learning can alone make for After several generations of this immature and
happiness. In spite of its pure Attic, and its truly fatal reproduction, the final set of larvæ meta-
Socratic tendency, modern criticism now assigns morphose in summer into sexual winged insects.
the work to the 2d century A. D. It was extremely See REPRODUCTION.
popular in the middle ages, a sort of ‘Pilgrim's

Progress ' indeed ; and was translated into all the
languages of Europe, as well as Arabic, which

Cecilia, St, the patroness of music, especially latter version, made possibly in the 9th century, is church music, is said to have suffered martyrdom our sole record of the close of the dialogue. See in 230 A.D. Her heathen parents belonged to a Jerram's Cebetis Tabula (Oxf. Clar. Press, 1878).

noble Roman family, and betrothed their daughter, Cebu, or ZEBU, is one of the Philippine Islands youth named Valerian, who also was soon con

already a secret convert to Christianity, to a heathen (q.v.), the seventh in respect of area.

verted, and ere long suffered martyrdom together Ce'bus (Gr., 'an ape' or 'monkey'), a genus of with his brother Tiberius. Cecilia, when comSouth American monkeys, characterised by a round | manded to sacrifice to idols, firmly refused, and head and short muzzle, a facial angle of about 60°, was condemned to death. She was first thrown long thumbs, and a long prehensile tail entirely into a boiling bath, from which she emerged unhurt; covered with hair. The body is covered with short, next the executioner struck three blows upon her thick hair. Their voice is soft and pitiful. The neck with a sword, then fled in horror. Three species are numerous, all of very lively disposition days later his victim died of her wounds, and and gregarious arboreal habits, living in trees. received the martyr's crown.

She was buried by They feed chiefly on fruits, but also on insects, Pope Urban in the catacombs of Callistus. As worms, and molluscs. Various species are often early as the 5th century, there is mention of a seen in zoological gardens and menageries. They church dedicated to St Cecilia at Rome; and in are included under the popular designation Sapajou 821, by order of the Pope Paschal, her bones in its wider sense, and some of them are the were deposited there. St Cecilia is regarded as monkeys to which this name is sometimes more the inventor of the organ, and in the Roman strictly appropriated. The names Sajou and Sai Catholic Church her festival-day, November 22, is or Cai are also given to some of them, and some celebrated with splendid_music.

Some of our are called Capuchin (q.v.) Monkeys. One of the greatest poets, as Chaucer, Dryden, and Pope, have most common species in Guiana is the Weeper laid poetic tributes on the shrine of St Cecilia—the Monkey, or Weeper Sapajou (C. apella). Some of greatest is Dryden's splendid ode. The most the species are adorned with beards. The term famous paintings of St Cecilia are those of Cebidæ is often used as a family designation for Raphael at Bologna, Carlo Dolce in the Dresden all the broad-nosed New World Monkeys (Platyr. Gallery, Domenichino in the Louvre, and Rubens rhini) with prehensile tails, in contrast to the in the Berlin Museum.- Another St Cecilia was Pithecidæ, in which the tail is not so adapted. born in Africa, and suffered martyrdom by starvaIn this family are included the Howling Monkeys tion under Diocletian. Her festival falls on the (Mycetes), the Spider Monkeys (Ateles), and 11th of February. other genera. See MONKEYS.

Cecro'pia, a genus of Artocarpaceæ.

C. Cecidomy'ia (Gr. kekidion, 'a gall-nut,' and peltata, the Trumpet-tree of the West Indies and myia, a fly or gnat’), a genus of dipterous (two- | South America, has a hollow stem and branches, winged) insects in the Tipularia (gnat and mosquito) division. They have beautiful, delicate, nodes. The branches, these partitions being, redowny wings, which have three nervures, and are moved, are made into water-pipes and windhorizontal when at rest; antennæ as long as the instruments

. The wood is very light, and is used body, with bead-like joints, and whorls of hairs at to make floats for nets, and by the Indians in the joints ; long legs, and the first joint of the kindling fires by friction against à harder piece of tarsi very short. The species are numerous ; nearly wood. The bast yields à cordage fibre, and the thirty in Britain, and sixty in Europe. All are of outer bark is astringent, the fruit resembles a rasp. smalì size, but some of them are very important on berry, the buds furnish a potherb, while the juice account of the ravages which their minute maggots hardens into caoutchouc. "The leaves and fruit are effect in grain-crops. C. cerealis, sometimes called largely consumed by sloths. The hollow stem is the Barley Midge, a brownish-red fly with silvery largely inhabited by ants.

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Cecrops, a Pelasgic hero, the first king of liform appearance in graduated stages from base to Attica, sometimes represented as half man and summit of the tree. The leaves are about an inch half dragon. He divided Attica into twelve com long, arranged in clusters, persistent for about two munities, founded Athens, the citadel of which, years, at first bright green, but changing with age at first called Cecropia, commemorated his name, to a deeper tint, with a glaucous hue, which in instituted marriage and the worship of the gods, some individual trees increases to an almost silvery and introduced agriculture, navigation, and commerce. Late writers explained Cecrops as the leader of a colony from Sais in Egypt.

Cedar, or CEDAR OF LEBANON, a tree much celebrated from the most ancient times for its beauty, its magnificence, and its longevity, as well as for the excellence and durability of its timber. It is often mentioned in Scripture ; it supplied the woodwork of Solomon's temple, and in the poetry of the Old Testament it is frequent emblem of prosperity, strength, and stability. It belongs to the natural order Conifera, and is the Pinus Cedrus of the older botanists; but is now ranked in the genus Cedrus under the name of C. Libani, in reference to its best-known habitat, Mount Lebanon. It is found, however, on other mountains of Syria and Asia Minor, and also in Cyprus.

of the celebrated Cedars of Lebanon only a few now remain. Situated at the head of the Kedisha Valley at 6314 feet elevation, they consist of a grove

Branch of Cedar of Lebanon. of trees, 377 in number in 1875, five only being of

whiteness that gives to them a strikingly venerable aspect. The cones are erect on the upper sides of the branches, from 3 to 5 inches long and 2 to 24 inches broad, blunt at both ends. They require two years to reach maturity, and do not, as in the case of other allied conifers, drop from the branches, but when ripe the scales only along with the seeds drop to the ground, and leave the axis of the cone attached to the branch.

The timber of the Lebanon cedar enjoyed a high reputation for durability in ancient times, which, however, is hardly supported by modern experience. The wood of trees that have been grown in Britain and other parts of Europe has proved light, soft, brittle, liable to warp, and far from durable, probably owing to the immaturity of these comparatively young, though well-developed, samples, and also perhaps to climatic influence. The superior quality of the timber of the Lebanon trees is attested by Sir Joseph Hooker, who visited the famous cedar grove in 1860.

The secretions of the cedar of Lebanon have long been celebrated for remarkable properties. The whitish resin (Cedria) which it exudes, it is said the Egyptians used in embalming their dead. Ancient writings were kept in cabinets or boxes of cedar-wood, but it would appear to be rather dangerous to commit modern printed documents to

such repositories. Mr Smee, in My Garden, says : Cedars of Lebanon.

« The wood of the cedar contains a volatile essential

oil, which has the curious property of unsettling gigantic size, measuring 30 feet round. In age printers' ink and making it run. they may vary from 50 or 80 to 800 or 1000 years; à Bank of England note was offered to the cashier but as they have long ceased to add regularly yearly with its printing disturbed. Inquiry was set on concentric rings of wood to their trunks, there are

foot, and it was traced to several individuals, who no reliable data by which to estimate the age of satisfactorily explained its custody and possession. the few patriarchal cedars that yet remain on the It was then brought to me, when I suggested that Lebanon. Arabs of all creeds have a traditional the detectives should inquire whether it had been veneration for these trees; and Maronites, Greeks, kept in a cedar box; it was then discovered that and Armenians annually celebrate mass the last possessor had kept it in a new cedar box homely altar of stone at their feet.

which she had recently bought, and thus the The general aspect of the cedar is distinct and mystery was solved.' In very ancient times, cedarmajestic in fully developed trees. The trunk is oil, a kind of turpentine, was prepared from the massive, but attains only a moderate height–50 to wood, and was spread on books in order to their 80 feet-much branched; the branches assume the better preservation. The branches of the cedar, proportions of timber, are horizontal, and spreading like those of the larch in warm countries, exude a usually so as to exceed the total height. They sweet substance, which is known by the name of are arranged in apparent whorls, or stages, and the Cedar Manna. branchlets springing from them in a flat fan-like The botanist Belon brought a Lebanon cedar fashion in great profusion and density impart a tabu- with him to France in 1549 : when it was intro


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duced into Britain is not exactly known. The dis Cedar Creek is a river of Virginia, U.S.,
tinction of introducing it is ascribed with most which gives name to a battle fought 19th October
evidence of accuracy to Evelyn, who in his Sylva 1862, when the Federals under Sheridan defeated
(published 1664) mentions having received cones the Confederates under Early.
and seeds from the mountains of Libanus,' while
describing the beauties of the tree and speaking of

Cedar Rapids, a town of Linn county, Iowa,

on the Red Cedar River, 79 miles SW. of Dubuque. its probable adaptability to the English climate. Aiton in Hortus Kewensis makes 1683 the date large flour-mills, carriage and machine works, and

It is an important railway centre, and has several of planting the celebrated Chelsea cedars, which breweries. Pop. (1860) 1830; (1890) 18,020. are assumed by some to have been the first trees planted in England. There are many fine speci.

Cedilla (Sp., Fr. cédille, It. zediglia; from inens of the Lebanon cedar in different parts of zeta, the Greek name for z, because it has taken Britain, notably at Sion House, Goodwood, and

the place of z in such words as leczon, mod. leçon, Enfield' in England, and at Hopetoun, Dalkeith, French, where it is desired to give e the sound of

a mark placed under the letter c (5), especially in and Beaufort in Scotland. The Deodar, or Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus Deo

s before the vowels a, 0, U. dara), a tree held in great veneration by the Cedrate. See CITRON. Hindus, and of which the name is properly Deva Cedrelaceæ, a sub-order of Meliaceæ (q.v.), dara (divine tree'), is common in the Himalaya all tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs, with pinmountains at elevations of 7000 to 12,000 feet, nate leaves, mostly valuable for their timber—e.g. forming magnificent forests, and attaining a great mahogany, satin-wood, toon, Barbadoes cedar, the size, a height sometimes of 150 feet, with a trunk yellow-wood of New South Wales, &c. The barks 30 feet or more in circumference, an ample head, of some species are febrifugal. See MAHOGANY, and spreading branches. It and the cedar of CEDAR (BARBADOES), &c. Algiers (C. Atlantica or Africana), found in the mountainous regions of the north of Africa, are

Cefalù, a town of Sicily, on the north coast, but sub-species or varieties of the Cedrus Libani. foot of a lofty promontory (1235 feet), with old

40 miles ESE. of Palermo. It is situated at the The wood of the deodar is resinous, fragrant, com

Greek and Saracenic remains. It has a cathedral, pact, and very durable. It is susceptible of a high polish, and in its polished state has been marble-quarrying and fishing.

a port, and 12,714 inhabitants, chiefly engaged in compared to brown agate. Owing to the abundance of resin, laths of it burn like candles. Its turpen

Ceglie, a town in Southern Italy, 21 miles NE. tine is very fluid, and although coarse, is much

of Taranto. It has a trade in grain, oil, and fruit. used in India for medical purposes; and tar and Pop. 13,865. pitch are obtained from the trunk. The deodar Ceiling (Fr. ciel ; Lat. colun, 'heaven'). This has now become very common as an ornamental term seems to have been suggested by the use of tree in Britain, although few specimens have yet arched coverings for churches, and even for rooms, attained a very considerable size. —The name which prevailed in the middle ages, and were cedar is often given to other coniferous trees frequently painted blue and decorated with stars. besides the true cedars. Thus, the Siberian Stone Arched ceilings among the Romans were known Pine, or Cembra Pine, is called the Siberian Cedar by the name of camere, and were formed by semi(see PINE), and a species of fir (Abies religiosa) is circular beams of wood, at small distances from the Red Cedar of California (see FIR). A pecies each other, over which was placed a coating of of Cypress (q.v.) is known as White Cedar, and lath and plaster. But the ceilings most commonly another as the Cedar of Goa. Several of the trees in use amongst the Romans were flat, the beams, which bear the name cedar are species of Juniper as in modern times, having been at first visible, (9.v.), among which are the Virginian Cedar, or and afterwards covered with planks and plaster

. Red Cedar of North America, and the Bermuda Sometimes hollow spaces were left between the Cedar-which yield the cedar-wood used for pencils beams, which were frequently covered with gold -the Spanish Cedar of the south of Europe, &c. and ivory, or paintings or pateræ?-large flowers The name cedar is even given to trees which have such, for instance, as are used in the panels of no resemblance to the true cedars except in the the vault of the Pantheon. The oldest flat resinous quality of the wood ; thus the Cedar-wood ceiling in existence is believed to be that of Peter. of Guiana is produced by Icica altissima, a tree of borough Cathedral. Like that at St Albans Abbey, the natural order Amyridaceae (q.v.); the cedar of it is made of wood. Ceilings of churches in the the West Indies (see next article) belongs to the middle ages were generally painted and gilded natural order Cedrelaceae ; and the name Bastard in the most brilliant manner , and many existing Cedar is given in India to a tree of the natural order ceilings still exhibit the traces of early decoration Byttneriaceae (q.v.).

of this kind. In French churches the ceilings are Cedar, BARBADOES, is strictly speaking Juni- generally vaulted, but in England they are more perus barbadensis ; but a more important tree is usually of wood. The older ceilings generally that called Bastard Barbadoes Cedar (Cedrela follow the line of the timbers of the roof, which, odorata), a tree of the order Cedrelaceæ (q.v.). in the Early English and Decorated, are often Its wood has an agreeable fragrance, and being arranged so as to give the shape of a barrel vault

. soft and light, it is used for canoes and for shingles.

In ceilings of this description there seldom are Havannah cigar-boxes are very generally made of

many ribs, often only a single one along the top. it, and in France it is used in making black-lead

In the Perpendicular style, the ceiling often conpencils.

sists of a series of flat surfaces or cants, formed on Cedar-bergen, à mountain-range in Cape

the timbers of the roof. Though sometimes altoof Olifant River Valley, in Clanwilliam division, square"panels, with Bosses (q. v.) or flowers at the Colony, stretches north and south on the east side gether destitute of ornament, they are more freand has plantations of Cape cedar (Widdringtonia intersections. juniperoides), which are now, however, being fast formed in imitation of stone-groining, with ribs destroyed.

This is the only locality where this and bosses, examples of which will be found at species is found. Sneeuwkop (6335 feet) is the York, Winchester, and Lincoln. highest point of the range.

bethan age ceilings were generally of plaster, but Cedar Bird. See WAXWING.

they were ornamented with ribs having bosses or

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small pendants at the intersections. It is not lated ranunculaceous plant, which grows in abundunusual for the ceiling immediately over the altar, ant patches in fields and coppices, and brightens or the roodloft, to be richly ornamented, whilst the them in early spring with its plentiful golden rest is plain. See RooF.

flowers. Its tuberous roots and swollen separable Celakovsky,(1)FRANZ LADISLAUS, Bohemian buds give it additional botanical interest, while it poet, born in Strakonitz, 7th March 1799, died at is also noteworthy that these results of peculiarly Prague, professor of Slav Philosophy, 5th August vegetative habit are associated with a frequent 1852. His principal works are Echoes of Russian imperfect maturity of the pollen. See REPROand Bohemian Folk-songs (1833–40), and a cycle of

DUCTION love-songs and didactic and political poems (1840). Celano, LAKE OF. See FUCINO, LAKE OF. He also translated the works of Herder, Goethe, Celastracea. See SPINDLE-TREE. and Scott.—(2) LADISLAUS, botanist, born in Prague, 29th November 1834, was appointed pro

Celaya, a town in the Mexican state of Guanafessor of Botany there in 1880. Besides several juato, on the Rio Laja, about 150 miles by rail monographs on particular genera, he has published Nw of the city of Mexico, has several fine plazas, a general book on the Bohemian flora (3 parts, and woollen cloths and saddlery. Pop: (1877),

handsome churches, and manufactures of cotton 1887–75) and an elucidation of the Darwinian theory with district, 28,336. The burning of its bull-ring;

Cel'andine is the popular name (and corrup-
tion) of Chelidonium majus, a perennial papavera- life.

on Easter Sunday 1888, caused considerable loss of

Celebes (in England usually pronounced Ce'lebes), the third largest and the central island of the Eastern Archipelago, from 1° 45' N. to 5° 37' S. lat., and from 118° 49' to 125° 5' E. long. ; about 800 miles long by 200 broad; total area estimated at 76,260 sq. m. It is practically a Dutch possession, though there are numerous small native states. In configuration, it consists of a central nucleus whence radiate four long mountainous limbs, respectively E., NE., SE., and S., inclosing the three gulfs of Gorontalo, running in nearly 200 miles, Tolo 150 miles, and Boni about 200 miles. The gulfs, as also the north and west coasts, are studded with islands, rocks and shoals, and larger outlying islands. Of the central nucleus and the two inner limbs little is known. The east end of the eastern peninsula (north end of island), Minahassa district, is subject to earthquakes, and

contains ll volcanoes, some of them active, such Celandine (Chelidonium majus) :

as Mount Sapoetan (5938 feet), and, farther east, a, a flower,

Mount Klabat (6559 feet), which has now, however,

long been quiescent, besides numerous hot springs ceous herb, which, although not uncommon in and sulphur lakes. The mountains of the south Britain, is doubtfully indigenous. Its pretty foliage peninsula, essentially a limestone formation, seldom

and umbels of rise above 2000 feet. In the extreme south, how.
small yellow ever, are Maros (4225 feet) and Bonthain (9994 feet).
flowers, which The uplands of the south peninsula are well wooded,
bloom from but its vegetation is much less luxuriant than that
May to August, of the east peninsula. Between the hills and coast
might alone of the soutli peninsula are extensive grassy plains,
attract atten- affording pasture for large herds of cattle, and for
tion, but its the horses for which the district is famous.
ancient repute Celebes is rich in lakes, among them, Passo, in
among herbal- | the central nucleus, 35 miles by 25 miles, and Ton-
ists is due to its dano, nearly 2000 feet above the sea.

There are
yellow milky numerous streams, but Celebes, no part of which is
juice, which is more than 50 miles from the sea, offers no space
very acrid and for the formation of large rivers.

The Sadang,
poisonous. Ex- rising near lake Passo, flows due south for nearly
ternally it was 120 miles.
applied to warts Thanks to the elevation of the land and its sea-

and ulcers, and exposure, Celebes enjoys a comparatively cool and
Lesser Celandine

internally ad-healthy climate. The vegetation includes rice, (Ranunculus Ficaria).

ministered, it maize, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, areca, betel,

supposed pepper, clove and nutmeg growing wild; the tree to be a specific for jaundice, apparently on no yielding macassar oil, oak, teak, cedar, ebony, better warrant, however, than that drawn from sandalwood, bamboos; also the pas. Minahassa, its colour by the doctrine of signatures.' Its old the most highly cultivated district, 60 by 20 miles, English name Swallow-wort, which appears to be has coffee plantations, producing coffee of a realmost a translation of the botanical one, seems markably fine flavour, entirely in the hands of the founded on a supposed association between the government, and where alone the culture system? beginning and ending of its flowering time and has been applied in its integrity since 1822. Many the arrival and departure of the swallows.-It is, animals, birds, and insects are wholly peculiar to however, the LESSER CELANDINE which is more

Celebes-a tailless baboon, two kinds of cuscus, the familiar to general readers, at least since Words- babiroussa, and Sapi-utan, three kinds of starlings, worth devoted no fewer than three poems to its two magpies, &c. Gold is obtained from surface honour. This is Ranunculus Ficaria, also known washings, principally in Minahassa and Gorontalo as the common fig-wort or pile-wort, a quite unre districts; iron in the districts bordering the Gulf

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of Tolo. Salt is also abundant. Tin and copper speaking parts.

She retired from the stage in 1874, are likewise worked.

and died at Paris, 12th February 1882. In 1883 the pop. of Celebes with adjacent islands Celestine, a mineral bearing the same relation was given as 926,132, inclusive of 6949 Chinese and to Strontia (9.v.) that heavy spar bears to baryta. 2110 Europeans, but probably exclusive of the pop. It is essentially sulphate of strontia, SrOSO3, with of the two inner peninsulas. The Bugis (see BONI) occasional admixture of sulphate of baryta, carand Mangkassars of the south peninsula, tall, bonate of lime, oxide of iron, &c., in small proshapely, and comparatively fair, are the dominant portions. It much resembles heavy spar, but is not native race, much disposed to trading and seafaring. quite equal to it in specific gravity ; is usually blue, The Alfuros, a collective name for the other often of a very beautiful indigo-blue; sometimes native tribes, are at a very low grade of culture. colourless, more rarely reddish or yellowish. Its Celebes was first visited in 1525 by a Portuguese crystallisation is rhombic, like that of heavy spar. expedition from the Moluccas. In 1607 the Dutch Most beautiful specimens of crystallised celestine began to trade with Celebes, and now claim the

are found in Sicily. Celestine" derives its name whole island, which they have divided into the from its colour. It is the source from which nitrate residencies of Macassar and Menado, a third divi

of strontia, 'employed in the manufacture of firesion round the north and west of the Gulf of Tolo works, is derived. being included in the residence of the Ternate.

Celestine was the name of five popes, the first The total value of the exports in 1884 was £600,000,

of whom filled St Peter's chair in. 222-432 (see of which coffee formed nearly a half; and the im

The women of

POPE). ports in the same year, £465,714.

The most notable was the Neapolitan Celebes weave the sarang, or national garment, severities was much against his will elected

Peter di Morrone, who after a long life of ascetic which, together with variegated mats, is largely Celestine V. in 1294, when he was nearly eighty

pope exported. A ‘high-road’skirts the coast of the soutí

years of age. He resigned his office after five peninsula from Mandale, 30 miles N. of Macassar,

months—the great refusal,' for making which he to Balang-Nifra, on the Gulf of Boni; elsewhere are only ordinary roads and footpaths. The chief imprisoned by his successor, Boniface VIII., and

is placed by Dante at the entrance of hell. He was town iš Macassar, with a sea-frontage of nearly. 25 died in 1296. He was founder of the Celestines, miles. Menado, the capital of Minahassa district,

and was canonised in 1313. and seat of a Dutch resident, is described as the prettiest settlement in the whole of the Dutch East Celestines, an order of hermits of St Damianus, Indies, and has a pop. of 2500. See Lahure, L'ile founded by Peter di Morrone about 1254, and colide Célèbes (Paris, 1879).

firmed as a monkish order by Urban IV. in 1264 Celery (Apium), a widely distributed genus of selves Celestines when their founder ascended the

and by Gregory X. in 1274. They called themUmbelliferæ. The common celery (A. graveolens) papal chair. They follow the rule of St Benedict, is found wild in Britain and most parts of Europe, in ditches, brooks, &c., especially near the sea and lary, and live a purely contemplative life. In the

wear a white garment with black hood and scapuin saline soils, and is acrid and uneatable. In cultivation, however, abundant nutrition has greatly through France, Italy, and Germany, but subsc

13th and 14th centuries the order spread rapidly mollified its properties, and two principal forms quently decayed, and is now almost extinct. The have arisen-one in which an abundant develop- French Celestines were secularised by order of Pope ment of parenchyma has taken place in the leaf

Pius VI. in 1776-78; so also were the Neapolitan stalks; the other in which it affects the root--while

Celestines. these again possess their sub-varieties. The former sort is the common celery of British gardens, where

Celibacy (from ccelebs, “unmarried'), a state the familiar long blanched succulent stalks are

opposed to the first and strongest natural law (Gen. produced by transplanting the seedlings into richly garded in certain religious systems as a condition

i. 28), has from a variety of causes come to be remanured trenches, which are filled up as the plants of the most sublime self-sacrifice. The perpetual grow, and finally raised into ridges over which little celibacy of the priests of Isis, and the chastity more than the tops of the leaves appear; and a supply is thus insured throughout the whole nowhere was this sentiment so strongly and widely

of the vestal virgins, are familiar instances. But winter. The other form is the turnip-rooted manifested as among the millions devoted to celery, or celeriac, and is now largely cultivated on the Continent. Both forms are eaten uncooked philosophers and the natural tendency of mystics

the religion of Buddha. The theories of oriental alone, or in salads, or in soups, or as a boiled or stewed vegetable, and are pleasant and wholesome,

did not fail to influence the early Christian churches, although when used too freely or frequently they and led before long to the doctrine that virginity is are diuretic and aphrodisiac. Some authorities

a state in itself more excellent and more holy than identify celery, instead of the closely related Parsley Roman Church at least, imposed celibacy upon all

the married life, and to the discipline which, in the Isthmian and other games were crowned, and of priests and sacred ministers. The Old Testament which the Greeks were also wont to twine their

is remarkably free from any tendency to exalt sepulchral garlands.

celibacy above matrimony.

But although texts

may be quoted on either side, the germs of the Celeste, MADAME, dancer, was born in Paris doctrine in question may be discovered in the New 6th August 1814 (by her own account), more prob. Testament. St Paul affirms it to be good for & ably three or four years earlier. A pupil at the man not to touch a woman,' and wishes that all Conservatoire, she early showed remarkable talent. men were celibate like himself (1 Cor. vii. 1, 7). She made her debut in 1827 at New York, and dur- Christ himself speaks mysterious words in coming her residence in America married one Elliott, mendation of those who have made themselves who died early. At Liverpool in 1830 she played eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake; and Fenella in Masaniello; in 1831-33 she became the Lamb is followed on Mount Zion by 144,000 extremely popular in London. Her second visit to virgins, 'first-fruits unto God and unto the Lamb' America (1834-37) is said to have brought her (Rev. xiv. 1-5). £40,000.

After her return she took part succes The apostolic writings, however, while they sug; sively in the management of the Theatre Royal, gest the excellence of virginity in general, supply Liverpool, and the Adelphi and Lyceum in London. no ground for the law of clerical celibacy. In the Her imperfect English long confined her to non first epistle to Timothy, the deacon as well as

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