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were free from the disease which it seems feeds the all his plays it was the last to be banished from the lower slopes of Parnassus with poisonous air. No stage. So late as 1842 Macready revived it (modithree writers were ever more generally beloved- fied of course) at Drury Lane, and this was followed none were ever beloved more deservedly than these. by still later revivals, the last of all being a version And even Wycherley—he whose literary sins were of the play in three acts, compressed by Mr John the most grievous of all-was, on account of his fine Hollingshead at the Gaiety Theatre in November social qualities, called “Manly Wycherley.' That 1871, with Miss Cavendish in Angelica and Miss a corrupt court should have spoiled such men as Farren in Prue, In Love for Love culminated the these is, among all the heavy impeachments of the prose comedy of England. Abundant and brilliant Restoration, the heaviest.
as is the wit, the coruscations do not, as in ConCongreve's freedom from the fussy egotism of greve's other plays, outdazzle the sweeter and the literator served him in good stead in regard softer light of the humour. The characterisato the Old Bachelor. Dryden, while declaring that tion is true, true under the conditions which, he never saw such a first play in his life,' hinted as he himself admirably said in his letter to at the same time that a great deal of skilful Dennis, the comedian must always work under. manipulation was required before it could be safely The distance of the stage,' says he, 'requires the placed upon the boards. And he and Southerne figure represented to be something better than the and Maynwaring, who set about manipulating it, life; and, sure, a picture may have features larger seem to have had from Congreve carte blanche to do in proportion and yet be very like the original. If with it as they liked. The brilliant success of the this exactness of quantity were to be observed in Old Bachelor-a play whose merits were of entirely wit, as some would have it in humour, what would a literary kind—is evidence of the enormous change become of those characters that are designed for that has come over play-goers since those days. men of wit? I believe, if a poet should steal a diaCongreve's second comedy, the Double Dealer, which logue of any length from the extempore discourse appeared in the November of 1693, was more firmly of the two wittiest men upon earth, he would find knit, and in every way stronger than the old the scene but coldly received by the town.' Bachelor, but the satire on the morals of the time Some of the characterisation, such as that of —especially on the meanness and heartless treachery Angelica, is really beautiful, while some, like that in sexual relations which had become the fashion of of Sir Sampson Legend, in its genial breadth passes the court, was administered in too serious a temper from the comedy of artifice into absolute comedy, to please an audience composed largely of the very and is almost Shakespearian. In 1697 Congreve's people satirised. The empty-headed beaux and one tragedy, the Mourning Bride, appeared. The callous women who went to the theatre went there honours it received in the last century were as to be amused, not to be sermonised. But besides excessive as the contempt it has met with in this. this repellent quality, the play suffered from a want No doubt it is full of improbabilities, but it shows of dramatic illusion greater in a certain sense than a considerable power of invention of melodramatic even the Old Bachelor had displayed. An audience | if not of tragic incident. The purely theatric and can scarcely be interested in the doings of a villain scenic qualities of the second act are of a most who every few minutes comes to the footlights in original, if not of high order, and with the scenic order to assure them what a consummate villain he appliances of our own day might be made theatricis, and on what admirable psychological principles allyeffective. Of course, however, it is coldhis creator has fashioned him, nor yet in a hero cold as those monumental caves of death which who lets a villain do what he will in order that the shot a chillness' to the “trembling hearts of Drs dramatist's plot may be conveniently worked out. Johnson and Blackmore—and nothing could really In stage-craft Congreve was always weaker than warm it. Vanbrugh and Wycherley, but the weakness made Between the date of the Mourning Bridle and itself specially conspicuous here.
that of Congreve's last comedy, the Way of the It was to this play that was prefixed Dryden's World, he was busily occupied, in company with famous verses ‘To my dear friend, Mr Congreve,' several others, in the famous Jeremy Collier converses whose generosity passes into pathos. Con- troversy, defending the morality of the new stage. grere's next publication was the Mourning, Muse The great mistake of Congreve's life was this of Alexis, a poetic dialogne upon the subject of of defending his plays on moral grounds. To let Queen Mary's death, as full of artificial conceits as well alone' is wise : to let ill alone is perhaps wiser his novel. Love for Love, the finest prose comedy still. Of all sins, that of producing harmful literain the English language, finished in 1694, was pro; ture is the blackest. It is the peculiar glory of duced at the theatre in Little Lincolns Inn Fields' letters that stronger than king or kaiser is who in 1695. It has an abandonment of humour, an writes strongly. It is so to-day : it was so when irresistible rush of sparkling merriment, such as the warrior kings of Nineveh went out to reap Congreve's previous plays had not promised. In glory-i.e., to slay and flay—in order to furnish judging of its qualities we must not forget that the scribe with subjects-in order that the scribe in comedy as in tragedy-in prose as in verse- should, in bas-relief and cuneiform character, nothing is really informed by artistic vitality record their doings. Hence, in the truest and which lacks the rhythmic rush born of creative deepest sense, to write is, as Bishop Butler has said, enjoyment. To him who is really and truly organ- to act; and if, as he declares, 'endeavouring to force ised to write, whether in verse or in prose, there is upon our minds a practical sense of virtue, or to always in the genuine exercise of his faculty a sense beget in others that practical sense of it which a of sport as delightful as it is deep, an exhilaration man really has himself, is a virtuous act,' what, that cannot be simulated and that cannot be sup- on the other hand, was the act of him who wrote plied to the nervous system of the true writing man certain scenes in the Double Dealer and Love for by any other stimulant. Not all the Paradis arti- | Love? ficiels summoned up by the genii of Opium, Hash- And yet even this new stage was not without ish, or Alcohol, can compete with the true paradise one saving grace till Congreve defended it; it had which the Genius of the Inkhorn throws open to the a frankness in sin : that was something at least. born literator when the impulse is really upon him. Its place was not alongside those filthy French And as surely as the hilarity of artistic creation is fictions of our own time which, while pandering seen in Aristophanes, in Lucian, in Rabelais, in to the bestial side of man, set up an impudent Shakespeare, in Swift, in Dickens, is it seen in pretence of doing so for the good of his soul. But Congreve's Love for Love. No wonder then that of Congreve in his lame defence condescended to
the part of the hypocrite-condescended to exploit geographical distribution and strongly marked Aristotle's paradox about comedy being an imita- family and generic differences being in this way tion of bad characters-an imitation with an ethi- explained-i.e. when we regard the existing forms cal end; as if such comedy as his had anything as the survivors of a larger and once predominant to do with ethical ends! Notwithstanding the coniferous flora, which has been in good part disconventional tags at the end of Congreve's plays placed by the more recent and higher monocotyle-tags which had no serious meaning, and were donous and dicotyledonous (angiospermous) forms. meant to have none—the Seventh Hell' of the About 300 species, included in about 33 genera, Hypocrite could never claim the author of Love now remain. Leaving the questions of floral mor
for Love until he set about defending that play. phology and minute structure which separate the Better to leave ill alone, we say.
conifers (along with Cycads and Gnetace) from Congreve's last play, the Way of the World, was the remaining phanerogams or 'angiosperms' to produced in 1700. ^ Though quite as full of intellec- the article GYMNOSPERMS, it may be most profittual brilliance as Love for Love, and evidently able here to make a rapid survey of the most importwritten with more care, not to say labour, it lacks ant groups of the order, with their principal types. the humorous impulse which we have seen in Con- Various systems of classification have been progreve's masterpiece. The glitter is that of icicles pounded; an old and widely adopted one recognises in the sunlight. The wit of the dialogue is not three sub-orders, the pines (Abietineæ), cypresses sufficiently held in hand to work out the characters (Cupressineze), and yews (Taxineæ). Since, howand the plot. In a word, it comes more completely ever, the first two of these are much less widely than does any other of Congreve's plays within the separated from each other than from the third, scope of the Duke of Buckinghamshire's strictures later systematists are returning to the classification upon the comedy of repartee :
of Lindley, and regard these as making up a single
sub-order (Pinoideve) equivalent to the yew (TaxoAnother fault, which often does befal,
ideze). On account of the exceptional importance Is when the wit of some great poet shall So overflow, that is, be none at all,
of this order, alike in forestry and horticulture, That ev'n his fools speak sense, as if
a brief enumeration of the families of these sub. And each by inspiration breaks his jest,
orders, with mention of their most important species, If once the justness of each part be lost, Well may we laugh, but at the poet's cost.
may now be given.
Commencing with the Abietineæ division of This play was received with comparative coldness,
Pinoideæ, find three families, the pines and Congreve wrote no more for the stage ; but he proper (Abietinæ), Araucarias (Araucariince), and lived till January 1729. Socially his life was one Taxodiums (Taxodiince). The genus Abies (inunbroken success. Physical suffering he had, but cluding Picea), consists of evergreen trees, or most of it was the result perhaps of his own youth- sometimes shrubs, in which the linear and always ful indiscretions. Kneller's portrait shows him to more or less completely needle-shaped leaves arise have been a handsome man with dark eyes. His singly, and are never clustered in branchlets, while career shows him to have been a man of fine genius the scales of the cones are not thickened at the tip. who, smitten with the English canker of rank- The list may be headed by the Spruce Fir, or Norworship, succeeded in half-misprising his endow- way Spruce (A. excelsa), one of our commonest ments and living and dying genteel. He amassed trees, while A. Douglasii, A. nobilis, and other a fortune, and left it not to his greatest friend Californian species are of special beauty as trees Mrs Bracegirdle, a woman of genius, of surpassing and value as timber, with other species too numerbeauty, and most lovable nature, who had sacri- ous to mention. The old Linnean genus Pinus ficed everything for him, but to the Duchess of (from which the firs, larches, and cedars have been Marlborough, who, after his death, had a waxen separated off as Abies, Larix, and Cedrus respectstatue of him made—a statue which sat at her ively) still includes about 100 species, easily distable in his very clothes, and nodded mechanically tinguished from Abies by the grouping of the over the dinner at Her Grace's smallest joke, even leaves upon arrested branchlets, the thickening as he had used to nod in the flesh. Socially, we of the tips of the cone-scales, and other characters. say his life was one unbroken success; and in his Among the more important species, P. sylvestris death he and gentility were not divided.
(the Scotch fir), P. austriaca (the Austrian pine), P. Congreve, SIR WILLIAM, inventor of the Laricio (the Corsican pine), P. Pinaster (the cluster Congreve rocket, was born 20th May 1772, the
pine), and P. Pinea (the stone pine of southern eldest son of William Congreve, Comptroller of the
Europe), may be first mentioned, alike on account Royal Laboratory at Woolwich, created a baronet
of their frequency of occurrence in forests and Academy at Woolwich, and in 1808, after a long large and chiefly Californian series agrees in having in 1812. Young Congreve passed through the Royal plantations in Europe, and as agreeing in having
usually only two leaves on each branchlet. A series of experiments, contrived the Congreve rocket. It was tried in the Basque roads in 1809,
three leaves on each sheath. Of these, P. insignis and at Leipzig in 1813, scarcely with the success (the Oregon : that was expected. Honours were heaped on
mentioned ; finally a series, usually Congreve; he was elected F.R.S., and returned to
five-leaved, includes the Weymouth Pine and White parliament in 1812. Two years later he succeeded
Pine of North-east America (P. Strobus), the to the baronetey and his father's place. He died
Siberian Stone Pine (P. Cembra), &c. Of the allied at Toulouse, 16th May 1828. See ROCKET.
genus Larix (see LARCH) only L. europæa (deci. stands in a fruitful district, 48 miles SW. of Turin importance. The Araucariinæ are familiarly reConi, or Cuneo, capital of an Italian province
, co need here be mentioned, while of Cedrus (see by rail. It has a fine cathedral, lately restored. It was once strongly fortified, and a place of great presented by the A. imbricata of Chili, so common strategic importance. Its chief manufactures are
in suburban gardens (see ARAUCARIA), and other silk, cotton, and paper. Pop. (1881) 12,413.
more graceful but usually less hardy species; as
also by the important Kauri pine and other species Conic Sections. See CONE, CIRCLE, ELLIPSE, of Dammara. “See DAMMAR. PARABOLA, and HYPERBOLA.
The Taxodiinæ include a number of very importConiferae. This important and interesting ant trees, notably the curious umbrella pine (Sciadorder of dicotyledons attained its maximum import- opitys) of Japan, Cunninghamia sinensis of China, ance during past geological periods; its world-wide and the colossal Sequoia (Wellingtonia gigantea)
of California, with its allied species (see SEQUOIA). | The character referred to is too external and adapIn addition to these we may mention also the tive to be of much importance, and the term is too Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica, the Vir- wide in its application to be of much use. It is ginian Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum).
better disused. Among the Cupressineæ we have first the
Coniston Grits and Flags, a series of silicypresses proper, which includes besides the well
ceous sandstones, grits, flags, and conglomerates, known genus Cupressus (see CYPRESS) the closely belonging to the Silurian system of Cumberland, allied Retinospora of Japan. Juniperus (see JUNI- &c. They take their name from Coniston in LancaPER) alone forms another sub-family; while Thuja shire, and attain a maximum thickness of probably (see ARBOR VITÆ) with its immediate allies Thu
not less than 7000 feet. They are characterised jopsis and Libocedrus constitute a third; and the finer grained beds (flags) especially—by the Callitris with Actinostrobus and Fitzroya make
presence of many species of graptolites and other up the fourth.
fossils. They are believed to be on
the same Passing now to the sub-order of yews (Taxoideae) geological horizon as the Denbighshire grits and we have again two main divisions, the yews proper flags of Wales. See SILURIAN SYSTEM. or Taxeæ, and the Podocarpex. Among the latter we shall only mention the oriental genus Podo.
Coniston Lake, in the English Lake District, carpus, and the beautiful Dacrydium cupressinum lies in North Lancashire, at the east foot of the of New Zealand; but the former are of much
Coniston Fells, 9 miles W. of Bowness on Windergreater variety and importance (see YEW). Besides
mere, and 10 by rail NNE. of Foxfield Junction. the species of Taxus, we have especially the Chinese
It is 5 miles long, į mile broad, 147 feet above the
Its waters and Japanese Cephalotaxus, the curious Ginkgo sea, and its greatest depth is 260 feet. (Salisburia) adiantifolia of the same region, to abound with trout and perch. On the east shore gether with the Chinese and Californian species of stand Ruskin's home, Brantwood, and Tent House, Torreya.
once Tennyson's residence. The Old Man of ConisIn addition to the general article GYMNOSPERMS,
ton, to the north-west, is 2633 feet high. and to those devoted to particular genera or species
Conium. See HEMLOCK. of conifers, the reader should especially consult Conjugal Rights. See MARRIAGE. Engler's Pflanzenfamilien, both for a full summary
Conjugation, a term in Grammar applied to of our present knowledge and copious references.
a connected view or statement of the inflectional For the purposes of the English horticulturist changes of form that a verb undergoes in its Veitch's Manual of Conifere is most exhaustive,
various relations. See the articles GRAMMAR and while Gordon's Pinetum, and Hemsley's Handbook
INFLECTION. of Hardy Trees, &c. (Lond. 1877), will be found of service to the amateur.
Conjugation of Cells, a mode of reproduc
tion in which two apparently similar cells unite, as Conington, John, a great classical scholar, in Ameba, Diatoms, Spirogyra, &c. See Alga, was born at Boston, i0th August 1825.
DESMIDS, DIATOMS, and REPRODUCTION. educated at Beverley, and for five years at Rugby, obtained a demyship at Magdalen College, Oxford, Aspects (q.v.) of the planets.
Conjunction, Astronomy, is one of the
Two heavenly bodies in 1843, and next year carried off, in the same term,
are in conjunction when they have the same longi. the Hertford and Ireland scholarships. In 1846 he tude-that is, when the same perpendicular to the betook himself to University College, where he was
ecliptic passes through both. If they have, at the elected to a fellowship two years later. Other
same time, the same latitude—that is, if they are distinctions he won were the chancellor's prize for both equally far north or south of the ecliptic-they Latin verse, for an English essay, and for a Latin
appear from the earth to be in the same spot of the essay. Determining not to take orders, he tried heavens, and to cover one another. The sun and the study of law, but soon abandoned it in disgust.
moon are in conjunction at the period of new moon. In 1854" he was appointed to the newly-founded' | In the case of the inferior planets Mercury and chair of Latin Language and Literature at Oxford, Venus, there is an inferior conjunction when the which he filled until lis untimely death at his planet is between the earth and the sun, and a native place, October 23, 1869. The impulse that superior when the sun is between the earth and the Conington's lofty and contagious enthusiasm gave planet. In general, a heavenly body is in conjuncto classical scholarship and real culture in England tion with the sun when it is on the same side of the was far more considerable than anything he was
earth, and in a line with him; and it is in opposiable to effect in the way of performance. His
tion to the sun when it is on the opposite side of unique personality and the singular charm of his
the earth, the earth being in a line between it and simple but serious nature made a profound and
Planets are invisible when in conjunction permanent impression upon his friends and pupils. with the sun, except in rare cases when an inferior His greatest work is his edition of Virgil (3 vols. planet passes over the sun's disc, and may be seen 1861-68), with its singularly subtle and suggestive essays. "His edition of the Agamemnon (1848) and geocentric or heliocentric, according as they are
as a speck on his surface. Conjunctions are either Choephori (1857) of Æschylus are of less moment,
actually witnessed from the earth, or as they would though indeed the latter is admirable. In his last be witnessed if observed from the sun. In observ. years he gave himself much to translation, the ing a conjunction from the earth's surface it is results of which were his metrical version of the usual to reduce the observation to what it would be Odes of Horace (1863); the Æneid (1866), in
if made from the earth's centre; by this means Scott's ballad-metre; the Iliad (1868), in the
the exact times of conjunction are more accurately Spenserian stanza; and the Satires anı Epistles of fixed, and the observations of one astronomer made Horace (1869), in the couplet of Pope. Of these available to every other, wherever he may be on the the last is without doubt the most valuable. His earth's surface. Grand conjunctions are those where edition of Persius was published in 1872, and in the several stars or planets are found together. Chinese same year his Miscellaneous Writings (2 vols.), with history records one in the reign of the Emperor a short Life by Professor H. J. S. Smith.
Tehuen-biu (2514-2436 B.C.), which astronomers Conirostres, a term often applied to a section calculate to have actually taken place. of Passerine birds, characterised by a strong conical Conjuring, as understood at the present day, beak. It includes numerous families, and such signifies the production of effects apparently types as weaver-birds, finches, sparrows, and larks. I miraculous by natural means.
The art of producing apparently supernatural sarcastically terms it. The new style took with phenomena las been cultivated from remote an- the public, and by degrees Robert Houdin's contiquity. The earlier professors of the art claimed temporaries found themselves compelled to follow bona-fide supernatural powers; and in ages when his example. the most elementary principles of physical science To Robert Houdin belongs the credit of devising were unknown beyond a very limited circle, it was some of the best-known and most ingenious pieces not diflicult to gain credence for such a pretension. of magical apparatus, as also that of the applicaThe modern conjurer makes no such claim, but | tion of electro-magnetism, then little understood, tells the public frankly that his marvels are illusory, to the production of magical effects. The welland rest either on personal dexterity or on some known magic drum, that beats without visible ingenious application of natural principles. Of the drumsticks, the magic clock and bell, and the conjurers of remote antiquity we have few reliable chest, light or heavy at command, are all fruits of records; though it is a tolerably safe conjecture his inventive genius. that the prestige of the ancient mysteries rested in The most modern school of conjurers, following no small degree upon effects of natural magic. It the lead of Wiljalba Frikell, and at present repremay also be gathered that the conjurers of old were sented by Hartz, Hermann, Buatier de Kolta, Ver. familiar with certain forms of optical illusion, inbeck, Lynn, Bertram, &c., generally aim at prowhich the use of plane and concave mirrors, and a ducing their magical results with the minimum of partial anticipation of the principle of the magic- visible apparatus. There are, however, signs of a lantern, played prominent parts.
Chaucer men- reaction in favour of more spectacular illusions, tions illusions of his own day of which the above such as those of Messrs Maskelyne and Cooke, in seems the most probable solution. In the accounts which the resources of optical and acoustic, as well of very early writers, however, large deductions as mechanical science, are laid wder contribution must be made for the comparative ignorance of the in aid of conjuring proper. See the articles MAGIC observer, and the desire, common to all narrators and JUGGLERS. of extraordinary occurrences, to make the marvel For practical information as to the methods of conjurers, as marvellous as possible. Perhaps the earliest see Hoffmann's Modern Magic (6th ed. 1886) and More really, trustworthy authority is Reginald Scot, Magic (1889);, Sleight of Hand, by Edwin Sachs (22 who in his Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584) has ed. 1885); Robert Houdin's Secrets de la Prestidigita. enumerated the stock feats of the conjurers of his tion et de la Magie (1868; reprinted in 1878 under the day. The list includes swallowing a knife; burn
title of Comment on devient Sorcier) and Magie et ing a card and reproducing it from the pocket Physique Amusante (1877); and an anonymous work, of a spectator; passing a coin from one pocket
Recueil de Tours de Physique Amusante ( published by De
La Rue of Paris). The three last-named works have been to another; converting money into counters, or
translated into English by Hoffmann, under the titles of counters into money ; conveying money into the
The Secrets of Conjuring and Magic, The Secrets of Slavje hand of another person ; making a coin pass Conjuring, and Drawiny-room Conjuring respectively. through a table, or vanish from a handkerchief ; Conkling, Roscoe, American politician, born tying a knot, and indoing it by the power of words;' taking beads from a string, the ends of admitted to the bar in 1850, sat in congress as a
in Albany, New York, 30th October 1829, was which are held fast by another person ; making Republican in 1858-62 and 1864-66, and was elected corn to pass from one box to another; turning
to the United States senate in 1867, 1873, and 1879. wheat into flour by the power of words ;' burning a
He was now an influential member of his party ; in thread and making it whole again ; pulling ribbons
1876 he received ninety-three votes for the presidenfrom the mouth; thrusting a knife into the head
tial nomination, and, in 1880, by his support of or arm ; putting a ring through the cheek; and
Grant, and his personal opposition to Blaine, divided cutting off a person's head and restoring it to its
the Republicans into two sections. In 1881 he and former position. Strange to say, many of these feats, which were doubtless already old in the time
bis colleague suddenly resigned from the senate, of Scot, are still performed, with more or less varia. owing to a dispute with President Garfield on a tion of detail, by conjurers at the present day.
question of patronage, and sought re-election ; but The conjurers of Scot's time, and even of much vigorously supported' by Vice-president Arthur,
after a warm canvass, both were rejected, though later date, were accustomed, in order to facilitate Conkling afterwards practised law in New York the substitutions on which a great part of their city. He died 18th April 1888. tricks depended, to wear an apron with pockets, known (from its resemblance to a game-bag ) as the
Conn, LOUGH, a picturesque Irish lake in the gibécière. A later school suppressed this tell-tale north of County Mayo, together with Lough Cullin article of costume, and used instead a table, with (from which it is separated by a narrow neck of
It lies in a cover reaching nearly or quite to the ground.' This land), 13 miles long, and 1 to 3 broad. table concealed an assistant, who worked most of
wild romantic region of hills, glens, rocky slopes, the required transformations, &c., either handing precipices, broken ground, and bogs, contains many the needful articles to the conjurer as he passed islets, and has bold shores. behind the table, or pushing them up through traps including about 23 species, all tropical, of which
Connara'ceæ, a sub-order of Terebinthacer, in the table-top. Conus the elder, a French conjurer who flourished at the close of the 18th cen- the most important is Omphalobium Lamberti of tury, made a further improvement by discarding the Guiana, the source of the zebra-wood of cabinetconcealed assistant, and using an undraped table makers. with a secret shelf (now known as the servante) Connaught, the most westerly and the smallest, behind it, on which his substitutions were made. both in extent and population, of the four provinces His immediate competitors did not follow his of Ireland. It is bounded N. and W. by the example, a whole generation of later conjurers, Atlantic; E. by Ulster and Leinster, from the including Comte, Bosco, and Philippe, retaining latter of which it is separated by the Shannon ; the suggestive draped table. Its death-blow, how and S. by Munster. It contains the counties of ever, was struck by Robert Houdin (1805-71), with Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon, and Sligo. whom about 1844 a new era began. His miniature Greatest length from north to south, 105 miles ; theatre in the Palais Royal was remarkable for the greatest breadth, not including Achil Island, 92 elegant simplicity of its stage arrangements, and in miles. Area, 6863 sq. m.
The west coast has particular for the complete suppression of the boîte many fine bays and harbours, and the surface, à compère (“wooden confederate), as Robert Houdin especially in the western half, is mountainous and