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CONNECTICUT

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rugged, forming remarkably grand and picturesque and seal fisheries having declined. Oyster-fishing
scenery. The people are still almost purely Celtic. is engaged in largely and very systematically, as
In ancient times the O'Connors were kings of Con is the taking of fish for oil and fish-guano. The
naught. In 1590 the province was divided by the manufactures of Connecticut are carried on upon
English into six counties, its present five, with a very extensive scale, and are of exceedingly
Clare, afterwards joined to Munster. In 1874 the varied character; and notwithstanding its small
title Duke of Connaught was conferred on Prince area, the state stands in the first rank as
Arthur, third son of Queen Victoria. The terri- spects the amount and aggregate value of manu-
torial regiment, the Connaught Rangers, once the factured goods. Clocks, hardware, india-rubber
88th foot, now comprises the old 88th and 94th goods, firearms, silks and other textiles, and small-
regiments (with four battalions of militia). Pop. wares in great variety, are produced on a large
(1841) 1,420,705; (1851) 1,015,479 ;, (1861) 919,135 ; scale. Life, fire, and accident insurance, and the
(1881 | 817,197 ; (1891) 723,573, a decrease due to publication of subscription books, receive great
famine and emigration.

attention. The state is well supplied with railways.
Connecticut (kon-net-e-cut), one of the six | In very few parts of the world has more been done
New England states of the American Union, is for popular education than in this state. Private,
bounded N. by Massachusetts, E. Copyright 1889 in U.S.

denominational, and parochial schools of every
by Rhode Island, S. by Long by J. B. Lippincott grade supplement the work of this public school
Island Sound, W. by the state of

system. The latter dates from 1644. Yale Uni.
New York. It is the smallest in area of all the versity at New Haven comprises collegiate and
states, excepting Rhode Island and Delaware ; but post-graduate courses, besides medical, theological,
tliere were in 1880 ten states smaller in population scientific, law, and art schools, and takes a very
than Connecticut. Its area is 4845 sq. m., or nearly high place among the seats of learning in the
two-thirds that of Wales. It is one of the most country. Mention should be made of Trinity
densely peopled states of the Union. A great College, Hartford, and of the Wesleyan University
part of the surface is rocky and uneven, and the at Middletown. There are also divinity schools
Green and Taconic Mountains of the Appalachian at Hartford (Congregationalist) and Middletown
system occupy a considerable part of the western (Episcopalian). The state supports a full comple-
extremity of the state ; but the mountains here ment of institutions for correction and charity:
are all insignificant in respect of height. Much of Among the principal cities and towns are Hartford
the surface is not easily cultivated, and rather (the capital), New Haven, Bridgeport, Waterbury,
unfertile ; but a considerable part of the valley of Meriden, Norwich, Norwalk, New Britain, Dan-
the Connecticut River is very productive, tobacco bury, Derby, Stamford, and New London.
being a leading product of this section. Hay,

The old stock of inhabitants were of English
potatoes

, maize, oats, and rye are the principal Puritan origin, but of later years there has been crops. Grazing and milk faris, orchards and a large immigration of Irish, German, English, market-gardens, are profitably sustained in all and others. The colony of Connecticut may be parts of the state.

said to date from 1634, when the movement The Connecticut River, which, rising in New began in which Hartford, Wethersfield, and Hampshire, forms the boundary between that state Windsor were settled by persons removing from and Vermont, and flows south through Massa- Massachusetts, and displacing a slender colony chusetts, crosses Connecticut also, and after a of the Dutch. This movement was in reality course of about 450 miles enters Long Island Sound, the secession of the more democratic element from 30 miles east of New Haven. It is navigable for Massachusetts. Saybrook, named in honour of vessels of light draught as high as Hartford. In Lord Say-and-Sele and Lord Brooke, was the the east part is the River Thames, and in the west nucleus of a separate colony which in 1644 was the Housatonic, both of which afford some naviga- united to Connecticut, as was in 1662 the New tion. But the greatest value of the very numerous

Haven colony, founded in 1638. The Connecticut streams is as a source of water-power. In 1880 colony adopted a constitution in 1639, the first over one-half the power employed in the manu

written democratic constitution on record.' The factories of the state was water-power ; and the royal charter of 1662 was exceedingly liberal, it utilisel water-power was returned by the United being essentially a confirmation of the older conStates census as 12.63 horse-power per sq. m.

stitution ; and it continued in force even after the The surface-rocks are mostly Azoic, with the independence of the American states, but in 1818 principal exception of a strip of Triassic sandstone was replaced by the present state constitution. A of psammite running along the Connecticut River. | large part of Long Island was for a considerable This brown sandstone is largely quarried at Port- period under the government of the colony. Promland and Erst Haven, as are excellent red and

inent events in Connecticut history have been the plain granites and gneissoid building-stones at bloody war with the Pequot Indians, 1637 ; the many points ; valuable serpentine and verde- / governorship of Sir Edmund Andros, during a part antique exist near New Haven. Some quarries of which (1687-88) the colonial charter was in Sield excellent flagstones of gneissoil character; abeyance, and according to the very doubtful but the so-called 'trap, rock, here really a diabase of commonly receivel account was only saved from Triassic date, is also wronght; and in the north- destruction by being hidden for a time in a hollow west good limestones of Lower Silurian age are

tree, the Charter Oak at Hartforl. Slavery was
quarried. Browu hematites are extensively wrought abolished in 1818. Pop. (1870) 537,454; (1880)
in the north-west section, and yield excellent iron. 622,700 (of whom 129, 992 were foreign born): (1890)
Deposits of lead, copper, and cobalt have been 746,258.' See Ales. Johnston's Connecticut (1887).
locally mined. Useful mineral-waters occur at
various points. The climate is very changeable, and

Connema'ra is the name of the wild and
is rather severe in winter, but generally healthful. division of County Galway: Its interesting scenery,

picturesque (listrict which forms the westernmost
Nearly the whole surface was once richly forested; its lakes, streams, and inlets abounding in fish,
but no very extensive areas are now covered by attract many fishers and tourists. Connemara is
large timber; still the aggregate production of also called Ballynahinch.
wood for building purposes and for fuel is very
considerable. The sea-coast afforils a number of Connoisseur, a term borrowed from the French,
good harbours. Most of the maritime enterprise is to designate persons who, without being them-
now directed to the coast-wise trade, the whale i selves artists, are competent to pass a critical

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424

CONODONTS

CONRADIN

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judgment upon the merits of works of art, especially had succeeded to the kingdom of Burgundy, which in painting and sculpture. The Italian equivalent he annexed to the empire. In 1036 å rebellion in for connoisseurs is Cognoscenti.

Italy again compelled him to cross the Alps; but Conodonts, minute fossils met with in his efforts to restore his authority were this time Palæozoic strata. They are variable in form, and unsuccessful, and he was forced to grant various look very like the teeth of different kinds of fishes, privileges to his Italian subjects. Shortly after his some being simple slender pointed sharp-edged return he died at Utrecht, 4th June 1039. Conrad cones, while others are more complex, resembling was one of the most remarkable of the earlier in form the teeth of certain sharks. Their affinities monarchs of Germany. He reduced the dangerous are very uncertain—some maintaining that they are power of the great dukes of the empire, and dereally the minute teeth of fishes allied to the living fended the rights of the humbler people against hag-lishes and lampreys—others suggesting that oppression by the nobility. they have more analogy with the hooklets or denticles of annelids and naked molluscs.

Conrad III., king of the Germans, the founder

of the Hohenstaufen (q.v.) dynasty, was the son of Conoid, a solid formed by the revolution of a Frederick of Swabia, and was born in 1093. While conic section round its axis ; such are the sphere, under twenty years of age, Conrad, with his elder paraboloid, ellipsoid, and hyperboloid.

brother Frederick, had bravely supported Henry V. Conolly, John, physician, born at Market against his numerous enemies, and in return that Rasen, Lincolnshire, in 1794, graduated at Edin

monarch granted Conrad the investiture of the burgh in 1821, and in 1827 settled in London, duchy of Franconia. He subsequently contested where he was for two years professor of the Practice Saxony, but was compelled to resign luis pre

the crown of Italy with the Emperor Lothaire of of Medicine in University College. appointed resident physician to the Asylum for the

tensions. On the death of Lothaire, the princes of Insane at Hanwell; this post he held till 1844, and Germany, fearing the increasing preponderance of afterwards he was retained as visiting physician.

the Guelph party, and attracted by his brilliant Here, under Conolly, all forms of mechanical

courage, moderation, and goodness, offered Conrad restraint were from the first entirely discontinued; Aix-la-Chapelle

, 21st February 1138, the crown, and he was accordingly crowned at

He was and although his views were admittedly not orig immediately involved in a quartel with Henry the inal, it is mainly to his earnestness and eloquence that the revolution in asylum management in Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, and head of England is due. His best works are those on the

the Guelph party in Germany; and the struggle Construction and Government of Lunatic Asylums

was continued under Henry's son and successor, (1847), and kindred subjects. He died 5th March Henry the Lion (9.v., and see GUELPHS AND

GHIBELLINES).
See the Memoir by Sir James Clark (1869).
1866.

While Germany was thus con

vulsed, the state of Italy was not a whit more Conquest. In the law of succession in Scotland peaceable. The several belligerents besought heritable property acquired during the lifetime of Conrad's assistance, but he well knew the natural the deceased, by purchase, donation, or excambion, inconstancy of the Italians, and determined to was called Conquest, in opposition to that to which stand aloof. Soon after this St Bernard of Clairhe has succeeded, which is called Heritage. The distinction was abolished by the Conveyancing Act, Conrad, seized with the general infatuation, set out

vaux commenced to preach a new crusade, and 1874. Conquest, in a marriage-contract, is property for Palestine at the head of a large army (see acquired by the husband during the marriage as CRUSADES).

A new attempt by the Duke of distinguished from what he possessed before the Bavaria to regain his dukedom was defeated by the marriage. Such property was frequently but is nephew of Conrad, whose health had broken now rarely settled either on the heir or on the during the crusade. Conrad died at Bamberg in issue of the marriage.

1152. See GERMANY.
Conquistado'res (Span., 'conquerors') is a
collective term for the Spanish conquerors of

Conradin of SWABIA, the last descendant of
America, such as Cortes, Balboa, Pizarro. See the

the imperial House of Hohenstaufen (q.v.), was articles under their names; as also MEXICO, PERU,

the son of Conrad IV. (1237-54), and was born

in 1252, two years before his father's death. His &c. Conrad, or KONRAD I., king of the Germans, Sicily on a rumour of Conradin's death, though he

uncle Manfred (q.v.) had assumed the crown of was the son of the Count of Franconia, and the declared himself ready to give it up to the rightful nephew of the Emperor Arnulf. He was elected heir.

But Pope Clement VI.'s hatred of the king (practically emperor of Germany) on the Hohenstaufens led him to offer the crown of the extinction of the direct line of the Carlovingians Two Sicilies to Charles of Anjou, a consummate in 911 A.D. He gradually re-established the im

warrior and able politician. Charles immediately perial authority over most of the German princes; invaded Italy, and met his antagonist at Benevento, carried on an unsuccessful war with France, and at where the defeat and death of Manfred, in 1266, last fell

mortally wounded at Quedlinburg (918), gave him undisturbed possession of the kingdom. in a battle with the Hungarians, who had repeatedly But the Neapolitans, detesting their new master

, invaded his dominions. See GERMANY.

sent deputies to Bavaria to invite Conradin, then in Conrad II., king of the Germans, and Roman his 16th year, to come and assert his hereditary emperor, was elected after the extinction of the rights. Conradin accordingly made his appearance Saxon imperial family in 1024. He was the in Italy at the head of 10,000 men, and being son of Henry, Duke of Franconia, and is by many joined by the Neapolitans in large numbers

, gained considered as the founder of the Franconian several victories over the French, but was finally dynasty. Immediately after his election he com defeated near Tagliacozzo, 22 August 1268, and menced a tour through Germany to administer taken prisoner along with Frederick of Baden and justice. In 1026 he crossed the Alps, chastised the other comrades. The two unfortunate princes rebellious Italians, was crowned at Milan as king were, with the consent of the pope, executed in the of Italy, and he and his wife Gisela were anointed market place of Naples on the 20th October

. A emperor and empress of the Romans by the pope. few minutes before his execution, Conradin, on the He was soon recalled to Germany to put down scaffold, took off his glove, and threw it into the four formidable revolts, in which he succeeded so niidst of the crowd as a gage of vengeance, request well that by 1033 peace was restored. In 1032 heiny that it might be carried to his heir, Peter of

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