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rugged, forming remarkably, grand and picturesque scenery. The people are still almost §. Celtic. In ancient times the O'Connors were kings of Connaught. In 1590 the province was divided by the English into six counties, its present five, with Clare, afterwards joined to Munster. In 1874 the title Duke of Connaught was conferred on Prince Arthur, third son of Queen Victoria. The territorial regiment, the Connaught Rangers, once the 88th foot, now comprises the old 88th and 94th regiments (with four battalions of militia). Pop. (1841) 1,420,705; (1851) 1,015,479; (1861) 919, 135; (1881) 817, 197; (1891) 723,573, a decrease due to famine and emigration. Connecticut (kon-net'-e-cut), one of the six New England states of the American Union, is bounded N. by Massachusetts, E. copyright iss, in U.s. by Rhode Island, S. by Long or B Lippino Island Sound, W. by the state of Company. New York. It is the smallest in area of all the states, excepting Rhode Island and Delaware; but there were in 1880 ten states smaller in population than Connecticut. Its area is 4845 sq. m., or nearly two-thirds that of Wales. It is one of the most densely peopled states of the Union. A great part of the surface is rocky and uneven, and the Green and Taconic Mountains of the Appalachian System occupy a considerable part of the western extremity of the state; but the mountains here are all insignificant in respect of height. Much of the surface is not easily cultivated, and rather unfertile; but a considerable part of the valley of the Connecticut River is very productive, tobacco being a leading product of this section. Hay, potatoes, maize, oats, and rye are the principal crops. Grazing and milk farms, orchards and market-gardens, are profitably sustained in all parts of the state. The Connecticut, River, which, rising in New Hampshire, forms the boundary between that state and Vermont, and flows south through Massachusetts, crosses Connecticut also, and after a course of about 450 miles enters Long Island Sound, 30 miles east of New Haven. It is navigable for Yessels of light draught as high as Hartford. In the east part is the River Thames, and in the west the Housatonic, both of which afford some naviga. tion. But the greatest value of the very numerous streams is as a source of water-power. In 1880 over one-half, the power employed in the manufactories of the state was water-power; and the utilised water-power was returned by the United States census as 12-63 horse-power per sq. m. The surface-rocks are mostly Azoic, with the Principal exception of a strip of Triassic sandstone o, sommite running along the Connecticut River. This brown sandstone is largely quarried at Port. land and East Haven, as are excellent red and Plain granites and gneissoid building stones at many points; valuable serpentine and verde. antique exist near New Haven. Some quarries yield excellent flagstones of gneissoid character; he so-called ‘trap rock, here really a diabase of Triassic date, is also wrought ; and in the northWest good limestones of Lower Silurian age are quarried. Brown hematites are extensively wrought in the north-west section, and yield excellent iron. Deposits of lead, copper, and cobalt have been locally mined. U. mineral-waters occur at Yarious points. The climate is very changeable, and § rather severe in winter, but generally healthful. Nearly the whole surface was once richly forested : out no very extensive areas are now covered by large timber; still the aggregate production of Wood, for building purposes and for fuel is very considerable. The sea coast affords a number of good harbours. Most of the maritime enterprise is

and seal fisheries having declined. Oyster-fishing is engaged in largely and very systematically, as is the taking of fish for oil and fish-guano. The manufactures of Connecticut are carried on upon a very extensive scale, and are of exceedingl varied character; and notwithstanding its small area, the state stands in the first rank as respects the amount and aggregate value of manufactured goods. Clocks, Tardware, india-rubber goods, firearms, silks and other textiles, and smallWares in great variety, are produced on a large scale. Life, fire, and accident insurance, and the publication of subscription books, receive great attention. The state is well supplied with railways. In very few parts of the world has more been done for popular education than in this state. Private,

denominational, and parochial schools of every

grade supplement the work of this public-school system. The latter dates from 1644. Yale University at New Haven comprises collegiate and post-graduate courses, besides medical, theological, scientific, law, and art schools, and takes a very high place among the seats of learning in the country. ... Mention should be made of Trinity College, Hartford, and of the Wesleyan University at Middletown. There are also divinity schools at Hartford (Congregationalist) and Middletown (Episcopalian). The state supports a full comple. ment } institutions for correction and charity. Among the principal cities and towns are Hartford (the capital), New Haven, Bridgeport, Waterbury, Meriden, Norwich, Norwalk, New Britain, Dan. bury, Derby, Stamford, and New London. The old stock of inhabitants were of English Puritan origin, but of later years there has been a large immigration of Irish, German, English, and others. The colony of Connecticut may be said to date from 1634, when the movement began in which Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor were settled by persons removing from Massachusetts, and displacing a slender colony of the Dutch. This movement was in reality the secession of the more democratic element from Massachusetts. Saybrook, named in honour of Lord Say-and-Sele and Lord Brooke, was the nucleus of a separate colony which in 1644 was united to Connecticut, as was in 1662 the New Haven colony, founded in 1638. The Connecticut colony adopted a constitution in 1639, the first written democratic constitution on record.” The royal charter of 1662 was exceedingly liberal, it being essentially a confirmation of the older con. stitution ; and it continued in force even after the independence of the American states, but in 1818 was replaced by the present state constitution. A large part of Long Island was for a considerable Yeriod under the government of the colony. Prom. inent events in Connecticut history have been the bloody war with the Pequot Indians, 1637; the governorship of Sir Edmund Andros, during a part of which (1687–88) the colonial charter was in abeyance, and according to the very doubtful but commonly received account was only saved from destruction by being hidden for a time in a hollow tree, the Charter Oak at Hartford. Slavery was abolished in 1818. Pop. (1870) 537,454; (1880) 622,700 (of whom 129,992 were foreign born): (isoo) 746,258. See Alex. Johnston's Connecticut (1887).

Jonnema'ra is the name of the wild and picturesque district which forms the westernmost division of County Galway. Its interesting scenery, its lakes, streams, and inlets abounding in sish, attract many fishers and tourists. Connemara is also called Ballynahinch.

'onnoisseur, a term borrowed from the French, to designate persons who, without being them. 424 CONODONTS

now directed to the coast-wise trade, the whale selves artists, are competent to pass a critical


judgment upon the merits of works of art, especially in painting and sculpture. The Italian equivalent for connoisseurs is Cognoscenti.

Conodonts, minute fossils met with in Palaeozoic strata. They are variable in form, and look very like the teeth of different kinds of fishes, some being simple slender pointed sharp-edged gones, while others are more complex, resembling in form the teeth of certain sharks. Their affinities are very uncertain—some maintaining that they are really the minute teeth of fishes allied to the living hag-fishes and lampreys—others suggesting that they have more analogy with the hooklets or denticles of annelids and naked molluscs.

Conoid, a solid formed by the revolution of a conic section round its axis; such are the sphere, paraboloid, ellipsoid, and hyperboloid.

Conolly, John, physician, born at Market Rasen, Lincolnshire, in 1794, graduated at Edinburgh in 1821, and in 1827 settled in London, where he was for two years professor of the Practice of Medicine in University College. In 1839 he was appointed resident physician to the Asylum for the Insane at Hanwell; this post he held till 1844, and afterwards he was retained as visiting physician. Here, under Conolly, all forms of mechanical restraint were from the first entirely discontinued; and although his views were admittedly not original, it is mainly to his earnestness and eloquence that the revolution in asylum management in England is due. . His best works are those on the Construction and Government of Lumatic Asylums (1847), and kindred subjects. He died 5th March i866. " See the Memoir by Sir James Clark (1869).

Conquest. In the law of succession in Scotland heritable property acquired during the lifetime of the deceased, by purchase, donation, or excambion, was called Conquest, in opposition to that to which he has succeeded, which is called Heritage. The distinction was abolished by the Conveyancing Act, 1874. Conquest, in a marriage-contract, is property acquired by the husband during the marriage as distinguished from what he possessed before the marriage. Such "... was, frequently but is now rarely settled either on the heir or on the issue of the marriage.

Conquistadores (Span., conquerors’) is a collective term for the Spanish conquerors of America, such as Cortes, Balboa, Pizarro. See the articles under their names; as also MEXICO, PERU, &c.

ad, or KONRAD I., king of the Germans,

of . of the Count of Franconia, and the nephew of the Emperor Arnulf. He was elected king (practically emperor of Germany) on the extinction of the direct line of the Carlovingians in 911 A.D. He gradually re-established the imperial authority over most of the German princes, garried on an unsuccessful war with France, and at last fell mortally wounded at Quedlinburg (918), in a battle with the Hungarians, who had repeatedly invaded his dominions. See GERMANY.

Conrad II., king of the Germans, and Roman emperor, was elected after the extinction of the Saxon imperial family, in 1024. He was the son of Henry, Duke of Franconia, and is by many considered as the founder of the Franconian dynasty. Immediately after his election, he commenced a tour through Germany to administer justice. In 1026 he crossed the Alps, chastised the rebellious Italians, was crowned at Milan as king of Italy, and he and his wife Gisela were amointe emperor and empress of the Romans by the pope. He was soon recalled to Germany to put down four formidable revolts, in which he succeeded so well that by 1033 peace was restored. In 1032 he


had succeeded to the kingdom of Burgundy, which he annexed to the empire. In 1036 a rebellion in Italy again compelled him to cross the Alps; but his efforts to restore his authority were this time unsuccessful, and he was forced to grant various privileges to his Italian subjects. Shortly after his return he died at Utrecht, 4th June 1039. Conrad Was one of the most remarkable of the earlier monarchs of Germany. He reduced the dangerous }. of the great dukes of the empire, and deended the rights of the humbler people against oppression by the nobility.

Conrad III., king of the Germans, the founder of the Hohenstaufen (q.v.) dynasty, was the son of Frederick of Swabia, and was born in 1093, While under twenty years of age, Conrad, with his elder brother Frederick, had bravely supported Henry W. against his numerous enemies, . in return that monarch granted Conrad the investiture of the duchy of Franconia. He subsequently contested the crown of Italy with the Emperor Lothaire of Saxony, but was compelled to resign his pre: tensions. On the death of Lothaire, the princes of Germany, fearing the increasing preponderance of the Guelph party, and attracted by his brilliant courage, moderation, and goodness, offered Conrad the crown, and he was accordingly crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, 21st February 1138. He was immediately involved in a quarrel with Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, and head of the Guelph party in Germany; and the struggle was continued under Henry's son and successor, Henry the Lion (q.v., and see GUELPHS AND GHIBELLINEs). While Germany was thus coll: vulsed, the state of Italy was not a whit more peaceable. The several belligerents, besought Conrad's assistance, but he well knew the natural inconstancy of the Italians, and determined so stand aloof. Soon after this St Bernard of Clair. vaux commenced to preach a new crusade, and Conrad, seized with the general infatuation, set out for Palestine at the head of a large army (se: CRUSADEs). A new attempt by the Duke of Bavaria to regain his dukedom was defeated by the nephew of Conrad, whose health had brokon during the crusade. Conrad died at Bamberg in 1152. See GERMANY.

Conradin of Swabia, the last descendant of the imperial House of Hohenstaufen (q.v.), Was the son of Conrad IV. (1237-54), and was boss in 1252, two years before his father's death. His uncle Manfred (q.v.) had assumed the crown of Sicily on a rumour of Conradin's death, though he declared himself ready to give it up to the rightful heir. But Pope Clement VI.'s hatred of the Hohenstaufens led him to offer the crown of the Two Sicilies to Charles of Anjou, a consummo warrior and able politician. Charles immediately invaded Italy, and met his o at Benevento, where the defeat and death of Manfred, in 1266, gave him undisturbed possession of the kingdom. But the Neapolitans, detesting their new masto sent deputies to Bavaria to invite Conradin, then in his 16th year, to come and assert his hereditary rights. Conradin accordingly made his appearano in Italy at the head of 10,000 men, and bein joined by the Neapolitans in large numbers, gain several victories over the French, but was finally defeated near Tagliacozzo, 22d August 1258, and taken prisoner along with Frederick of Baden, and other comrades. The two unfortunate princes were, with the consent of the o: executed in the market-place of Naples on the 20th October. A few minutes before his execution, Conradin, on the scaffold, took off his glove, and threw it into the midst of the crowd as a gage of vengeance, request. ing that it might be carried to his heir, Peter of

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