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Ca'tegories, in philosophy, the highest classes Cateni'pora, a genus of fossil tabulate corals under which objects of knowledge can be syste- peculiar to Palæozoic strata, confined in Britain to matically arranged, understood as an attempt at a
the Silurian measures. See CORAL. comprehensive classification of all that exists. The
Cateran (Gaelic and Irish, ceatharnach, name has come down to us from Aristotle, in whose soldier'), originally an Irish or Highland soldier, a system the categories are ten in number : Sub- kern; usually, however, a Highland reiver or free. stance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, situ- booter. See CLAN, HIGHLANDS. ation, possession, action, and suffering. From the
Caterpillar, the larval stage of butterflies and point of view of logic, these may be reduced to two: substance and attribute ; of metaphysics, to being special order of the grub, maggot, or larva phase in
moths (Lepidoptera), and the representative in this and accident. The Cartesians had the three cate
the life-history of many insects. gories—substance, attribute, and mode; Leibnitz
General Structure. The caterpillar, so familiar substance, quantity, quality, action or passion, and
in its external appearance, has usually. 12 bodyrelation; and Locke--substance, mode, and relation. J. S. Mill classifies all existences or describ rings, not including the head, is provided with able things as follows: (1) Feelings, or states of strong biting jaws, strikingļy contrasted with the consciousness, the most comprehensive experience
mouth organs of the adult, has three pairs of fivethat the human mind can attain to, since even the jointed clawed legs on the region corresponding to
the thorax, and usually five rudimentary stumps or external world is only known as conceived by our minds ; (2) the minds which experience those feel" pro-legs on the abdomen. These unjointed
ages are borne on the sixth to the ninth, and on the ings; (3) the bodies, or external objects, which are
twelfth segments of the body; some of them may be supposed to excite all that class of feelings that we
absent; in the majority of cases they are adapted denominate sensations ; (4) the successions and co
for clambering. The body may be naked or covered existences, the likenesses and unlikenesses, between
with hairs, bristles, and spines, which, in caterpillars feelings or states of consciousness. Although those relations are considered by us to subsist between the bodies, or things, external to our minds, we are driven in the last resort to consider them as really subsisting between the states of each one's own individual mind.
The categories of Kant are conceived under a totally different point of view. The Root-notions of the understanding (Stammbegriffe des Verstandes), they are the specific forms of the a priori or formal element in rational cognition-forms inherent in the understanding, under which the mind embraces the objects of actual experience. The Kantian philosophy supposes that human knowledge is partly
5 made up of the sensations of outward thingscolour, sound, touch-and partly of mental ele
Fig. 1. ments or functions existing prior to all experience of
a, Chocrocampa tersa, showing eye-like spots; 6, young cater. the actual world. (This is the point of difference pillar of Deilepnila Euphorbide (after Weismann). Cf. fig. 5. between the school of Locke, who rejected all innate ideas, conceptions, or forms, and the school of Kant. living an exposed life, are usually brightly coloured. No such question was raised under the Aristotelian The large head is divided by à median line, and categories.) Kant's categories are as follows: (1) bears six eye-spots on each side, a pair of short threeQuantity, including unity, multitude, totality;: (2) jointed feelers, strong upper jaws or mandibles, Quality, including reality, negation, limitation ; besides jointed palps on the two successive pairs of (3) Relation, including substance and accident, mouth appendages. Two well-developed spinning cause and effect, action and reaction; (4) Modality, organs open on the second pair of maxille forminy which includes possibility, existence, necessity. the lower lip or labium. On each side, on the first These indicate the elements of our knowledge a ring, and on the fourth to the eleventh, there are priori; and though they are the necessary con nine pairs of stigmata or openings into the respiraditions under which alone experiences can be real- | tory air-tubes. "Hatschek has observed the appearised to the mind, are merely subjective forins of its ance of three pairs of stigmata on the jaw-segments own activity, distinct from and inapplicable to the of the lead. The colours are familiarly bright in world of noumenam-the thing in itself--that lies out many instances, and may have their seat in the side and beyond. Fichte based the whole system of cuticle or in the skin below, or very frequently in the categories of reality on the affirmation of itself deeper regions of the body. A metallic sheen is by the Ego--the primitive function of self-conscious sometimes superadded. The surface is often beauness
. Hegel carried this further, and showed that tifully marked longitudinally, or transversely, or this primitive function supplied the principle needed with ring-spots and eye-spots. Odoriferous and to harmonise and unify the objective and subjective other glands frequently occur on the skin, and elements in thought. Thought and being are ulti are in some cases (Dicranura, Orgyia) eversible. mately identical, and the categories are thus merely The internal anatomy of the caterpillar, though definite aspects or determinations (Bestimmungen) essentially resembling that of the adult, differs in of the universal of thought, which is identical with some striking features. Thus while the larva has reality or actual existence.
11 to 12 separate nerve ganglia in the ventral Ca'tenary. The catenary is the curve formed chain, the adult insect has usually only two by a flexible homogeneous cord hanging freely be separate ganglia in the thorax,
and five in the tween two points of support, and acted on by no
abdomen. The digestive system is comparatively other force than gravity, the name being suggested short and simple; the circulatory and respiratory by Lat. catena, a chain. The catenary possesses systems much like those of the adult ; a few aquatic several remarkable properties, one of which is, that caterpillars have gill-like appendages. its centre of Gravity (q.v.) is lower than that of any
History.—The caterpillar develops like any curve of equal perimeter, and with the same fixed other larva from the segmented egg and differen points for its extremities. It is of importance for tiating embryo ; its life is usually more or less the theory of suspension Bridges (q.v.).
active and voracious; it undergoes several moult
ings or ecdyses ; begins to develop some of the adult another point of view the life-history may become
always possess some unpleasant attribute in taste occasionally consists solely, or almost solely, of or smell, either in the tissues generally or in special the hairs of the larva ; in some cases leaves, glands. Weismann notes how a curious lashing wood, earth, &c. are used in construction; in about of the tail may preserve one form, and how most moths it is spun. The work of spinning the the juices of another attract a protective bodyusual cocoon is carried on almost ceaselessly, some guard of ants. Others are so uncanny in the distimes for four or five days, and Trouvelot calculates position of their hair-tufts and colour, or in the that the larva of Polyphemus in distributing its terrifying atti. silk must have moved its head to and fro about tudes' which they 254,000 times.
assume that their A very primitive insect type is represented by cautious though a widely distributed genus Peripatus (q.v.), which hungry foes leave remains permanently at a sort of caterpillar level, them alone. But and serves to connect jointed-footed animals or distaste and rearthropods with worm-like forms. The caterpillar pulsion may on may be interpreted as in part a recapitulation stress of hunger of this historical stage in the evolution of insects. be overcome, and
only a relative-
their colour and Survival of ancestral insects (from Moseley).
markings so like the plants on which they feed,
or the ground on which they crawl, that they The caterpillar thus represents the prolongation of avoid detection, and this protective resemblance an ancestral and embryonic stage, while many of its is often not merely general and superficial, but characters have arisen as secondary adaptations to detailed and exact. Thus some when fixed as its peculiar mode of life. Between each moult there pupæ to the stems of plants, are almost indistinis a period of quiescence, and this becomes greatly guishable from knobs or stunted twigs. In the prolonged in that all-important moult in which the twig-like attitude the supporting thread is somemouth organs of the larva are modified into those of times dispensed with others are like little splin. the adult. Free life at a period so momentous would ters of wood, or the curled margins of withered evidently be disadvantageous even if it were pos leaves. The hairs and fleshy tubercles may prevent sible. The pupa, furthermore, may come to have the casting of a sharp shadow. Nor is the 'mimicry' a secondary importance other than that of simply confined to resembling the parts of plants, but a being an exhausted quiescence at the final moult- palatable insect may probably save itself by approxi. ing; it may come to be of vital moment as a pro- mating in colour to one thàt is distasteful.
Mr tective phase, by means of which the insect sur Bates observed a large caterpillar deceptively like vives the cold of winter or the drought of the a small venomous snake. Protective resemblance dry season. In one case (Cossus) the preparátory may be further abetted by unpalatable taste or stages may be prolonged for three years. From unpleasant smell. Some forms hide during the
day; others feign death when caught. In more like appearance afterwards, and are often signals
Poulton made a long series of experiments of
caterpillars, which, occurring as tions between Lepidopterous larvæ and their
much brighter than the female, both of these sources; all greens seem due to the
ably the same, and no sexuality of plants; other colours to the proper pigments
caution, that animals forced by the digestive tract into the blood or the tissue Fig. 4.-Hawthorn
hunger will eat the distasteful | under the cuticle ; (3) true pigment in the cuticle twig with attached twig-like
beauties, and come to like them. and in the layer immediately below (the hypoderlarva (a) of
For a most interesting series mis). But the point of most general interest is the Rumia Cradce of studies on the colour and relation between the colour of the larvæ and that gata (after Poul. markings of caterpillars, the of their food-plants. Within the same species the ton).
reader should consult Pro- colours may vary to suit the colour of the feeding.
fessor Weismann's Studies in ground. Abundant instances of this are recorded the Theory of Descent, and the valuable editorial Meldola's notes to Weismann's Studies. notes of the translator, Professor Meldola. The McLachlan noted for instance that the larvæ of whole burden of Weisinann's work is to show that Eupithecia absynthiata were yellowish on the in the marking and colouring (of the Sphingidæ yellow ragweed (Senecio jacob@a), reddish on the in particular) no action of an impelling vital force purplish centaury (Centaurea nigra), and white can be recognised, but that the origination and on the mayweed (Matricaria). Poulton has the perfection of these characters depend entirely on credit of analysing this interesting relation. He the known factors of natural selection and correla- | has shown that the influence of the food-plant tion,' though of course natural selection can only must act throughout a long period of larval life, operate on the variations possible to the physical that the effects probably accumulate during succonstitution and conditions of the organism. In cessive generations, and that the result cannot be tracing the presumed historical evolution of the referred to the direct influence of the material Sphingidæ, which is more or less fully recapitu- eaten. The interpretation is rendered particularly lated in the individual development, he starts (1) difficult by the gradual working of the process, from concealed or subterranean, white or yellow, often incomplete in a single life, by the excessively forms, with a horn on the tail and with bristles, but complex and diverse result, and by the special without markings; (2) in adaptation to life on character of the stimulus, for it is only part of the linear plants like grasses, longitudinal markings environment which produces any effect. In the are evolved and confirmed by natural selection ; case of the larva of Smerinthus ocellatus, Poulton
has shown that the colour relation is adjustable
eaten, is the agent which influences the larval
colours ; (3) that the influence is an intricate
individnal variations are comparatively unimport-
ant, though it is quite possible that variation Caterpillar of Sphinx Convolvuli; 6, larva of Macroglossa
began somewhat uselessly in the pigments in the Stellatarum, showing lines and spots (after Weismann). blood, &c., and were afterwards rendered effica
cious by co-ordination with the environment.' 3) these are succeeded by oblique stripes, spread. Some of Mr Poulton's most beautiful recent exing from one segment to another, evolved by periments (1887) are those which show how the natural selection and correlation, and followed by golden surroundings of a gilt-lined box favour the the disappearance of the longitudinal lines which production of golden pupæ. The above naturalist, spoil the effect; (4) on the second last segment to whose observations this article is so much in ring-spots then appear, and tend to spread to other debted, has done more than any one else to rings, these are deceptively like the berries of the penetrate into the physiological conditions of food-plant at one time, or have a terrifying eye- 1 caterpillar colour, but much still remains to be
done in elucidating the rôle of colour in the con “the resurrection painted before our eyes,' while stitution of these and other animals.
moralists and poets have often delighted in pointGeneral Life.-As already noted, most cater ing out the analogies suggested by the crawlpillars lead an active life, some roving only at ing immature caterpillar, with faint promise of its night, others also in the daytime. Young larvæ future, by the seeming death and coffin-like cocoon have been observed to seek the light. Their move of the chrysalids, by the new birth, glory, and ments are guided by an appreciation of the force of heavenward Aight of the perfected forms. gravitation ; they usually crawl upwards; and they LITERATURE. -Balfour, Embryology, vol. i. ; Kirby and always know their food-plant when they come to Spence, Introduction to Entomology: Lubbock, Metamorit. Their frequent falls from, for them, considerable pħoses of Insects (“ Nature' series); Packard, Guide to the heights, are broken, it has been suggested, by the Study of Insects ; Poulton, Transactions of Entomological springy hairs with which they are so often covered. Society (1885-6-7), British Association Report (1887), Many of them seem to have an insatiable hunger, Proceedings of Zoological Society (1887); Wallace, Proand eat straight on. Their ravages among vege
ceedings of Entomological Society (1867); Weismann tables and other plants are only too well known.
(translated by Meldola), Studies in the Theory of Descent Some forms are carnivorous, and Mr Poulton has
(1880–82); Wilson, Larve of British Lepidoptera and
their Food Plants (London, 1880 ). suggested that this might arise from cannibalism induced by scarcity of food, as his observations
Catesby, MARK, naturalist, born about 1679, vividly indicate. 'While older larvæ will appar
probably in London, travelled in North America in ently rather starve than take to a new food-plant,
1710-19 and 1722–26, and published Natural Hisit has been conclusively shown that the newly
tory of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands hatched larva is not so fastidious, but is free to
(2 vols. 1731-43), Hortus Britanno-Americanus, and form special relations with occasional or rare food
a work on the fishes, reptiles, and insects of the
Isle of Providence. German translations of the Polyphemus showed that a caterpillar, fifty-six first and last appeared
at Nuremberg. He died in days old, had consumed not less than one hundred
London, 23d December 1749. and twenty oak leaves, weighing in all three
Catesby, ROBERT, born in 1573, fourths of a pound, and had drunk not less than
Northamptonshire Catholic of good fortune and half an ounce of water. The food would weigh
lineage, being sixth in descent from Richard III.'s 86,000 times the original weight of the larva. Of Catesby, who was hanged three days after Bosthis, about one-fourth of a pound becomes ex
worth. Robert, however, had suffered much as a crementitious matter ; 207 grains are assimilated, recusant both by fines and imprisonment, when and over five ounces evaporated. A few larvæ
in 1604 he engaged in the Gunpowder Plot (q.v.). (Nymphula, &c.) are aquatic, many bore in wood,
He was shot dead in the defence of Holbeache leaves, and soft vegetable substances, others are
House, 8th November 1605. largely subterranean.
Cat-fish, in Britain, is usually a name for the The caterpillars of some of the silkworm sub Wolf-fish (q.v.).—In America the name is comorder (Bombycina) live together within a common monly applied to a very different fish, one of the pouch-like cradle, and others move in file-like genus Pimelodus and family Siluridae. Sixteen processions (see ARMY-WORM). Migrating cater species occur in the lakes and rivers of North pillars (Noctua) have been described, which move America. The skin is naked, and the head has in search of food in vast armies, marching straight eight fleshy barbules. The Common Cat-fish (P. on over everything, until a fit pasturage is found. atrarius), or Horned Pout, is one of the commonest In one case (quoted by Kirby and Spence from the river fishes of the United States, especially in the Charleston Courier, May 1842) the passage of such east and north. It is from 7 to 9 inches in length, a host is said to have made the ground black for and is a very important food fish, though its flesh, days; in another instance reported from America, like that of all the cat-fishes, is insipid. Like all they stopped a heavy train going at the rate of 10 its congeners it prefers muddy bottoms, and is or 12 miles an hour.
sluggish in its movements. The Great Lake CatComparatively few caterpillars reach maturity fish (P. nigricans) is from 2 to 4 feet long, weighs (happily for the sake of the plants in the next from 6 to 30 pounds, and is found in lakes Erie season); many are destroyed by the weather, and Ontario. many by hungry birds, reptiles, and other animals,
Çatgut is employed in the fabrication of the and many by insect pests of the families Ichneu
strings of violins, harps, guitars, and other musical monidæ (see ICHNEUMON-FLY) and Tachinariæ. instruments; as also in the cords used by clockThe ichneumon-flies pierce the caterpillars, and makers, in the bows of archers, and in whipcord. make them the receptacles of their eggs and the It is generally prepared from the intestines of the edible cradles of their larvæ.
sheep, rarely from those of the horse, ass, or mule, As typical injurious caterpillars may be noticed, and not those of the cat. The first stage in the (1) on vegetables, those of the cabbage-moths (e. si operation is the thorough cleansing of the inMamestra brassicæ, and several species of Pieris testines from adherent feculent and fatty matters; or Pontia), the turnip-moths (Noctua segetum, after which they are steeped in water for several Cerostoma æylostella), the silver Y-moth (Plusia days, so as to loosen the external membrane, which gamma), the carrot-moths (Depressaria), the hop can then be removed by scraping with a blunt moths (Dasychira, Hepialus, Pyralis), the pea- knife. The material which is thus scraped off is moth (Grapholitha pisana), the death's - head employed for the cords of battledoors and rackets, (Sphincatropos); (2) on trees, those of the goat- and also as thread in sewing the ends of intestines moth (Cossus ligniperda), the wood leopard-moth together. The scraped intestines are then steeped (Zeuzera asculă), the buff-tip moth® (Pygæra in water, and scraped again, when the large inbucephala), the lackey-motho (Bombyx clisio- testines are cut off and placed in tubs with salt, campa) neustria), &c. See Miss Ormerod's Injuri- to preserve them for the sausage-maker; and the ous Insects.
smaller intestines are steeped in water, thereafter The devastations of caterpillars are to some treated with a dilute solution of alkali (4 oz. potash, extent compensated for by the fertilising work 4 oz. carbonate of potash, and 3 to 4 gallons of of the adults, and by the silk of the silkworms. water, with occasionally a little alum), and are But apart from their destructiveness and utility, lastly drawn through a perforated brass thimble, they are full of interest and of scientific puzzles. and assorted into their respective sizes. In order Old Swammerdam saw in their metamorphosis | to destroy any adherent matter which would lead
to putrefaction, and the consequent development extremely simple, and their church government was
Catharine, the name of several Christian coming from Naples. About 10 per cent. of the
a virgin of violin strings manufactured are false—i.e. they royal descent in Alexandria, who publicly con
fessed the gospel at a sacrificial Gut strings for musical Instruments become useless after being kept a few Maximinus, and was therefore put
feast appointed by the Emperor years. Cord for clockmakers is made from the smallest of the intestines, and occasionally from
to death, after they had vainly larger ones, which have been split longitudinally attempted to torture her on toothed
Hence the name into several lengths. The catgut obtained from wheels, 307 A.D.
of Catharine wheel.' No less than the intestines of horses, asses, and mules is principally made in France, and is employed in the fifty heathen philosophers sent by the same way as leather belts for driving lathes and peror to convert her in prison were themselves other small machines.
converted by her winning eloquence; whence she is
the patroness of philosophers and learned schools. Çatha, a genus of Celastracea, often reckoned Having steadily rejected all offers of earthly marunder Celastrus. C. edulis, Arabian Tea, the Khât riage, she was taken in vision to heaven, when of the Arabs, is a shrub highly valued by them on the Virgin presented her to her son, and Christ account of its leaves, which are chewed or infused plighted his troth to her with a ring. This subject like coffee or tea, to which its properties seem has been a favourite one with many artists (as essentially similar. It is cultivated along with signifying the union of the redeemed soul with coffee.
Chrisť); the Christ
, being usually represented as an Cathari (Gr., pure'), or CATHARISTS, a name
infant. It has been suggested that the attributes assumed by a idely diffused Gnostic sect of the
of the unhistorical St Catharine seem to have been middle ages, which took its rise most probably derived from those of the actual Hypatia (q.v.), among the Slavs in Southern Macedonia, and spread Christian fanatics. St Catharine's festival falls on
a heathen who suffered death at the hands of over the whole of Southern and Western Europe. In Thrace it found a kindred sect in the Paulicians 25th November.—(2) St Catharine of Sienna, one of (9.v.), who had been transported thither about the most famous saints of Italy, was the daughter 970, and they were there known as Bogomili of a dyer in Sienna, and was born there in 1347. (q.v.). In the second half of the 19th century While yet a child she practised extraordinary they were in great strength in Bulgaria, Albania, mortifications, and devoted herself to perpetual and Slavonia, and divided into two branches, virginity, She became a Dominican, and therefore distinguished as the Albanensians (the more ex
afterwards a patron saint of the Dominicans. Her treme section), and the Concorezensians (named
enthusiasm converted the most hardened sinners, from Goriza in Albania). It is remarkable that and she was able to prevail upon Pope Gregory XI. the name Bulgari, by which they were known to
for the sake of the church to retum from Avignon the returning French crusaders, is the origin of the
to Rome. She was favoured, it was said, with low French word Bougre, just as the German word extraordinary tokens of favour by Christ, whose for heretic" (Ketzer) is derived from Gazzari, | Stigmata (9.v.), were imprinted upon her body. the Lombard form of Cathari. In Italy the heresy She wrote devotional pieces, letters, and poems, first appeared at Turin about 1035, and existed
a recent edition of which is Tomasseo's (À vols.
Florence, 1860). down to the 14th century. Its adherents were called
Her festival falls on 30th April. Patarini, from Pataria, a street in Milan frequented ed. 2 vols. 1887). —št Catharine of Bologna (1413
See Drane’s History of St Catharine of Sienna (2d by rag-gatherers, where they held their secret meetings in 1058. The Cathari reached their
63; festival 9th March) and St Catharine of Sweden greatest numbers in Southern France, where they (died 1381, festival 22d March) are of less note. were commonly called Albigenses (q.v.) or Pobli Catharine de'Medici, the wife of one king of cants
, the latter term being a corruption of Paulin France, and the mother of three, was the daughter cians, with whom they were confounded. After of Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and was the great Albigensian wars, they were gradually born at Florence in 1519. In her fourteenth year rooted out by the Inquisition, and after the first she was brought to France, and married to Henry, half of the 14th century they disappear from the second son of Francis I. The marriage was a history. The Cathari based their teaching on the part of the political schemes of her uncle, Pope New Testament and an apocryphal Vision of Clement VII., but as he died soon after, she found Isaiah? and "Gospel of John. The only extant herself friendless and neglected at the French court. Catharist writing is a short ritual in the Romance In these circumstances she conducted herself with language of the 13th-century troubadours (printed
a submission which seemed even to indicate a want at Jena in 1852 by Professor Cunitz from the MS. of proper spirit, but which gained her the favour at Lyons). All the Cathari held more
or less of the old king, and in some measure also of her Manichæan views, and practised a rigid asceticism. husband. The accession of the latter to the throne Deliverance from evil was only to be attained by of France, however, made very little difference in renunciation of the (material) world, including her situation. It was not till the accession of her marriage, property, and the use of animal food. eldest son, Francis II., in 1559, that she found They distinguished between the great mass of their some scope for her ambition. The Guises at this Credentes or "Believers,' and the Perfecti, who had time possessed a power which seemed dangerous to received the Baptism of the Spirit by the laying on
that of the throne, and Catharine entered into of hands, called Consolamentum, because in it the
a secret alliance with the Huguenots to oppose Comforter was imparted. These pure' ones, esti- them. On the death of Francis II. in 1560, and mated at only 4000 in all Europe about the year accession of her second son, Charles IX., the govern1240, formed the Catharist Church-the only true ment fell entirely into her hands. Caring little for and pure church on earth.' Their worship was religion in itself, although she was very prone to