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a common ration for cows kept in milk-dairies ; Area, 148,445. sq. miles ; about equally divided brewers' grains are not thought favourably of between the two states. Four-fifths of the surface in cheese or butter dairies, where any food that is an undulating plain. A belt of high plateau, the readily becomes sour or tainted is scrupulously Coteau du Missouri, traverses the tract from northavoided, and is wholly prohibited by the owners of west to south-east; and a similar but smaller ridge factories or creameries, and by condensers of milk. or divide lies east of the James River valley. The Roots of various kinds are rarely used in America, great river Missouri flows south-eastward across the hot, dry summer climate and the greater ease the Dakotas; and the country west of that stream of growing the equally valuable feeding crop, is more broken and better timbered than the rest. maize (commonly called corn), combining to make In South Dakota lie the Black Hills, a rugged root-crops unpopular. When roots are grown, the and mountainous region (3200 sq. m.), and well long red or the yellow globe mangels are preferred. wooded. Their highest point, Harney Peak, is 8200
The use of ensilage has been found very con feet high. The Turtle Mountains in the north are venient in the dairy, and this practice is rapidly crossed by the Canadian boundary, south of which extending. In the dairy districts of Wisconsin at their area is but 800 sq. m., and their highest eleleast 2000 silos were built in 1888, the serious vation 2300 feet. The geological features of the damage to the feeding crops by the dry season of Dakotas are full of variety and interest. the previous year having induced dairymen to secure large proportion of the surface is covered by ample feed by growing corn--which suffers little glacial and alluvial drift, and much of the country from drought, and to some extent enjoys dry, hot bears evidence of having been more than once weather-and preserving it green in silos. It is submerged. During the Silurian age a shallow quite certain that the cheapness and ease of produc- sea or saline lake must have rolled over it; while tion of this grand fodder crop has given a greater there is evidence that at about the end of the stimulus to the American dairy than any other glacial period it was either the bed of a great favourable circumstance, The abundance and lake, or at least was very largely covered with cheapness of the grain (corn), and also of bran, lacustrine waters. At present the lakes are all enable American dairymen to produce cheap milk, relatively small
, except Devil's Lake, or Minnicheese, and butter; and there is no other class of waukon, in the north, which, like many others American farmers who enjoy equal comfort, and of this region, has no outlet. Its waters are even wealth.
therefore saline, but it is inhabited by fishes of Dais (Old Fr. deis, dois, from Lat. discus, various fresh-water species. About one-third of quoit,’ ‘platter ;' in late Lat. 'a table'), a term the area of the tract, chiefly towards the northused with considerable latitude by medieval writers. west, is believed to be underlaid with beds of work. Its most usual significations are the following : (1) able lignite, well adapted to use as a domestic fuel ; A canopy over an altar, shrine, font, throne, stall
, and the spontaneous firing of the lignite beds has chair, statue, or the like; the term being applied probably been a large factor in the development of to the canopy without regard to the materials of the so-called · bad lands,' which are covered with which it was composed, which might be cloth, rocks of most fantastic shapes. Natural fuel-gas wood, stone, metal, or other substance ; (2) the has been obtained by boring at several points. chief seat at the high table in a hall, with the Among the building-stones are quartzite, jasper, canopy covering it; (3) the high table itself; and granite in the south-east, and sandstone, (4) the raised portion of the floor, or estrade, on
marble, and granite in the south-west. Fictile clays, which the high table stood, and which divided the gypsum, cement, chalk, mica, and other useful upper from the lower portion of the hall ; (5) a minerals are found in many places. Medicinal and cloth of state for covering a throne or table.
thermal springs are found in the south-west, where Daisy (Bellis), a genus of tubulifloral com
the Black Hills afford much gold and silver, as well posites (family Asteroideae) characterised by its
as tin, antimony, lead, mica, copper, and other conical receptacle and absence of pappus. The seven
minerals. The tin-mines are the only ones of any or eight species are palwarctic, save B. integrifolia extent ever worked in America ; and some of the of Tennessee and Arkansas. The familiar species, gold-mines are among the most extensive in the B. perennis, needs no description, nor can any one
world. In the ten years 1877-87 the gold and have failed to notice its habit of closing at night. silver production of the Black Hills amounted to Double varieties, crimson, pink, white, or striped,
$33,770,000. are common in gardens, and are frequently of such
The climate of the Dakotas presents some remarkexuberantly vegetative habit as to produce smaller able features. The winters are cold, but so dry heads in the axils of the involucral bracts of the and sunny that the cold is usually borne without main capitulum, whence the popular name of Hen- great suffering: except during the blizzards (see and-chickens.
A handsome variegated variety is BLIZZARD) which are occasionally experienced. called aucubæ folia. The characteristic beanty and The summer days are warm and often windy, but
The almost perennial profusion of blossom have made the nights are ordinarily calm and cool. this commonest of flowers the prime favourite alike climate is everywhere remarkably healthful ; mal
The rainfall of childish and poetic garlands, and invested its arial diseases are nearly unknown. many names (Eng. Day's cye, Scot. Gowun, Fr.
is relatively low, but the copious saline elements Marguerite, &c.) with such an unequalled wealth
in the soil, with the generally level surface and of associations that it must here suffice only to
the coolness of the climate, tend to the retention name Chaucer and Burns as foremost laureates of
of moisture; hence the rainfall is usually ample a ceaseless tribute of admiring song.
The Ox-eye for the production of all the ordinary crops. The Daisy is a Chrysanthemum (q.v.).
planting of forests has been greatly encouraged by
local and national legislation. The Missouri River Dák, or DAWK, the mail-post of India ; also, is the principal stream ; it is usually navigable for travelling by Palanquin (q.v.). See BUNGALOW. eight monthis in the year. The other important
Dako'ta, NORTH and SOUTH, two states of the rivers are the James, noted for the fertility of its American Union organized from the former terri- valley ; the navigable Red River, famous for its tory of Dakota and ulmitted into Copyright 1899 in (1.S.
rich alluvial basin; the Big Sioux, Vermilion, the Union in 1890. The tract is
White, Cheyenne, Bail, Moreau, Grand, Cannon bounded N. by Assiniboia anil
Ball, Heart, Little Missouri, Maple, and the Mouse Manitoba (Canaila); E. by Minnesota and Iowa ; S. or Souris. The north-east section of North Dakota by Nebraska ; and W. by Montana and Wyoming. | is tributary to Hudson Bay through the Red River ;
by J. B. Lippincott
but the far greater part of the Dakotas belongs to One of the most eminent members of this family was
Dale, DAVID, was born 6th January 1739 at
round the country, buying up the homespun linen rate, and the portion still open for occupation by yarn, next became clerk to a silk-mercer, then actual settlers had, by 1888, been reduced to one
an importer of French and Dutch yarns. On fourth of the territory. The larger proportion of Arkwright's visiting Scotland it was agreed that the incoming settlers are from the older northern together at New Lanark near the Falls of Clyde. states and from Canada ; but many come from There Dale built mills, and became prosperous. In Scandinavia, Britain, and Germany, and not a few (Mennonites) froin Russia. The manufacturing whose manager was the famous Robert Owen,
1799 he sold these mills to a Manchester company interests of the Dakotas are for new agricultural husband of Dale's daughter. Dale spent his last states singularly diversified and extensive. Railways, including the Northern Pacific line, have been years in active works of benevolence in Glasgow, pushed extensively, and their construction has pre-called itself the Old Independents. He died at
and in preaching to a church of his own which ceded, not followed, the settlement of the country.
Glasgow, 17th March 1806.
Dalecarlia, or DALARNÉ (signifying 'valleynormal schools and a universally prevalent system
country'), an old province of central Sweden, now of free schools have been established. Among the forming the län or county of Kopparberg. The principal towns of North Dakota are Bismarck, the
Dalecarlians are celebrated for the part they took capital, Fargo, Wahpeton, Grand Forks, Pembina,
under Gustavus Vasa in freeing their country from Jamestown, &c. ; of South Dakota, Pierre, the the yoke of Christian II. of Denmark. capital, on the Missouri River, Deadwood, in the D'Alembert, JEAN LE ROnd, mathematician Black Hills, Sioux Falls, Yankton, Watertown, &c. and encyclopædist, was born in Paris, November
Pop. of the territory of Dakota (1860) 4837; | 16, 1717, and was found the day after his birth near (1870) 14,181 ; (1880) 135, 177. Area of North Da- | the church of St Jean-le-Rond, from which he kota 70,795 sq. m. ; pop. in 1890, 182,719. Area of derived his name-the surname he himself added South Dakota 77,650 sq. m.; pop. in 1890, 328,808. long after. He was the illegitimate son of Madame
History.---The first real and permanent white de Tencin and the Chevalier Destouches, and was settlement in Dakota was probably established by brought up by the wife of a poor glazier ; but his French Canadian settlers near Pembina about 1780. father, without publicly acknowledging the paterLord Selkirk in 1812, by a mistake, built his fort of nity, secured to him an allowance of 1200 francs Pembina south of the Canadian line; there were a year. At twelve the boy entered the Collège fur-trading posts established at least as early as Mazarin, where he soon showed his lifelong passion 1808. By a treaty with the Dakota Indians in for mathematical studies. On leaving college, le 1851 a large part of the country was opened to returned to the humble home of his kind fosterwhite settlement. The territory was established mother, where he continued to live and pursue his anil organised in 1861. Yankton was the capital favourite studies for thirty years, broken only by until 1883, when Bismarck became the seat of two ineffectual attempts to earn a living by law and government. During the congressional session of medicine. You will never,' said his foster-mother, 1888-89 provision was made to admitit into the Union be anything but a philosopher ; and what is a as two states—North Dakota and South Dakota.
philosopher, but a fool who torments himself during Dalai'-Lama. See LAMAISM.
liis life that people may talk about him when he is
dead?' His first distinction was admission at Dalbeattie, a town of Kirkcudbrightshire, near Urr Water, 15 miles SW. of Dumfries.
twenty-three to the Academy of Sciences. Two Founded in 1780, it owed its importance to the which reduces all the laws of motion to the con
years later appeared his Traité de Dynamique, neighbouring Craignair granite-quarries (now to a
sideration of Equilibrium, thereby making an large extent exhausted), and to its polishing-works, which furnished granite for the Liverpool and epoch in mechanical philosophy. Later works Odessa Docks, the Thames Embankment, and which gained the prize of the Academy of Berlin many more works, both at home and abroad. Pop.
1746, and which contains the first conception and (1841) 1430; (1881) 3861 ; (1891) 3149.
use of the Calculus of Partial Differences; Traité Dalberg, the name of an ancient and noble de l'Équilibre et du Mouvement des Fluides (1744); German family which long held by hereditary right Recherches sur la Précession des Équinoxes et sur la the office of chamberlain to the archbishopric of Mutation de l'Axe
de la Terre (1749); and Recherches Worms. So great was the renown of the Dalberg sur Différents Points Importants du Système du family, that at every coronation of a German Monde" (1754). His Opuscules Mathématiques (8 vols. emperor the royal herald exclaimed : 'Is there no
1761-80) contain an immense number of memoirs, Dalberg here?' whereupon the representative of some on new subjects, some containing developthe family kneeled, and received from the new ments of his previous works. emperor the dignity of 'first knight of the empire.' But D'Alembert did not confine himself to
physical science. For the great Encyclopédie was elected for Haddingtonshire. On the death of planned by Diderot he wrote the famous Discours his father in 1838 he entered the House of Peers Préliminaire, a noble tribute to literature and as Earl of Dalhousie. In 1843 Sir Robert Peel philosophy, a model of lucid and eloquent exposi- appointed him Vice-president of the Board of Trade, tion, although its classification of the sciences is and in 1845 he succeeded Mr Gladstone as Presiopen to question. Besides numerous articles in the dent of the Board. The railway mania' threw an Encyclopédie (the mathematical portion of which immense amount of labour and responsibility upon he edited), he published books on philosophy, his department; but the energy, industry, and literary criticism, the theory of music, and a administrative ability he displayed in his office, no treatise, Sur la Destruction des Jesuites (1765), less than his readiness and fluency in parliament, which involved him in controversy. He became marked him out for the highest offices in the secretary to the Academy in 1772, and there state. When Peel resigned office in 1846, Lord after he wrote the lives of all the members | John Russell paid the Earl of Dalhousie the rare deceased between 1700 and that year-one of the compliment of asking him to remain at the Board most pleasing of his works. His literary works of Trade, in order to carry out the regulations he have been published in a collected form, new had framed for the railway system. In 1847 he edition, by Bossange (Paris, 5 vols. 1821). This was appointed Governor-general of India, as sucedition contains his correspondence with Voltaire cessor to Lord Hardinge, and arrived in Calcutta, and the king of Prussia, His scientific works January 12, 1848—the youngest governor-general have never been collected.
ever sent to that country. His Indian adminisSo yenuine was D'Alembert's love of independ- tration was not less splendid and successful in ence that wealth and rank had no fascination regard to the acquisition of territory than in the for him. Frederick II. of Prussia offered him means he adopted for developing the resources the presidency of the Academy of Berlin in of the country, and improving the administration 1752, but he declined to leave France, and only of the East Indian government. Pegu and the accepted a subsequent offer of a pension of 1200 Punjab were conquered ; Nagpur, Oudh, Sattara, francs. The king of France granted him a Jhansi, and Berar were annexed-altogether, four similar sum.
In 1762 Catharine 11. of Russia great kingdons, besides a number of minor prininvited him, through her ambassador, to undertake cipalities, were added to the dominions of the Queen. the education of her son, with a salary of 100,000 Railways on a colossal scale were planned, and partly francs; and when he declined, she wrote him an commenced ; 4000 miles of electric telegraph were autograph letter, urging that to refuse to contribute spread over India; 2000 miles of road between to the education of a whole nation was inconsistent Calcutta and Peshawur were bridged and metalled; with his own principles ; and inviting him, if he the Ganges Canal, the largest of the kind in the could not reconcile himself to the breaking-off of country, was opened ; important works of irrigahis pursuits and friendships, to bring all his friends tion all over India were planned and executed; with him, and she would provide both for them and the department of public works was reorganand for him everything they could desire. But ised. Among other incidents of his beneficent adhe remained steadfast. D'Alembert never married. ministration may be mentioned his energetic action He was tenderly, attached for many years to against suttee, thuggee, female infanticide, and the Mademoiselle Espinasse, with whom he lived in the slave-trade; the organisation of the Legislative same house in Platonic affection for nearly a dozen Council ; the improved training of the civil service, years, but who was scarce worthy of his devo- which was opened to all natural-born subjects of tion. Her death in 1776 was a crushing blow to the British crown, black or white; the successful the philosopher. His own health began to give development of trade, agriculture, forestry, mining; way; for he was suffering from the stone, and and a great reform in the postal service of India. would not consent to an operation. He died in a minute which he drew up on resigning office, he October 29, 1783.
reviewed with pardonable pride the events of his Dalgarno, GEORGE, an almost forgotten but eight years' governor-generalship. His constitution very able author, was born at Aberdeen about had never been strong, and it gave way under the in
cessant labour and responsibility imposed upon him 1626, studied at Marischal College, and afterwards kept a school in Oxford for thirty years, where he by his noble ambition. Meanwhile, honours had died August 28, 1687. He deserves to be remem
been showered upon him by his Queen and country bered for two remarkable works-the Ars Signorum, Knight of the Thistle ; in 1849 he received the mar
with no sparing hand : in 1848 lie was made a vulgo Character Universalis et Lingua Philosophica (1661), and Didascalocophus, or the Deaf and Dumb quisate, the
thanks of both Houses of Parliament Man's Tutor ( 1680). The former is a very ingenious and of the East India Company for the 'zeal and attempt to represent and classify ideas by specific British India in the contest with the Sikhs; in arbitrary characters irrespective of words. It contains thie germs of Bishop Wilkins's subsequent 1852, on the death of Wellington, he was nominspeculations in his work, A Real Character and ated by the then prime-minister, the Earl of Derby, a Philosophical Language (1668).
to the office of Constable of Her Majesty's Castle
Leibnitz has repeatedly alluded to it in complimentary terms.
of Dover and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. The latter work has for its design to bring the
Dalhousie sailed fronı Calcutta in March 1856. On way of teaching a deaf man to read and write as
his arrival in England he was unable to take his
seat in the House of Lords; and the remainder near as possible to that of teaching young ones to speak and understand their mother-tongue.'
of his days was spent in much plıysical_suffering
and prostration of strength. On 19th December Dalhousie, JAMES ANDREW BROUN-RAMSAY, 1860 he died at Dalhousie Castle in his 48th year, MARQUIS OF, Governor-General of India, and leaving behind him a name that ranks among the "greatest of Indian proconsuls,' was the third son highest in the roll of Indian viceroys for statesof the ninth Earl of Dalhousie, and was born manship, administrative vigour, and the faculty April 22, 1812, at Dalhousie Castle, Midlothian. He of inspiring, confidence among the millions suliwas educated at Harrow, and graduated at Christ jected to his sway. As he died without male Church, Oxford. In 1832, ly the death of his only issue, bis title of marquis became extinct, the remaining brother, he succeeded to the courtesy title earldom of Dalhousie and other Scottish honours of Lord Ramsay. In 1835 he stood unsuccessfully reverting to his cousin, Baron Panmure. His for Edinburgh in the Conservative interest: in 1837 policy of annexation has been blaned for the
mutiny which broke out ere his death ; but though, Dalmatia, a narrow strip of Austrian territory in Justin M'Carthy's words, 'he was a man of com extending along the Adriatic Sea, and bounded on manding energy and indomitable courage, with the the N. by Croatia, on the E. by Bosnia, Herzeintellect of a ruler of men and the spirit of a con govina, and Montenegro. Area, 4940 sq. m.; queror,' he was also of a most sensitive conscience, pop. (1886) 510,372. The coast of Dalmatia and and entered on the Sikh and Burmese wars and numerous adjacent islands is everywhere steep embarked on a policy of annexation against his will. and rocky, and the chief towns, all of which are See the articles INDIA, OUDII, PEGU, PUNJAB, on the coast, are Zara, Sebenico, Lissa, Spalato, SIKHS ; the Duke of Argyll's India under Dalhousie Brazza, Ragusa, and Cattaro. The country is moun. and Canning (1865); and Captain Lionel Trotter's tainous, chiefly dry moorland, with numerous small Dalhousie in the 'Statesmen 'series (1889).
lakes and rivers, most of which dry up in summer. Dalias, a town in the Spanish province of The highest mountain is Orjen, near Cattaro, 6235 Almeria, at the foot of the Sierra de Gador, with feet. The climate is uncertain; mean temperature a pop. of about 9500, who are employed chiefly about 60°; rainfall about 28 in. The Bora (q.v.) in mining and smelting.
wind is much dreaded. About one-ninth of the Dalkeith, a town of Midlothian, 6 miles SE.
land is arable, and produces wheat, barley, oats, of Edinburgh, on a tongue of land between the produced. Nearly half of the land is in pasture,
maize, rye,' and potatoes. Wine and olives are also North and South Esks. There is a large corn exchange (1855-); of nearly a dozen places of wor
and wood occupies about a third. The islands ship the only old one is the parish church, collegiate
are not very fertile, but supply good timber for once, of which Norman Macleod was for three fisheries are the chief industries.
shipbuilding Cattle-rearing, seafaring, and the
The annual years minister. The chief glory of the place is value of the exports and imports is £1,500,000. Dalkeith Palace, a seat of the Duke of Buccleuch The exports consist principally of wine, oil
, (see SCOTT). Standing near the end of the High brandy, hides, wool, wax, honey, and fruits. Of Street, in a beautiful park of 1035 acres, it is a Grecian edifice, built in 1700 by Sir John Vanbrugh 55,000 are Italians, 1000 Albanians, 1000 Germans,
the whole population, it is computed that about for Monmouth's widowed duchess. The castle, its
500 Jews, and the remainder consists of Southern predecessor, was the seat first of the Grahams, Slavonians-chiefly Dalmatians and Morlaks. The and then of the Douglases from the 14th century Dalmatians are a fine race of men, bold and brave till 1642, when the ninth Earl of Morton sold it to
as seamen and soldiers, and formerly were the the second Earl of Buccleuch. Dalkeith thus has main support of the military power of Venice. memories of the Regent Morton (the ‘Lion's Den' the castle was called in his day), of General Monk kingdom, and, after many unsuccessful attempts,
In ancient times Dalmatia was a considerable (1654-59), and of visits from James IV., James VI., Charles I., Prince Charles Edward, George of Augustus.
was first subjugated by the Romans in the time IV., and Queen Victoria. It is the scene, too, of Dalmatia, which had formed the most southern
On the fall of the Western Empire, Moir's Mansie Wauch. Pop. (1841) 4831 ; (1881) | part of the province Illyricum, was captured by 6931 ; (1891) 6952.
the Goths, from whom it was taken by the Avari Dallas, capital of Dallas county, Texas, on (490), who in their turn yielded it to the SlavoTrinity River, 265 miles NNW. of Houston by rail. nians about 620. The state founded by the SlavoIt is a flourishing place, with colleges for boys nians continued until the beginning of the 11th and girls, a medical institute, a number of flour, century, when King Ladislaus of Hungary.incormills and grain-elevators, several foundries, and porated a part of Dalmatia with Croatia, while the manufactures of woollens, soap, &c. Pop. (1880) other part, with the title of duchy, placed itself 10,358 ; (1890) 38,067.
under the protection of the Venetian republic, Dallas, GEORGE MIFFlin, an American diplo The Turks afterwards made themselves masters of matist and statesman, was born in Philadelphia, a small portion ; and by the peace of Campo-Formio July 10, 1792. His father, A. J. Dallas (1759- | (1797), the Venetian part of Dalmatia, with Venice 1817), was a distinguished lawyer of West Indian itself, became subject to Austrian rule. When birth and Scottish descent, who filled with credit Austria, in 1805, håd ceded this part of Dalmatia the positions of secretary of the treasury and
to Napoleon, it was annexed to the kingdom of acting-secretary of war under President Madison. Italy; afterwards (1810) to Illyria. Since 1814 The younger Dallas graduated at Princeton Col Dalmatia forms part of Austria ; the commune of lege in 1810. In 1813 he was admitted to the bar, Spizza being added by the Congress of Berlin in and soon after entered the diplomatic service. In 1878. 1831 he was sent to the United States senate by See Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro the Pennsylvania legislature. He was United (1848); Paton, Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic States minister to Russia from 1837 to 1839, and (1849); Wingfield, Tour in Dalmatia (1859); Yriarte, in 1844 was elected vice-president of the United
Les Bords de l'Adriatique (1878); Freeman, Sketches from States. In 1846 his casting-vote as president of Henri Cons, La Province Romaine de Dalmatie (1882);
the Subject and Neighbouring Lands of Venice (1881); the senate repealed the protective tariff of 1842, and Jackson, Dalmatia, the Quarnaro, and Istria (1887). though he had previously been considered a Pro
Dalmatian Dog, or CARRIAGE-DOG, a variety tectionist. His course on this question aroused much indignation in Pennsylvania. He was sent
of dog closely resembling in size and shape the moilern pointer.
It is often kept in stables, beto Great Britain as United States minister at St James's from 1856 to 1861. He died at Philadelphia, running after carriages.
comes attached to the horses, and may be seen
Its colour should be December 31, 1864. His principal published writings were posthumous; they include a very read. diameter regularly distributed over its body, in.
white with black spots not more than an inch in able and entertaining Series of Letters from London cluding its ears and tail. Its origin is uncertain ; was marked by assiduous devotion to official duties, leading; and it is supposed that it may have been which left him little leisure to look after his own brought from India,
where a very similar kind of private interests, and he lived and died a poor | dog exists.
Dalmatic (Dalmatica), the deacon's robe in Dalles. See COLUMBIA RIVER.
the Roman Catholic Church. The most ancient Dalling, LORD. See BULWER.
form of the dalmatic is exhibited in the annexed