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DARK AGES

DARMSTADT

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yield in 1883 was 8,080,293 lb. See the Report of off by nine o'clock A.M. Such an undertaking, so the Indian Survey for 1883–84.

daring in itself, and so successfully carried out, Dark Ages. See AGE.

filled every one with the warmest admiration. Darley, Felix 0. C., an eminent American

The lighthouse at Longstone, solitary and unartist, was born at Philadelphia, June 23, 1822.

known no more, was visited by many of the wealthy He early gave himself to drawing with such and the great. Presents, testimonials, and money success as to encourage him to devote himself

were heaped at the feet of Grace Darling ; but she exclusively to art, especially in the form of book

did not long survive her change of circumstances. illustration. His earliest important work was a

She died of consumption, after a year's illness, on series of drawings for the Library of Humorous

20th October 1842. See Grace Darling, by E. American Works, after producing which he went Hope (1876), and the Journal of William Darling to New York (1848), where his outline drawings

(1886). to Washington Irving's Legend of Sleepy Hollow Darlington, a parliamentary and municipal and Rip Van Winkle soon spread wide his reputa- borough in the south of the county of Durham, on tion. Later works, not less popular, are his illus- a slight elevation overlooking the Skerne near its trations of Judd's Margaret, and to Cooper's, junction with the Tees, 23 miles S. of Durham, and Dickens's, and Simms's novels. In 1868, after 45 NNW. of York. The chief industry of the some years' residence in Europe, he published place is connected with the extensive locomotive both illustrations and letterpress of Sketches Abroad works, which give employment to many workers. with Pen and Pencil. Died March 27, 1888.

There are iron and steel works in the north end of Darling, a name applied to a river, a mountain the town; brewing and tanning are carried on; and range, and two districts in Australia, is derived from

there are wool-mills. Pop. (1821) 6551 ; (1851) Lieutenant-general Sir Ralph Darling (1775-1859), 11,228 ; (1871) 27,730 ; (1881) 35,102 ; (1891) 38,060, who was governor of New South Wales (1825–31 ). of whom many belong to the Society of Friends, (1) The river Darling, a tributary of the Murray long a prominent and influential element amongst River, is formed by the union of several head-streams,

the inhabitants. Darlington was created a parliaall of which rise in the great Dividing Range. The mentary borough, sending one member to parliachief of these head-streams are the Barwon and ment, in 1867. Its prosperity dates from the openGwydir. Farther down, the Darling receives the ing, on 27th September 1825, of the Stockton and Culgoa and the Warrego from the north, and the Darlington Railway, which was the first passengerBogan from the south. Its length, with 'attluents, line on which a locomotive-engine was employed ; is stated at 1160 miles, and it and its tributaries and that locomotive now stands on a pedestal outare estimated to drain an area of 198,000 sq. m.

side the station. From the 11th century onwards It joins the Murray at Wentworth, on the border the town belonged to the bishops of Durham, and between New South Wales and South Australia,

till 1867 a borough bailiff, appointed by the bishop, having received no tributary in its lower course.

managed its affairs ; in that year it obtained a Much of the district traversed by it is an arid charter of incorporation. St Cuthbert's collegiate plain, save near the river-bank; the river is subject church, a very line specimen of Early English, was to tloods. (2) The Darling Range, in Western

founded in 1160 by Bishop Pudsey, and was restored Australia, runs parallel to the west coast, at a

by Sir G. G. Scott in 1869. It has three beautiful distance of 10 to 25 miles inland, from the south sedilia, and a tower 180 feet high. Among the west corner of the colony to a point some 250 miles chief modern erections are the other churches farther north. The range has a height of from (Anglican, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and Non. 1500 to 2000 feet; and in Mount William attains conformist), the spacious new railway station (1887), an elevation of 3000 feet. (3) The Darling district

a grammar-school, a high school for girls, a British at the south-western corner of New South Wales, and Foreign School Society's college for female scantily watered, has an area of 50,000 sq. m. (4) teachers, and the banks of Backhouse & Co., and The Darling Downs form the richest" pastoral Pease & Co., A free library was opened in 1885, district of Queensland, in the southern part of the

for which Mr Edward Pease hail bequeathed colony. This is an upland district on and about £10,000. At Oxen-le-field, 3 miles from Darlington, the summit of the Dividing Range. It was dis

are curious cavities of unknown origin, called Hell covered by Allan Cunningham, the botanist, in

Kettles; and near Darlington was the seat of 1827, and has an area of 6080 sq. m. There is also George Allan the antiquary (1736-1800). much fine agricultural land in which the cereals, Darlingtonia, a genus of remarkable American potatoes, and all kinds of vegetables grow well. Pitcher-plants, belonging to the family of SarraceniThe western railway traverses the northi, and the aceae (q.v.); and like its congeners, is insectivorous. southern line the extreme east of this district. See INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS.

Darling, GRACE, a name famous in the annals Darmstadt, a town of Germany, capital of heroism, was the daughter of William Darling of the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, is (1795–1860), lighthouse-keeper on Longstone, one situated on the small river Darm, 15 miles S. of of the Farne Islands, and was born at Bamborough, Frankfort-on-Main. The streets of the old town 24th November 1815. On the morning of the 7th are narrow, but those of the new town exhibit September 1838, the Forfarshire, bound from Hull many imposing specimens of architecture. Darmto Dundee, with sixty-three persons on board, stadt has several public squares, and fine public struck the Harker's Rock, among the Farne gardens and promenades. Besides the arsenal, Islands, and in lifteen minutes forty-three persons the barracks, and the various religious edifices, were drowned. The vessel was seen by Grace it possesses two palaces. One of these, the Darling from the lighthouse at a quarter to five old ducal palace, contains museums of painting, lying broken on the rocks. Darling and his natural history, and archaeology, and a library of daughter agreed that if they could get to her, 500,000 volumes; in the other, Prince Charles's some of the shipwrecked crew, would be able to palace, is Holbein's famous Mever Madonna,' assist them in getting back. By wonderful The handsome post-office dates from 1881, the strength and skill, they brought their boat to theatre from 1871. There are manufactures of where the sufferers ( nine in number) crouched. The chemicals, hats, machinery, tobacco, playing-cards, solitary woman and four men were safely taken carpets, and beer; and a trade in iron, petroleum, to the Longstone ; two of the men returned with fruit, flour, and wine. But the place depends more Darling, and succeeded in bringing the remainder on its ducal court and government offices than on

682

DARNEL

DARTMOOR

its industries. Pop., with suburb (1875), 44,088 ; Though aquatic in habit, they rest and nest on (1885) 51,323 ; (1890) 56,503.

trees. The American species figured is over three Darnel (Lolium temulentum), an annual grass

feet in length. of the same genus with the valuable

Dartford, a thriving market-town of Kent, in Rye-grass (9.v.)—from which it may be the narrow valley of the Darent, 2 miles above its distinguished by the absence of the per- intlux to the Thames, and 17 ESE. of London. ennial rootstock, by the empty glume, Edward III. here founded an Augustinian nunnery equalling or exceeding the five to seven (1355); St Edmund's chantry was a great place of (instead of eight to fifteen) flowered pilgrimage ; and at Dartford Wat Tyler commenced spikelet, and the awn long instead of his rebellion (1381). The church, with a Norman short, or absent-is common in corn

tower, was restored in 1863 ; among its interesting fields in England and many parts of monuments is one to Sir John Spielman, Queen Europe. It is the tares of the parable, Elizabeth's jeweller, who in 1588 established at and has from ancient times been reputed | Dartford what is said to have been the first paperto have a narcotic poisonous seed, to mill in England. Paper is still manufactured, which many bad effects were ascribed, | besides steam-engines and machinery, gunpowder, which, in years of bad harvest, were

&c. The modern buildings include a county courtobserved to ensie upon the eating of house (1859), assembly rooms (1860), and, in the bread or the feeding of horses upon oats. neighbourhood, the City of London lunatic asylum The poisonous properties have been (1866). Pop. of parish (1851) 6224;.(1881) 10,163 ; denied by some botanists, and again (1891) 11,962. See the local histories by Dunkin maintained by others, the most recent (1844) and Bayly (1876). investigations on the whole confirming the ancient view. The seed may lie in

Dartmoor is a great granitic upland in Devonthe ground for several years without shire, the source, with two exceptions, of all the germinating, and then appear suddenly principal rivers of the county, remarkable alike for in great quantity in a wet season. It its wild and rugged scenery, its antiquities, its wide, can, however, be eaten by cattle with solitary, trackless wastes, and its mineral products. impunity.

It is upwards of 130,000 acres in extent, the extreme Darnétal, a town in the French de length from north to south being 25 miles, and the

extreme breadth from east to west 20 miles. The partment of Seine-Inférieure, 2. miles E.

outline is irregular. The central portion is the of Rouen, withı manufactures of cotton, ancient royal forest of Dartmoor, and this is surDarnel. linen, and cloth goods. Pop. 6532.

rounded by a belt of open country, once known as Darnley, HENRY STEWART, LORD, husband of the Commons of Devonshire,' but portions of which Mary, Queen of Scots, was the eldest son of the have been inclosed. The attempts to cultivate DartEarl of Lennox by Lady Margaret Douglas, so a moor itself have been very few, and the northern grandson of Margaret Tudor, and a cousin of Mary. quarter for miles shows no trace of man, but the valBorn in 1546, in England, where also he was leys through which the rivers descend to the lowland educated, he was handsome in appearance, accom- country are singularly fertile, and at times full of plished in manners, but fatally destitute of all beauty. The moor itself affords valuable mountain moral and intellectual power. He perished by a pasture to cattle, sheep, and large numbers of halfgunpowder explosion at Kirk-of-Field, Edinburgh, wild ponies. The forest rights belong to the duchy 10th February 1567. Darnley is interesting chiefly of Cornwall ; but there are rights of pasturage on account of the position which he occupied with exercised by holders of what are called venville respect to his wife. "See MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS. tenures in certain parishes bounding the moor,

Darter (Plotus), a genus of birds nearly allied which date prior to the Norman Conquest. to Cormorants (q.v.), but very heron-like in gait The average height of Dartmoor above the sea is and gesture. The four species are severally re

upwards of 1200 feet, but its highest point, High stricted to the warm parts of America, Africa, Willhayes, is 2039 feet; and the next, Yes Tor,

2030. The hills are commonly called tors, and for the most part have granite crests, weathered into grotesque and picturesque shapes. The whole of Dartmoor is of granite, protruded between the close of the Carboniferous and the opening of the Triassic periods. Devonian rocks mantle round its southern extension, and Carboniferous round its northern, associated at various points with gabbros, dolerites, and other intrusive rocks. The granite is chiefly gray, but there are rich red varieties, as at Trowlesworthy. Large quantities of the ordinary stone have been quarried, especially at Hey Tor and King Tor. Dartmoor is rich in minerals. Tin has been raised for many centuries, long before the dawn of history, by streaming in the valleys, and vestiges of the ancient mining operations of the old nen' abound. Copper, iron, and manganese have also been worked, but mining is now carried on at a few points only.

Gold has frequently been found in the river-beds. Darter (Plotus anhinga).

The tinners of Devon bad a quasi-corporate exist

ence in Saxon times, and their rights were conAsia, and Australia. The head is small, with firmed by King John and other monarchs. The naked cheeks and throat ; the neck is very long, Stannary Parliaments, in which they managed their thin, and flexible; the bill is long and straight; affairs, were held in the open air on Crockern Tor. the tail and the toes are also long. The darters The most important mineral product of Dartmoor catch fish voraciously and with great dexterity; at the present day is china-clay, or kaolin, which the

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‘snake-neck' well describes them. is the result of the decomposition of the felspar

name

DARTMOUTH

DARWIN

683

a

of the granite. The largest china-clay works in general in Austria and Prussia, and a councillor England are at Lee Moor, and are connected by of state, while in 1818 Louis XVIII. made him a a tramway with wharves at Plymouth.

peer. Thenceforth he devoted himself exclusively The faina and flora of Dartmoor have many to letters. He died a member of the Institute and points of interest. Trees are very rare; but there of the Academy of Sciences, 5th September 1829. is a very singular group of gnarled and stunted Of his many books the chief are Cléopédie, ou oaks on a slope overlooking the West Dart, near Théorie des Réputations Littéraires (1800), Crockern Tor, of high antiquity and weird aspect, spirited poem; Histoire de la République de Venise which has been called one of the 'wonders of the (7 vols. 1819-1821); and Histoire de la Bretagne moor'. - Wistman's Wood.'

(3 vols. 1826). —His son, NAPOLÉON DARU, born The chief rivers rise at a height of over 1800 feet in 1807, opposed the coup d'état, and was proscribed ; above the sea, in a wide stretch of peat-bog around but became a member of the National Assembly in Cranmere Pool—the Dart, Teign, Taw, Okement, 1871, of the senate in 1876. Died in 1890. Lyd, Tavy, and Walkham. From the morasses of

Darwen, a municipal borough of Lancashire, the southern quarter spring the Plym, Yealm,

on the river Darwen, 3.4 miles S. of Blackburn, and Erme, and Avon.

9 N. of Bolton. Cotton is the staple manufacture; Dartmoor is unrivalled in England in the extent

then come paper-making and paper-staining; and and character of its prehistoric and rude stone an

to these and other industries, with its water facili. tiquities-earth works, barrows, kistvaens, menhirs, lines or avenues, cyclopean bridges, circles, quarries, Darwen owes its rapid growth and its

ties, and the neighbouring coal-mines and stone cromlechs, trackways, and pounds or inclosures well-being. It was incorporated in 1878. Among of stones, sometimes containing the remains of

the chief buildings are the free library, the market villages. Many stone implements have been found. hall, the co-operative hall, and the public baths, On several of the tors there are rock basins, formerly erected in memory of Sir Robert Peel." Pop. (1851) called Druidical, but now assigned to the operation 7020; (1881) 29,744 ; (1891) 34,192. of natural causes.

The chief centre of population is Prince Town, Darwin, CHARLES ROBERT, F.R.S., naturalist, named after George IV. when Prince Regent. the discoverer of the principle of natural selection, Here a prison was built (1806) during the war with was born at Shrewsbury, February 12, 1809. His Napoleon, for the reception of prisoners of war. grandfather was Dr Erasmus Darwin, and his father When the war ended it was abandoned, and was at Dr Robert W. Darwin, F.R.S. His mother was a one time used for the manufacture of naphtha from daughter of Josiah Wedgwood, the celebrated potter. peat, which failed, as all attempts to utilise the Darwin was educated at Shrewsbury grammarDartmoor peat beyond the supply of local wants school, studied at Edinburgh University for two have done. In 1855 the buildings were adapted to sessions in 1825–6–7, and entered at Christ's College, their present purpose of a convict prison. Attached Cambridge, in 1828. Already at Edinburgh he had is a fertile reclaimed farm. A very picturesque become a member of the local Plinian Society ; he railway runs to Prince Town. See the Rev. S. took part in its natural history excursions, and read Rowe's Perambulation of Dartmoor (1856).

before it his first scientific paper-a new contribuDartmouth, a seaport and municipal borough It was at Cambridge, however, that his biological

tion to our knowledge of the Flustra or sea-mats. (till 1867 also parliamentary) in the south of

studies seriously began. Here he became acDevonshire, 32 miles S. by W. of Exeter. It is quainted with Professor Henslow, the well-known built in picturesque terraces on a steep slope 300 Botanist, who encouraged his interest in botany and to 400 feet high, on the right bank of the romantic estuary of the river Dart, at a short distance from zoology. His chief taste at this time was for

In 1831 he took his degree of the sea. The streets are narrow, and many of geological research.

B.A., and shortly after was recommended by the houses very old, with overhanging stories, projecting gables, and wood-carvings. St Saviour's Beagle, under Captain (afterwards Admiral) Fitz

Henslow as naturalist to the expedition of H.M.S. Church (circa 1372) has a richly sculptured,

roy, R.N., then about to start for a scientific painted, and gilt stone pulpit, and a beautifully survey of South American waters. He sailed on carved rood-loft. A battery, and the remains

December 27, 1831, and did not return to England of a castle built during the reign of Henry VII.,

Meanstand at the entrance to the harbour. Pop: (1891) while he visited Teneriffe, the Cape de Verde

from his long cruise till October 2, 1836. 6038. Dartmouth is a quarantine port of the Eng: Islands, the Brazilian coast, Monte Video, Tierra lish Channel, and has a considerable trade with the del Fuego, Buenos Ayres, Valparaiso, and the Mediterranean, and in the Newfoundland fisheries.

Chilian region, the Galapagos Archipelago, Tahiti, It is the port of departure of the Castle ' line of mail steamers to South Africa, and a favourite in which last he laid the foundation for his famous

New Zealand, Tasmania, and the Keeling Islands, yachting station-the harbour being deep and land

theory of coral reefs. It was during this long jocked. At Dartmouth, in 1190, the Crusaders, expedition that Darwin obtained that intimate Holy Land. The French burned it in Richard's knowledge of the fauna, flora, and geological con

ditions of many tropical, subtropical, and temreign, but were repulsed, chietly by the women, in an attack in 1401. In 1346 Dartmouth furnished perate climates which so admirably equipped him 31 ships for the siege of Calais. In 1643 Prince form in settling the factors of biological evolution.

at last for the great task he was afterwards to perMaurice besieged and garrisoned it; but in 1646

On his return to England in 1836, he set to work to Fairfax stormed and took it. Newcomen, the inventor of the steam-engine, was born here; Sir He formed the friendship of Sir Charles Lyell and

co-ordinate the results obtained during his voyage. Humphrey. Gilbert was born at Greenway, on the

other scientific leaders, by whose aid he was apopposite side of the Dart; and another great pointed secretary of the Geological Society in 1838. Elizabethan worthy, John Davis, at Sandridge.

A year later, he was elected to the fellowship of the Daru, PIERRE ANTOINE, COMTE, a French Royal Society, and early in 1839 he married his writer and financier, was born at Montpellier, 12th cousin, Miss Wedgwood. In the same year le pubJanuary 1767. At sixteen he entered the army, and lished his Journal of Researches into the Geology rose rapidly, but was flung into prison during the and Natural History of the various Countries visited Terror, where he amused himself by translating by H.N.S. Beagle. From 1840 to 1843 Darwin was Horace. Under Napoleon he was Intendant. | occupied with the publication of the Zoology of the

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Voyage of the Beagle, under government auspices, Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals to which great work (compiled by the leading (1873), Insectivorous Plants (1875), Climbing Plants specialist authorities of the day) he himself con- (1875), The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation tributed an introduction and many notes. In 1842 in the Vegetable Kingdom (1876), Different Forms appeared his work on The Structure and Distribu- of Flowers in Plants of the same Species (1877), and tion of Coral Reefs ; in 1844, Geological Observations The Power of Movement in Plants (1880). His last

Volcanic Islands, and in 1846, Geological work, The Formation of Vegetable Mould through Observations on South America. These works the action of Worms, appeared in 1881. In it Darplaced him at once in the front rank of contem- win showed grounds for believing that the vegetable porary scientific thinkers. In 1851–53 appeared his mould which covers a large part of the globe is valuable treatise on barnacles, A Monograph of the mainly due to the castings of earth-worms, without Cirripedia.

which the greater portion of the land surface of the Three years after his marriage Darwin settled world must necessarily consist of barren rock or at Down, near Beckenham, in Kent, where for thirsty sand. the rest of his days he passed his time as a country It is, however, as the great leader of evolutionary gentleman among his conservatories, his pigeons, biology that Darwin will be mainly remembered his garden, and his fowls. The practical informa- among men. Though not (as is commonly, but tion thus gained (especially as regards variation erroneously, believed) hi self the originator of the and interbreeding) was of invaluable use to him evolution lypothesis, nor even the first to apply the in his later researches. Private means enabled conception of descent with modification to plant him to devote himself unremittingly henceforth, and animal organisms, Darwin was undoubtedly in spite of continuous and distressing ill-health, the first thinker to gain for that conception a wide to the pursuit of science. It was at Down that acceptance among biological experts. By adding Darwin began to occupy himself with the great work to the crude evolutionism of Erasmus Darwin, of his life-the problem of the origin of species. Lamarck, and others, his own specific idea of In 1837 he had already set out to accumulate facts natural selection, he supplied to the idea a suffi. and observations for this purpose. After five years' cient cause, which raised it at once from the level unremitting work, he allowed himself to specil- of a hypothesis to the grade of a verifiable theory. late' on the subject, and drew up some short notes, His kindliness of character, honesty of purpose, which he enlarged in 1844 into a sketch of conclu. | devotion to truth, and attachment to his friends, sions for his own lise. These conclusions embodied rendered him no less remarkable on the moral and in embryo the famous principle of natural selection, emotional than on the purely intellectual side of the germ of the celebrated Darwinian Theory (q.v.). his nature. For many years his health had been With constitutional caution, however, Darwin deextremely feeble, and he had worked under the layed publication of his hypothesis, which was only severest physical disadvantages. He died sudat length precipitated many years later by an denly, after a very short illness, April 19, 1882, and accidental circumstance of a romantic character. was buried with unusual honours in Westminster In 1858 Mr Alfred Russell Wallace, the distin- Abbey. See his Life and Letters by his son, Francis guished explorer, sent home from the Malay Archi- Darwin (1887). pelago a memoir addressed to Darwin himself, for Darwin, ERASMUS, physician, natural philopresentation to the Linnean Society. On opening sopher, and didactic poet, was born 12th December this packet, Darwin found to his surprise that it 1731, at Elston Hall, near Newark, in Nottinghamcontained in essence the main idea of his own shire; entered St John's College, Cambridge, in 1750, theory of natural selection. Sir Charles Lyell and graduated B.A. in 1754, and afterwards studied Sir Joseph Hooker, to whom he communicated the medicine at Edinburgh. After an unsuccessful facts, persuaded Darwin to read a paper of his own attempt to establish a practice at Nottingham, he concomitantly with Wallace's before the Linnean removed to Lichfield, where he married and became Society, which was accordingly done on July 1, a popular physician and prominent figure from his 1858. Urged forward by this strange coincidence, ability, his radical and free-thinking opinions, liis Darwin set to work seriously at once to condense poetry, his eight-acre botanical garden, and his imhis vast mass of notes—the labour of a lifetime perious advocacy of temperance in drinking. After and put into shape his great work on The Origin of his second marriage in 1781, he settled in Derby, and Species by means of Natural Selection, published then at Breadsall Priory, where he died suddenly in November 1859. For an account of the main 18th April 1802. Darwin had once a great reputaideas there promulgated, see DARWINIAN THEORY. tion as a physiologist, but his system is, for the The ook itself, an epoch-making work, was most part, inconsequential, baseless, and untenable. received throughout Europe with the deepest in- At the same time, many of his ideas are original, terest, was violently attacked and energetically suggestive, and contain within them the germs of defended, but in the end succeeded in obtaining important truths. His strength and his weakness recognition (with or without certain reservations) lay in his faculty for seeing analogies in nature. from almost all competent biologists. From the Sometimes he is exceedingly happy in his disday of its publication Darwin continued to work on coveries ; at other times he is quite fantastical. unremittingly at a great series of supplemental The same remarks hold good as regards his verse, treatises, in which his main principles were still where, amid the frequent extravagance and infurther enforced and enlarged, while minor corol: comprehensibility of his notions, there burst forth laries were brought prominently into view. The strains of genuine poetry. The Loves of the Plants Fertilisation of Orchids appeared in 1862, The Vari- |(1789), a part of his chief poem, the Botanic ation of Plants and Animals under Domestication Garden, was happily burlesqued in the ‘Loves of in 1867, and The Descent of Man in 1871. The last the Triangles' in the Anti-Jacobin. Interest in named work, harilly less famous than the Origin of Darwin's speculations has been revived by the Species, derives the human race from a hairy quad; recognition of his partial anticipation of Lamarck's rumanous animal belonging to the great anthropoid views on evolution, and so of his own famous group, and related to the progenitors of the orang: grandson's. His chief works are Zoönomia, or the utan, chimpanzee, and gorilla. In this book | Laws of Organic Life (1794–96); and his PhytoDarwin also developed his important supplementary logia, or Philosophy of Agriculture (1799). See his theory of sexual selection, which on the whole bas Life by Krause, trans. by Dallas (1879). By his been received by scientific thinkers with less favour first wife he was grandfather of Charles Darwin ; than his other ideas. His later works are The by his second, of Francis Galton.

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Darwinian Theory, the explanation of the species, specially concentrating himself upon what evolution of forms of life on our planet, offered seemed to him the weakest point of the preceding by the great naturalist, Charles Darwin (q.v.); theories, the explanation of adaptations. ComFrom the very outset we must carefully guard mencing in 1837, after five years' work, I allowed against the confusion, still widely popular, of myself to speculate on the subject, and drew up Evolution' with Darwinism.' Evolution must some short notes; these I enlarged in 1844 into a clearly be retained to denote the entire drama of sketch of the .conclusions which then seemed to be cosmic change ; Darwinism, therefore, must as probable ; from that period to the present day I clearly be restricted to one particular interpreta- have steadily pursued the same object.' This was tion of the mechanism and plot of this cosmic written as late as 1859, and even then because he drama, of many which have been thrown out by had received a paper from Mr A. R. Wallace (at reflective spectators. Darwin expressed the mode that time exploring the Malay Archipelago), in of the evolutionary process in a classic phrase, which views identical with his own were expressed, the title of his great workThe Origin of Species and thus was compelled to proceed to the publicaby means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation tion of his results. He did so first in a brief outof Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. That line read, by advice of Lyell and Hooker, simulexplanation is not only in itself peculiarly shrewd taneously with Wallace's paper (see Jour. Linn. and well reasoned, luminous and widely appli- Soc., 1858); and in the following year in that fuller cable, but has been of the very greatest import- abstract, as at first he merely regarded it, which ance in awakening biologists and students of all soon became so famous—the Origin of Species. other sciences, and thus ultimately the intelligent Its substance may with advantage be briefly sumpublic, to the facts of the case-to the conscious marised, so far as further compression of such ness of this evolutionary drama.

On the pro

‘intellectual pemmican' is possible. For details mulgation of this new hypothesis as to the mode of and explanations the reader must consult the work occurrence of evolutionary changes in the organic itself (7th ed. 1880 ). world, the whole discussion as to the occurrence of Outline of Origin of Species.'—In order to gain evolutionary change at all speedily came to centre insight, then, into the means of modification, round it; although in view of the powerful argu. Darwin commences with a study of the variation ments for the occurrence of evolution which had of plants and animals under domestication (later been independently addnced by Spencer and others, expanded into a separate work; 2d ed. 1876). it may be admitted this was not quite logical. The Variation and Heredity.While all plants and fact, however, remains. Moreover to the new stand- animals exhibit some degree of variation, this is point afforded by the clear acceptance of both ideas greatest among domesticated species, owing to -evolution and this through natural selection—and their new and less uniform conditions of life. to the energetic application of these, first by Darwin These may act directly on the whole organisation, himself, but soon by a multitude of zealous workers, or on separate parts, and the variation, though we owe a progress which it would as yet be prema- rarely, is sometimes definite, as when size increases ture to estimate, but which has pervaded the whole with quantity of food, or colour changes with its field of biology, and even the fields of all the higher quality; or the conditions may act indirectly by sciences, mental and social, which so largely utilise influencing the reproductive system, which is pecubiological methods and generalisations. Whatever liarly sensitive. "Changed habits produce an inmay be the subsequent development of our evolu- herited effect—e.g. the leg-bones of the common tionary conceptions, the epoch-making importance duck weigh proportionally more, and its wing-bones of the Darwinian theory will be unaltered. Hence less, than in the wild variety, because it tlies less the expediency of the present comparatively full and walks more. So, too, tame mammals acquire exposition of its main positions and of their bear drooping ears, since these are rarely pricked in inys, apart from the larger and more general argu- alarm. One variation is usually correlated with ment under EVOLUTION.

others, thus long-beaked pigeons lave small feet, To the statement of Darwin's theory, therefore, and conversely. All variations tend to be inwe may at once proceed, postulating no more than herited. The popular belief that domestic races that general acquaintance with the aims and results simply revert to the aboriginal stock is unsupported of biology which is now becoming so commonly by facts. current, or which may readily be gained by help of Save that domestic varieties are less uniform the articles Biology and BOTANY.

Nor need any

than wild species, often differ more widely in some statement of the general doctrine of evolution, or of single part, and are fertile when crossed, there is evolutionary theories before Darwin, here detain us, no well-marked distinction between these and sosince these find more fitting place in the general called true species. If, therefore, such varieties as article EVOLUTION.

the different breeds of the dog can be shown to be The failure of pre-Darwinian theories to gain descended from a single wild species, there neces. any very general acceptance among naturalists sarily arises great doubt as to the immutability of was no doubt largely attributable to established closely allied natural species, such as the foxes. prejudice, backed as this was by the predominant While, however, the many breeds of dog appear to authority of Cuvier. This was by no means the have arisen from several wild species, and those of whole explanation. For while those theories cattle also from two or three, our fowls, ducks, rendered it extremely probable that modification rabbits, &c., all certainly arise from a single anceshad occurred, they all fell short, as Darwin pointed | tral species. The case of pigeons is of peculiar imout, in one most important particular. They portance, since pouter, carrier, fantail, and tumbler failed to show how the modification of one species differ so thoroughly, externally and internally, that from another could take place, ‘so as to acquire any ornithologist would be compelled to assign to that perfection of structure and co-adaptation them not merely specific but generic distinctness, which justly excites our admiration ;' since the if he had discovered them in the wild state. There hypotheses of the potency of external conditions, is at least as much difliculty in believing that such of habit, of the volition of the organism itself, and breeds can have proceeded from a common ancestor, so on, alike successively broke down.

as there is in the case of any group of birds in Darwin was especially struck by the distri. nature; and every breeder of these has been firmly butional phenomena he witnessed during his convinced of their descent from distinct species. * Naturalist's Voyage,' and thereafter devoted | Yet all these breeds are proved to come from the himself primarily to the problem of the origin of I common rock-dove (Columba livia; see PIGEON),

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