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DASHKOFF

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Les Amours de Bussy-Rabutin (1850), La Pomme Thylacinus and Phascogale. The former, the d' Eve ( 1853), Le Galanteries de la Cour de Louis XV. Thylacine (q.v.) or Tasmanian wolf, is the largest (1861), Comment Tombent les Femmes (1867), and carnivorous marsupial ; the latter is insectivorous. Les Aventures d'une Jeune Mariée (1870).

See MARSUPIAL. Dashkoff, PRINCESS EKATERINA ROMANOVNA, Date. See CHRONOLOGY. daughter of Count Voronzoil, was born 28th March Date Palm (Phanix), a genus of palms, the 1743, at St Petersburg, and from her earliest youth most important species of which is the Common Date received a careful training. She married Prince Palm, the Palm Tree of Scripture (P. dactylifera), Dashkoff when only fifteen years old, but was left a native of the northern half of Africa, the southa widow three years after. She was an intimate

west of Asia, and some parts of India, and of which friend of the Empress Catharine II., and one of the the cultivation is no less wide, and still extending. heads of the conspiracy formed against Peter III., the success of which secured the throne to Catharine. Soon afterwards quarrelling with Catharine, she obtained permission to travel, and visited Germany, England, France, and Italy, making the acquaintance of many eminent men (among others, Garrick, Dr Blair, and Dr Robertson). The empress and she were reconciled to each other,

was appointed Director of the Academy of Arts and Sciences; and in 1783, President of the Russian Academy, established at her own suggestion in imitation of the French Académie. On the death of Catharine in 1796, she was deprived of her oflices, and ordered by Paul III. to retire to her estates at Novgorod. She died 16th January 1810. Besides writing several comedies and occasional papers, the Princess Dashikofl was mainly instrumental in inducing the Russian Academy to draw up a dictionary of the Russian language, and herself executed part of the work.

Her very interesting autobiography was published in English by her friend Mrs Bradford (2 vols. 1810). Dasyure (Dasyurus), a genus of carnivorous

Date Palm : marsupials, including forms which in the Australian

a, bunch of dates dependent from their spathe; b, portion of leaf. and Tasmanian fauna take the place filled in other regions by carnivores. The large sharp, canines, Some parts of China produce large crops. The stem, the sharp-pointed cusps on the back teeth, and the clawed toes are among the adaptive carnivorous

which is straight and simple, reaches a height of 30 features, and there are others of a more technical

to 60 feet, and bears a head of 40 to so glaucous nature. The dasyures are nocturnal and savage

pinnated leaves, of 8 to 10 feet long, and a number of animals, and as one would expect, peculiarly un

branching spadices, each of which on the female tree tamable. One of the most pronounced is the

bears 180 to 200 fruits (dates, dactyli). A bunch of Tasmanian Devil (D. ursinus), a savage animal,

dates weiglıs 20 or 25 lb., so that an average year's about the size of à badger, with a disproportion: crop, may be reckoned at 300 to 600 11). per tree, ately large and broad head, and massive crowded

and the yield per acre at about twelve times that teeth.

of corn.

From the earliest times fertilisation has The body is plump; the fur is coarse and brownish-black, witli a white band on the chest,

been artificially aided by cutting off the male and another at the end of the back; the tail is suspending them among those of the female tree;

inflorescences just before the stamens ripen, and so avoiding the risks and losses of ordinary windfertilisation. In a palm grove there may be but one male stem to forty or fifty fruit-bearing ones. The Arabs seldom raise palms from seed ; to make sure of the sex they take suckers from female trees known to bear good fruit. The tree begins to bear about the eightlı year, reaches maturity at about thirty years, and does not decline until about the age of one hundred. This is one of the most important and useful of all the palms. In Egypt, and generally in North Africa, Persia, and Arabia, dates form the principal food, and date palms the principal wealth of the people. The ileshy part of the fruit contains 58 per cent.

of sugar, accompanied by pectin, gum, &c. The Tasmanian Devil ( Dasyurus ursinus).

fruit is eaten either fresh or dried, and in the latter state becomes an article of commerce. Cakes

of dates pounded and kneaded together, and so thick, and about half as long as the body. In solid as to be cut with a latchet, are the store of Tasmania these devils' used to commit great food provided for African caravans on their journey havoc among poultry and even sheep, but are being through the Sahara. A sweet juice (date-honey) driven into more and more remote haunts. The can be expressed from the fruits, from which a kinci Spotted Dasyure (D. maculatus ), also Tasmanian, of wine is obtained by fermentation ; also a sort of is a much smaller animal, about the size of a cat. vinegar; an ardent spirit is of course also distilled Another wild cat’ of the same country and Vic from the fermented juice. Palm-wine is also made toria is Mauge's Dasyure (D. maugei or viverrinus). from the sap after the terminal bud is removed. Other species occur in Australia and New Guinea. The bud is eaten as palm-cabbage, similarly also Nearly allied to the dasyures are two genera, the undeveloped panicles of flowers. The date

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DATE PLUM

DAUBENY

near

'stones' or seeds are roasted in North Africa as a Datholite (Gr. dathos, “turbid'), a mineral, substitute for coffee, and have also been introduced colourless or inclining to grayish, greenish, white, into Britain for the same purpose. They are also or yellowish-gray colour, occurring both massive ground and pressed for oil, and the residue used and crystallised 'in rhombic prisms, the edges and for feeding cattle. From leaf-stalks of the common angles of which are commonly replaced by planes. date palm, all kinds of basket and wicker work are It is composed of boracic acid, silica, and lime, with also made, and walking-sticks, fans, &c. The a little water. It has been found both in schistose leaves themselves are made into bays, mats, &c.; and crystalline igneous rocks; and occurs the fibres of the web-like integuments at the base Edinburgh, in Norway, Italy, Connecticut, &c. of their stalks into cordage. The wood is used for

Datia, a native state of Bundelkhand, with building, fences, &c.—The Toddy Palm of the north of India, or Wild Date Palm (P. sylvestris), so

a pop. (1881) of 182,598. The chief town, Datia,

125 miles SE. of Agra, on a rocky eminence, has a nearly resembles this species, that it is doubtful if

pop. (1881) of 28,346. It has several palaces, some it is distinct. In some places, the trees present a now untenanted. curiously distorted and zigzag appearance, from the practice of yearly tapping the alternate sides for the Datiscaceæ, a very small order allied to sap or toddy. This forms a grateful and whole. Begoniaceæ, including only four species, of remote some beverage ; readily also fermenting into palm

distribution. Datisca cannabina, a plant much wine, and by distillation yielding Arrack (9.v.); resembling hemp, is cultivated in Crete and Asia whilst if boiled down it yields the syrup called

Minor for its hemp-like fibre, also as a source of jaggery, from 4 lb. of which 1 lb. of sugar is yellow dyestuff. It has tonic properties. obtained, a single tree producing about 7 or 8 Dative. See DECLENSION. lb. of sugar annually. The operation of tapping

Datu'ra. See THORN APPLE. for toddy spoils the fruit of the tree, which is small and much inferior to the African date. It Daub, KARL, a speculative theologian, was is, however, eaten. - Another species, P. paludosa, born 20th March 1765, at Cassel, studied philosophy the most gregarious of Indian palms, growing and theology at Marburg, and became in 1795 only 6 or 8 feet high, covers the landscape of professor of Theology at Heidelberg, where he the Sunderbunds with the liveliest verdure. P.

died 220 November 1836. An earnest and singuacaulis and P. farinifera are also dwarf and larly open-minded seeker after truth, although closely allied common Indian species. P. re

defective in the true historical sense, and not clinata is a characteristic palm of the Natal

a robust and independent thinker, Daub laboured coast, and P. spinosa of Sierra Leone, &c. incessantly to find a sound basis for a reconciliation Some derive the origin of the colonnade pillar in

between religion and philosophy, and his successive architecture to the regular mode of its planting and writings reflect the whole development of prevailing the use of its stem in building, while in symbolic philosophy from Kant to Hegel. Thus his Lehrbuch interest it stands second to no other plant. The

der Katechetik (1801) rests completely on Kant's symbol of beauty and of victory alike to Hebrews fundamental principles ; again, dominated by the and Hellenes from the earliest times, it passed influence of Schelling's philosophy of identity' readily to the suggestion of victory over death and

are his Theologumena (1806) and Einleitung to glorious immortality; hence alike the name Phenix Christian dogmatics (1810); while Schelling's tranfrom the fabled bird, and the habit of representing sition to theosophy and to positive philosophy' angels and the blessed with palms in their hands.

is mirrored in Dàub's Judas Ischarioth (1816), It was largely used also for decoration of festivals, despite its eccentricities his best work. Hegel was and for strewing in processions. Christ's triumphal called to Heidelberg in 1816, and henceforth it was entry into Jerusalem is still commemorated on

his influence which was dominant over the receptive Palm Sunday (9.v.).

mind of Daub. In his Dogmatische Theologie Date Plum (Diospyros), a genus of Ebenaceæ, (1833) and Prolegomena (1835), he attempts in

the darkest language of the Hegelian dialectic a important for timber (see EBONY, IRONWOOD) and fruit. The Common Date Plum ör Pishamin, also philosophical restoration of the dogmas of the

church. called the European Lotus and the Date of Trebi

Daub's Theol.-philos. Vorlesungen were zond (D. lotus), is a tree of 18 to 30 feet in height, volumes (1838–43). See Rosenkranz's eulogistic but

collected by Marheineke and Dittenberger in seven with oblong shining leaves and small reddish-white flowers, a native of the coasts of the Caspian Sea, Charakteristiken und Kritiken (2d ed. 1844).

uncritical Erinnerungen (1837), and D. F. Strauss, Northern Africa, &c., but cultivated and naturalised in the south of Europe. It can also be grown in

Daubenton, LOUIS JEAN MARIE, naturalist, the south of England. Its fruit is of the size of a was born at Montbar in Burgundy, 29th May 1716. cherry, and in favourable climates larger, yellow, He studied theology at the Sorbonne, but soon

In sweet, and astringent. It is eaten when over-ripe, save himself up to medicine and anatomy: like the medlar, or is used for conserves.

This 1742 his old schoolfellow, Buffon, invited him to fruit has been supposed by some to be the Lotus assist him in the preparation of his great work (9.v.) of the Lotophagi. The Virginian Date Plum, on Natural History, and Daubenton contributed or Persimmon (D. virginiana), is a tree of 30 to 60 richly to the first fifteen volumes of the Histoire feet high, with ovate oblong leaves and pale-yellow Naturelle, until the jealousy of Buffon led to an flowers, a native of the southern states of North estrangement. Daubenton now devoted himself America, where one tree often yields several bushels almost entirely to his duties in the Jardin du Roi, of fruit. The fruit is about one inch in diameter, where he was professor of Mineralogy. He was with six to eight oval seeds. It is not palatable also for a time professor of Natural History in the till mellowed by frost, and is sweet and astringent. College of Medicine. He contributed largely to A kind of beer or cider and an ardent spirit are

the first Encyclopédie, and wrote many valuable made from it. D. Nabola is cultivated as a fruit. mémoires. He died 31st December 1799. tree in Mauritius. D. Kaki, sometimes called the Daubeny, CHARLES GILES BRIDLE, chemist Keg-fig, is a native of Japan, which occasionally and botanist, was born at Stratton in Gloucesteris kept in greenhouses in France and England. shire, llth February 1795. He devoted himself The sweetmeat called Fiques-caques is made from chiefly to the elucidation of natural phenomena by this fruit in France. The fruit of some other the aid of chemical science—his great work being species is also edible-e.g. D. decandra of Cochin- A Description of Active und Ertinct Volcanoes China.

(1826). He also wrote on thermal springs. He D'AUBIGNÉ

DAUDET

693

became professor of Chemistry at Oxford in 1822, (1863) are in the Luxembourg Gallery. He is also of Botany in 1834, and was an F.R.S. Other works known as a book-illustrator and as a vigorous are an Introduction to the Atomic Theory (1831), etcher, having produced over a hundred plates, Lectures on Agriculture (1841), and Lectures on some reproductions, others direct from nature, Climate (1862). Daubeny died December 13, 1867. marked by great frankness of method and free D'Aubigné, JEAN-HENRI MERLE, a popular

painter-like quality. He died in Paris, 19th ecclesiastical historian, was born at Eaux-Vives,

February 1878. near Geneva in Switzerland, 16th August 1794, D’Aubusson, PIERRE, Grand-master of the studied there and at Berlin-under Neander-and order of St John of Jerusalem, surnamed the in 1818 became pastor of the French Protestant Shield of the Church,' was born of a noble French Church in Hamburg. In 1823 he was appointed family in 1423. At an early age he entered the court-preacher at Brussels ; but after the revolu

service of the Emperor Sigismund, and served under tion of 1830, he declined the post of tutor to the the Archduke Albrecht of Austria against the Prince of Orange, and returning to Geneva, took Turks. Returning to France, he served with the part in the institution of the new evangelical Armagnacs against the Swiss, and covered himself church, and filled the chair of Church History in with glory at their defeat near St Jacob (1444). its theological seminary until his sudden death, in He next joined the order of the Knights of Rhodes, the night of October 20-1, 1872. With the excep- and rose rapidly into power, becoming grand-master tion of some visits to England and Scotland, where in 1476. He laboured to bring about a confederahe had numerous readers and admirers, and where tion of all the Christian powers to counteract the he received the degree of D.C. L. from Oxford and triumph of the Turks that followed the fall of the freedom of the city of Edinburgh, he remained Constantinople. Mohammed II.'s career of conconstantly at Geneva. The work which has given quest, which threatened to spread over Western him a widespread reputation is his Histoire de la Europe, was stayed alone by the obstinate bravery Réformation au Seizième Siècle (1835–53); it has of D'Aubusson and his little colony of Christian been translated into most European tongues, and soldiers in the island of Rhodes. In May 1480 an has attracted more notice abroad than at home; it army of 100,000 Turks invested the town, but were is written with a devout, fervid sympathy that is forced to raise the siege after a month's desperate often eloquent, although the narrative is too fighting, leaving behind them as many as 9000 graphic to be everywhere exact. Its popularity dead. Mohammed was filled with fury, and a has been immense. Among his other writings are second attack was only averted by his death in Germany, England, and Scotland (Lond. 1848); a 1481. D’Aubusson died in 1503. vindication of Cromwell (1848); Trois Siècles de Lutte en Écosse ( 1849); and Histoire de la Réforma. May 13, 1840. His family had been in trade, but

Daudet, ALPHONSE, was born at Nîmes on tion en Europe au Temps de Calvin (1862-78).

were not in good circumstances. He was, however, D'Aubigné, THÉODORE AGRIPPA, a famous

well educated at the Lyons Lycée, and was able French scholar, was born on 8th February 1550, when quite a boy to take the place of usher in a near Pons in Saintonge. At an early period he school at Alais, an employment of which, in Le exhibited a remarkable talent for the acquisition Petit Chose and others of his works, he has given no of languages. Although born of a noble family, he

cheerful reminiscences. He was only seventeen inherited no wealth from his father, and conse

when, giving up his ushership, he set out for Paris quently chose the military profession. In 1567 hie

with his elder brother, Ernest, who himself became distinguished himself by his services to the Hugue

a journalist and novelist of some mark. Alphonse not cause, and was subsequently, rewarded by (as also did Ernest) obtained an appointment as Henry IV., who made him vice-admiral of Guienne clerk or private secretary in the office of the Duke and Brittany. His severe and inflexible character de Morny, of whom he has drawn a famous portrait frequently embroiled liim with the court; and after

in Le Nabab. Indeed, one of the main character. Henry's assassination (1610), he betook himself to

istics of M. Daudet's method, and one of the main Geneva, where he spent the remainder of his life

reasons of his popularity with some, and his unin literary studies. He died April 29, 1630, leaving popularity with other readers, is the manner in a worthless son, Constant, who was father of

which he seems to have utilised almost every cirMadame de Maintenon. D’Aubigné's best-known work is his Histoire Universelle, 1550-1601 (Amster- his life in his books.

cumstance and almost every acquaintanceship of

M. Daudet's literary efforts, dam, 1616-20), which had the honour of being however, began with poetry; and his first book, burned in France by the common hangman.

in 1858, was entitled Les Amoureuses. He also D'Aubigné was possessed of a spirit of biting devoted some not too successful years of experisatire, as is proved by his Confession Catholique ment to theatrical work, writing by himself, or du Sicur de Sancy, and his Aventures du Baron

with a collaborator, La Dernière Idole (1862), de Fanesté. See his Histoire Secrete, écrite par L'Eillet Blanc (1865), Le Frère Aîné (1868), Le lui même (1731); also French studies by Réaume Sacrifice (1869), Lise Tavernier, and L’Arlésienne (1883) and Morillot (1884).

(1872), pieces of which the earlier were more sucDaubigny, CHARLES FRANÇOIS, landscape, cessful than the later. Besides this, he contributed painter and etcher, born in Paris in 1817, studied to many journals, especially the Figaro. In this under his father, who was a miniature painter, form appeared some of his best work, the Lettres Paul Delaroche, and others, and from 1838 ex- de Mon Moulin (collected 1869), Robert Helmont hibited in the Salon, although his full recognition (1871), the Contes du Lundi, and others; and it came only after the artist had reached his fiftieth was in these years that he conceived the charmyear. He devoted himself to close and sympathetic ing extravaganza of Tartarin de Tarascon, a study from nature, working much on the Seine in a most amusing satire on the characteristics of house-boat, and developed a style of landscape art the natives of the south of France, which he has marked by singularly unaffected fidelity and origin followed up more recently with a second part, ality. In 1853 he gained a first-class medal with his Tartarin sur les Alpes.

Pool of Gylien.' In 1857 he produced his 'Spring- It was not, however, till many years after his time;' in 1861, “The Banks of the Oise ;' in 1872, literary beginnings that M. Daudet hit on the * Windmills at Dordrecht;' and in 1877, his large style which has made him popular and famous. He and very impressive 'Rising Moon. His Sluices had sketched something of the kind early in Le in the Valley of Optevos' (1855) and his Vintage' | Petit Chose, a book full of pathos and of reminis

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cences of his own early struggles. This pathetic Daumer, GEORG FRIEDRICH, an able but quality is still further developed in Jack (1873), eccentric German writer, was born in 1800 at Nuremthe story of an illegitimate child, part of the in- berg, where for a time he was a professor in the terest of which turns on the half-malicious sketches gymnasium, and where Kaspar Hauser (q.v.) was of certain literary Bohemians; and in Fromont committed to his care. Abandoning the pietism of Jeune et Risler Ainé (1874), where the devotion of his student days, he passed through Schelling's phila man of business to his firm, his wife, and his osophy to a position of bitter antagonism to Chrisbrother, meets in all three cases with an equally tianity, which he wished swept from the face of evil return. These have been followed by Le the earth; but in 1859 he joined the Ultramontane Nabab (1877), a transparent caricature of Morny party, and became one of its foremost champions. and other well-known personages under the empire ; His many philosophical writings reflect his varying Les Rois en Exil (1879), the chief parts in which positions; so late as 1847 he endeavoured to prove are supposed to have been played also by actual that among the ancient Jews and the Christians persons; Numa Roumestan (1882), the hero of of the first century human sacrifice obtained ; from which was supposed to have some resemblance to 1859 he expounded and defended the faith. His Gambetta, and which at anyrate is as remarkable poetical works, especially Mahomet (1848) and the in the serious way as Tartarin in the comic amongst Liederblüten des Hafis, two graceful innitations of satires on the meridional' type ; L'Evangéliste Persian poetry, have gained a high reputation. (1883), in which the then new craze of the Salvation Daumer died at Würzburg, 14th December 1875. Army was introduced ; Sapho (1884), a book somewhať out of M. Dandet's usual line, in which the turist, was born at Marseilles in 1808. Fashion,

Daumier, HENRI, a celebrated French caricamutual infatuation of a young man and a courtesan tittle-tattle, scandal, politics, blemishes of figure, and artist's model is drawn with remarkable if not

and oddities of character in turn inspired his very wholesome power; and L’Immortel (1888), in inexhaustible genius for mockery. Few among his which all the author's powers of ridicule, and all

illustrious contemporaries escaped his pencil, and his practised skill in attacking individuals under a

his caricatures had always some strikingly truthful thin disguise, are employed to throw discredit on feature about them. He made his debut in the the French Academy. The vigour, and within cer

Charivari, in a series of sketches from Robert tain limits, the versatility, of this series of novels is Macaire ; and the revolution of 1848 suggested two not denied by any one; but in addition to the

of his most remarkable series-Idylles Purlemenpersonality already noticed, there has been charged taires and Les Représentants représentés. In his old against the earlier ones at least a following of

age Daumier became blind, and was befriended by Dickens, which can hardly be accidental, though Corot the landscape-painter. He died at Valmon. it has been asserted to be so.

dois, 10th February 1879. M. Daudet married early a lady of talent, who is understood to have rendered him much assist

Daun, LEOPOLD JOSEPH, GRAF VON, com. ance in his literary work, and he formed for some

mander-in-chief of the imperial troops during the time part of a group or coterie of remarkable

Seven Years' War, was the son of Count Wierich literary characters, which included besides himself Philipp von Daun, a distinguished officer in the the Russian novelist Turgéniefl, Gustave Flaubert,

Austrian service, and was born at Vienna, 24th the brothers Goncourt, and M. Zola. He has pub September 1705. Entering his father's regiment, lished at various times autobiographic papers, which

he acquired a reputation during the Turkish camhave been collected as Trente Ans de Paris (1887), paigns (1737–39). The war of the Austrian Succesand Souvenirs d'un Homme de Lettres (1889).

sion also afforded him many opportunities of disDaudnagar, a town in the Gaya district of | for which he was famous. After the peace with

playing that combination of valour and prudence Bengal, on the Soane, 90 miles SW. of Patna. It

Prussia in 1745, Daun fought against the French in is a wretched-looking place, with narrow, crooked

the Netherlands (1746–48), and in 1754 received lanes winding among miserable hovels.

the dignity of field-marshal. Before this, lie had, sesses, however, a considerable river trade, and manufactures coarse fabrics both of wool and of imperial army a new military system, and reorgan

in spite of many obstacles, introduced into the cotton. Pop. 9870.

ised the Military Academy at Vienna. At the comDaulatabad ('fortunate city'), a town and mencement of the Seven Years' War he commanded fort in the Deccan, within the Nizam's dominions, the army of Moravia in 1757, and neutralised the 28 miles NW. of Hyderabad. The fortress consists defeat of the Austrians under General Browne of a conical rock, 600 feet high, with a wide ditch near Prague, by driving Frederick the Great, who and an outer wall nearly 3 miles in circumference. had beleaguered that city, as far as Kolin, and forc. The place surrendered to the Mohammedans in ing him, after a hard-fought battle, to evacuate 1294, and Shah Muhammad Tughlak (1324-51) Bohemia. On the 14th of October 1758 he gained thrice attempted to remove the seat of government another victory over Frederick at Hochkirch, and hither from Delhi. The fortress has not been came near to annihilating the Prussian army. In garrisoned now for many years, and the town has 1759, at Maxen, he compelled Fink, the Prussian greatly decayed. Pop. 1243.

general, with 11,000 men, to surrender. After D'Aulnoy, MARIE CATHERINE JUMELLE DE this, however, he gained no important successes ; BERNEVILLE, COUNTESS, was born about 1650, and Frederick began to understand the tactics of the died in 1705. She wrote many tedious and long. | Austrian Fabius Cunctator,' and to conduct is winded romances long consigned to safe oblivion. campaigns accordingly. Daun died 5th February Of these may here only be mentioned Hippolyte, 1766. Comte de Douglas (1690). Equally worthless are Dauphin (Lat. Delphinus), formerly the title der historical memoirs. But her fame rests securely of the eldest son of the French king, was originon her Contes des Fées, which are written in a ally that of the sovereign lords of the province of simple, bright, and charming style, not altogether Dauphiné, who bore a dolphin as their crest. The unworthy of the inimitable master, Perrault. The last of these, the childless Humbert III., in 1343 White Cat, the Yellow Dwarf, Finette Cendron, bequeathed his possessions to Charles of Valois, and Le Mouton have for two_ centuries been grandson of Philippe VI. of France, on condinaturalised in the nurseries of Europe, and are tion that the eldest son of the king of France still familiar figures in pantomime.

should bear the title of Dauphin of Vienne, and D’Aumale. See AUMALE, DUC D'.

govern the province. As late as the time of Louis

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XI., the dauphin exercised almost sovereign rights; guished himself so much in the royalist cause, but after his time these were gradually abridged, that he was knighted by Charles at the siege of until Dauphiné was placed under the same laws Gloucester (September 1643). D'Avenant again as the rest of the kingdom, and the title became got into difficulties, and was confined in the Tower merely honorary. After the revolution 1830, it for two years, when he was released, it is said, on was abolished altogether. See DELPHIN CLASSICS. the intercession of Milton. Once more he set

Dauphiné, formerly a frontier province in the about establishing theatrical representations, and south-west of France, now forming the departments in 1658 succeeiled in opening a tlieatre. Two years Drôme, Isère, and Hautes Alpes. Its capital was

earlier he had given what was practically the first Grenoble, and it boasted its seven wonders '- opera in England, with Mrs Coleman as the first remarkable caves, mountain-peaks, &c. Once the actress that ever appeared on an English stage. territory of the Allobrogi, after the fall of the After the Restoration, D'Avenant was favoured Roman empire Dauphiné formed the southern- | by royal patronage, and continued to write and most part of the kingdom of Burgundy.

It then superintend the performance of plays until his passed under the dominion of the Franks, and after death, April 7, 1688. His epic, entitled Gondithe disinemberment of the Carlovingian monarchy, bert, a feeble reaction from the romanticism of the it became a portion of the new Burgundian king. Elizabethan poets, consists of fifteen hundred fourdom of Arles. It then passed by legacy into the line heroic stanzas with alternate rhymes—a metre possession of the German emperor in 1032, and which the genius of Gray's Elegy can scarce save remained united with Germany till 1343, when it from the damning sin of monotony; much bepraised was presented to France (see "DAUPHIN). There by its contemporaries, it now sleeps securely in is a history by Chorier (2 vols. 1883).

the same oblivion with the author's Madagascar, Daurat, JEAN, a gifted French scholar, who and his great opera The Siege of Rhodes. A colplayed an important part in determining the course

lected edition of his plays, with memoir, was edited which his country's literature took at the time of by Logan and Maidment (Edin. 5 vols. 1872–74). the Renaissance. He was born about 1510, and

CHARLES D'AVENANT, his eldest son, was born in became president of the Collège Coqueret, where London in 1656, was educated at Balliol College, he superintended the studies of Ronsard, Du

sat in parliament under James II. and William III., Bellay, Baif, and Belleau. These poets, with

was commissioner of excise and joint-licenser of whom he was united in the famous coterie of the plays, under Anne secretary to the Commissioners Pléiade (q.v.), he carefully trained for the task of for Union with Scotland, next inspector-general reforming the vernacular, and ennobling French

of imports and exports. He died 6th November literature by the imitation of Greek and Latin

1714. Among his writings are Discourses on the models. He wrote nothing of importance in

Publick Revenues and the Trade of England (1698), French, but devoted himself to guiding and stimu- and A Discourse upon Grants (1700). lating the other members of the Pléiade, in whose Davenport, capital of Scott county, Iowa, on works his learning and enthusiasm bore rich and the Mississippi, opposite Rock Island (9.v.), 183 enduring fruit. He died in 1588.

miles W. by S. of Chicago by rail. It is the seat of Dauria, a mountainous region of south-eastern Griswold College (1859) and of several Catholic Siberia, between Lake Baikal and the river Argun, institutions, has extensive manufactures of flour, on the Chinese frontier.

wooden and iron wares, and woollen goods, and is Dauw. See HORSE, QUAGGA, ZEBRA.

the shipping depôt of a large grain trade. Pop. D'Avenant, Sir WILLIAM, English poet and

(1880) 21,831 ; (1890) 26,872. playwright, was born in 1606 at Oxford, where

Daventry (pronounced Daintry), an ancient his father kept the Crown Tavern, a house at

municipal borough of Northamptonshire, at the which Shakespeare was in the habit of stopping

sources of the Avon and Nene, 12 miles W. of when on his journeys between London and Strat Northampton, and 4 NW. of Weedon by a branch ford. A story arose later that D'Avenant's birth

line opened in 1888. It is well built on an emiwas due to an intrigue between his mother and

nence, and has two principal streets. Charles I. the great dramatist, but for this there seems to spent six days here in 1615 before the battle of be no foundation, though apparently D'Avenant

Naseby. Pop. (1851) 4430; (1881) 3859 ; (1891) himself was willing enough to barter his mother's

3939. A mile to the east is Danes or Borough Hill, reputation for the credit of such a parentage.

one of the largest Roman camps in the kingdom. Aubrey tells us that D'Avenant would often say, David, capital of Chiriqui (9.v.) in Panamá, when pleasant over a cup of wine, that it seemed lies in a fertile plain on the Rio David, which to him that he wrote with the very spirit that

enters the Pacific 8 miles to the south, StockShakespeare dil, and seemed contented enough raising and the cultivation of tobacco are extento be thought his son.' In his twelfth year the sively engaged in, and there is a considerable trade. precocious boy penned an Ode in Remembrance of Pop. 9000. Master Shakespeare, not printed, however, until 1638. David (Heb., “beloved ’), the second king over After a short period of study at Lincoln College, Israel. He sprang from a family of Judah, and he became page to Frances, Duchess of Richmond ; was the youngest son of Jesse, a man of some subnext passed into the household of the aged poet, stance at Bethlehem. He is described as a handFulke Greville, Lord Brooke, and in 1628 took to some youth, red-haired, with beautiful eyes, and writing for the stage. During the next ten years fair of face,' when he first distinguished himself in he produced many plays, the least poor of which Israel by slaying the Philistine giant Goliath. were The Cruel Brother (1630) and The Wits | After this heroic deed, Saul took him to his court, (1636). In 1638, at the request of the queen, he and appointed him to a military command. Accordwas appointed poet-laureate in succession to Ben ing to another account (1 Sam. xvi. 14-23) it was Jonson. About the same time he lost his nose his skill in playing the harp, and his being sent for through an illness-a calamity which laid him to banish the melancholy of Saul by that means, open to the merriment of such wits as Suckling, that first led to his coming into contact with the Denham, and Sir John Mennis. He afterwards moody king. He had soon to flee from Saul's court, became manager of Drury Lane Theatre, but be. as thie king's jealousy of his supposed rival led him came embroiled in the intrigues of the Civil War, to seek David's life; but, by the craft of his wife and was apprehended and tlung into the Tower. Michal, Saul's daughter, and the friendship of He soon escaped to France, and returning, distin- | Jonathan, Saul's son, he escaped, and fled to the

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