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denied miracles, the Trinity, and atonement by state), Westward Ho, and Northward Ho. A
Christ ; and they may fairly be taken as consti- pamphlet entitled The Bellman of London (1608)
tuting one movement, though they by no means gives a very lively account of the vagabonds of
formed one school or agreed in the details of their London; and Dekker pursued the subject furtlier
teaching. Thus some believed and others rejected in Lanthorn and Candlelight (1608), which passed
the immortality of the soul and human free-will, through several editions. The most famous of his
and they did not all teach the same doctrine as to pamphlets is The Gull's Hornbook (1609), in which
the relation of God to the universe, some being the life of a town-yallant is racily depicted. The
almost pantheistic. They were not for the most Roaring Girl (1611) was partly written by Dekker;
part accurate scholars, and were rather acute than but Middleton must take the chief credit for that
profound thinkers ; but though their influence on excellent comedy. From 1613 to 1616 Dekker was
English thought seemed for a time to be blotted confined in the King's Bench prison. Earlier in his
out, they contributed largely to the progress of career he had spent some time in the Counter
rationalism in Europe. The chief deists were Lord prison. In each case his debts were the cause of
Herbert of Cherbury, called the ‘Father of Deism' his imprisonment. With Massinger he composed
(died 1648), Blount, Tindal, Woolston, Toland, the Virgin Martyr ; and Lamb was doubtless right
Lord Shaftesbury, Lord Bolingbroke, Collins, in ascribing to Dekker the most beautiful scene
Morgan, and Chubb (died 1746). See the separate (II. i.) in that play. The Sun's Darling, licensed
articles on these writers, also CHURCH HISTORY, for the stage in 1624, but not printed until 1656,
RELIGION, RATIONALISM ; Leland, View of the was written in conjunction with Ford. A powerful
Deistical Writers (1754); Lechler, Geschichte des tragedy, The Witch of Edmonton (posthumously
Englischen Deismus (1841); Hunt, Religious published in 1658), was written by Dekker, Ford,
Thought in England (1872); Leslie Stephen, His. and Rowley. We hear of Dekker in 1637, when he
tory of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century republished his Lanthorn and Candlelight under
(1876).

the title of English Villainies, and then he drops Déjazet, PAULINE VIRGINIE, a great French

out of notice. His plays were collected in 1873 actress, born at Paris, 30th August 1797. On the (4 vols.); and his pamphlets, which afford much stage before she was five years old, she grew up

valuable information about English social life in playing children's and boys rôles with marvellous

the early 17th century, were republished in 5 vols.

in Dr Grosart's ‘Huth Library. precocity of intelligence and grace, but first awoke to a sense of her real greatness in an engage De la Beche, SIR HENRY THOMAS, a wellment at Lyons, where her playing of such parts as known geologist, was born near London in 1796. were then known as soubrettes endeared her to He was educated at the military school at Great the citizens. In 1821 she began to play at the Marlow, and entered the army in 1814. Three years Gymnase, but her greatest triumphs were won at after, he became a Fellow of the Geological Society, the Théâtre du Palais-Royal, whither she betook of which he was afterwards made secretary, and herself in 1834. From 1844 to 1849 she played eventually president in 1847. In 1820, while residat the Variétés, next at various Paris theatres, ing in Switzerland, he published a paper on the in the provinces, and at London, till 1859, when temperature and depth of the lake of Geneva. In she undertook the management of the Folies 1824 he visited Jamaica, and published a paper on Dramatiques. She left the boards in 1868, next the geology of the island. Other works are a Manual year received a pension of 2000 francs, and died of Geology (1831), Researches in Theoretical Geology 1st December 1875. See Lives by Lecomte (1866) (1834), and a Geological Observer (1853). He underand Duval (1876).

took to form a geological map of England ; and soon

after he had begun, the government, sympathising Dekker, THOMAS, dramatist, was born in London about 1570. He was a very prolific writer,

with his design, instituted the Geological Survey, but only a few of his plays were printed; In 1600 Geological Museum in Jermyn Street, and of the

and placed him at its head. He was founder of the he published two comedies, The Shoemaker's School of Mines. In 1848 he received the honour Holiday, or the Gentle Craft, and The Pleasant Comedy of Old Fortunatus.

of knighthood; and in 1853 was elected a corre

The first of these sponding member of the Academy of Sciences of pieces is one of the pleasantest of old plays, Paris. He died 13th April 1855. and the second abounds in poetry of rare beauty. Dekker's next play was Satiromastix, or the untruss De la Borde, HENRY FRANÇOIS, Count, a ing of the Humorous Poet (1602), in which Ben French general, born at Dijon, 21st December 1764. Jonson was held up to ridicule. In Every Man out The son of a baker, he enlisted at the outbreak of of His Humour and Cynthia's Revels Jonson had the Revolution, and by 1793 had risen to be general nade some satirical reflections on Dekker ; and of brigade. He distinguished himself in Spain at in The Poetaster (1601) he had assailed Dekker the Bidassoa (1794), next commanded a division on and Marston with bitter vehemence. Long the Rhine under Moreau, was governor of Lisbon in afterwards, in 1619, Jonson told Drummond of 1807, and was ennobled'in 1808. He declared for Hawthornden that Dekker was a knave. Before the emperor on his return from Elba. He died 3d the quarrel Jonson and Dekker had worked in February 1830. harmony; in 1599 they wrote together two plays Delacroix, EUGÈNE, a French painter, chief (which have not come down), Page, of Plymouth of the Romantic school, was born at Charentonand Robert the Second. In 1603 Dekker published Saint-Maurice, near Paris, 26th April 1799. At the a pamphlet entitled The Wonderful Year, which age of eighteen he entered the atelier of Pierre gives a heart-rending account of the sufferings Guérin, a follower of David, and came under the caused by the plague. To the same year belongs far more powerful influence of his fellow-pupil, the very amusing tract The Bachelor's Banquet, in Géricault." In 1822 he exhibited his first work, which he describes with gusto the ills to which 'Dante and Virgil,' the novel force of which henpecked married men are forced to submit. His attracted much attention and won the praise of most powerful writing is seen in The Honest Whore M. Thiers among others. In 1824, Delacroix, who (1604), of which the second part was published in was now at the head of the new school of young 1630. Middleton assisted him in the first part. painters, produced the “Massacre of Scio,' which In 1607 he published three plays written in con was entirely repainted after the artist had studied junction with Webster, the Famous History of Sir a work of Constable's. The July revolution left its Thomas Wyat (which has descended in a mutilated impress on Delacroix, and in 1831 appeared his

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DELAGOA BAY

DELANY

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Liberty directing the People on the Barricades.' of Uranus by Herschel in 1781 gave him the first
In 1832 he made a voyage to Morocco, where he opportunity of attracting the attention of the
familiarised himself with novel effects of light and learned world in general by preparing tables of the
costumes. From this period, Delacroix continued motion of the new planet. Soon after, he com-
to send forth picture after picture, besides decorat- menced the construction of new solar tables, and
ing many public buildings and churches. He also tables of the motions of Jupiter and Saturn. Along
executed a number of lithographs, including a series with Méchain, he was appointed by the French
illustrating Hamlet, and one dealing with Faust, government, in 1792, to measure the arc of the
of which Goethe wrote that he found in these meridian between Dunkirk and Barcelona, which
images all the impressions of his youth.' In 1857 was completed in 1799 (see MÈTRE, ARAGO).
he was chosen by the Institute to fill the place of He was elected member of the Academy, and in
Delaroche. He died August 13, 1863. The most 1803 perpetual secretary of the mathematical sec-
striking quality of Delacroix's art is its invention, tion of the Institute. The result of his measure-
its impetuous imaginative force and vitality. He ments appeared in his great work, Base du Système
aimed at a powerful and dramatic expression of Métrique Décimal (1806-10). In 1807 he obtained
passion and emotion, and in the pursuit of this aim the chair of Astronomy at the Collège de France,
a sense of beauty was frequently lost. He was an rendered vacant by the death of Lalande, his master
admirable colourist, and his admirers have ranked and friend. In 1814 he was appointed a member
him with Veronese and Rubens. His drawing, of the Council of Public Instruction, He died at
while sometimes incorrect, is always spirited and Paris, 19th August 1822. Delambre received a
full of vigour. See his Life and Letters by Moreau multitude of honours during his lifetime. He was
(1873), Burty (1880), and Chesneau (1885).

a member of most of the learned bodies in Europe,

and an officer of the Legion of Honour. His writ-
Delagoa Bay, a Portuguese possession, is a
large inlet of the Indian Ocean on the south-east

ings are very numerous. The principal are Traité
coast of Africa. In April 1868 the Transvaal

d'Astronomie (1814), Histoire de l'Astronomie

Ancienne (1817), Histoire de l'Astronomie du
claimed by proclamation the Maputa River, from its

Moyen Âge (1819), Histoire de l’Astronomie
junction with the Pongola to its embouchure into
the southern part of Delagoa Bay. England and

Moderne (1821), and Histoire de l'Astronomie au Diz-
Portugal resisted the claim and set up counter pre-

huitième Siècle (1827). Besides these, Delambre

wrote several excellent Mémoires.
tensions. The matter was referred to the arbi.
tration of Marshal MacMahon, who in 1875 de Delane, JOHN THADEUS, editor of the Times
clared the southern portion of Delagoa Bay, includ newspaper, was the second son of a barrister, and
ing the Maputa River up to the Lobombo Moun was born in London, 11th October 1817. He
tains, to belong to Portugal. The bay stretches received the earlier part of his education in private
for 70 miles between 26° 20' and 25° 30' S. lat. It is schools, and at King's College, London, and finally
25 miles wide, and for size and accommodation is went to Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he took his
the finest natural harbour in South Africa, although degree in 1839. At the university, he was more
landing facilities are yet of a very primitive char famous for horsemanship than reading, and though
acter. There are several islands, notably Inyack, bright and active-minded, he never professed to be
and a number of shoals in the bay, but its naviga a scholar. After leaving Oxford he studied life in
tion is safe and easy, and the anchorage is com many forms, walked the hospitals, was called to the
modious and well sheltered. The settlement of bar, and reported in the House of Commons and on
Lourenço Marques and surrounding country have circuit. Mr Walter had early marked Delane's
been notoriously unhealthy; but in 1887 the swamps capable character, and soon placed him on the Times
behind the town were filled in, and in 1888 an staff; and in May 1841, not yet twenty-four, he
elaborate system of drainage, and a long sea-wall, became its editor. For thirty-six years Delane held
intended to reclaim the flat beach on which de this post, aided, however, for the greater part of
caying vegetable matter was deposited, were this period by his brother-in-law and college friend,
projected. The rivers Maputa, Tembe, and Um George Dasent (q.v.). Under his editorship, the
belosi (joining to form the English River), and the Times attained a prodigious circulation, and an
Komati, fall into Delagoa Bay. The Maputa influence unparalleled in the history of journalism.
and Tembe rivers are navigable for some dis He wrote no articles, but he contributed excellent
tance for small craft. The comparative proximity reports and letters. He merged his personality
of Delagoa Bay to the newly-developed gold in his paper, and the history of his later life is the
fields of Eastern Transvaal and Swaziland has history of the extraordinary influence wielded by
brought to the front in South African politics the leading journal. His exposure of the railway
the question of the desirability of Britain acquiring mania, his vehement attacks upon
its possession by purchase. For over half a century

ment of the Crimean war, and his strong opposition
there have been intermittent atteinpts to establish to England's assisting Denmark in 1864, are among
communication between the Transvaal and Delagoa his best-remembered acts. He was singularly
Bay. All failed, however, till 1887, when a com shrewd in weighing public opinion, possessed re-
pany with an authorised share capital of half a markable foresight, and seldom made a mistake.
million was formed in London to work a concession Having resigned the editorship in 1877, he died
from the Portuguese government for ninety years, two years later, 22 November 1879.

His successor
for the construction of a railway from Delagoa Bay was Thomas Chenery. A Life of Delane hy Sir G.
to the Transvaal frontier at the Komati Poort Dasent was announced, but abandoned in deference
River. The line was partly opened in 1888, and to Mr Walter.
great results are looked for as it is extended to

Delany, MRS (Mary Granville), was born at
the centres of population in the Transvaal. See

Coulston, Wiltshire, 14th May 1700. The niece of
LOURENÇO MARQUES.

Lord Lansdowne, she married first, in 1718, fat,
Delambre, JEAN JOSEPH, astronomer, was snuffy, sulky' Alexander Pendarves (1659-1724);
born at Amiens, 29th September 1749, and studied and secondly, in 1743, the Rev. Patrick Delany
literature under the poet Delille. He had long to (1685-1768), an Irish divine, Swift's friend, and the
struggle with difficulties, and supported himself by | author of a dozen volumes. After his death she
translation and teaching. Becoming a tutor in a lived chiefly in London, till her own death at
wealthy family, he devoted himself to physics and Windsor on 15th April 1788. Her much-admired
astronomy, studying under Lalande. The discovery | “paper mosaics,' or flower-work, have long since

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DE LA RAMÉ

DELAWARE

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faded ; but she is remembered through her patronatory, is of the highest value in the departments of age of Miss Burney, and by her Autobiography and astronomical photography and electricity, and its Correspondence (6 vols. 1861-62), with its gossip of results have been communicated from time to time the court and the literary society of her day. to the Royal Society and the French Académie De la Ramé, LOUISE. See OUIDA.

des Sciences. Delaroche, HIPPOLYTE, known as PAUL,

Delaunay, LOUIS ARSÈNE, a French actor, was painter, the head of the modern Eclectic school of born 21st March 1826, at Paris, and niade his debut art in France, was born at Paris, 16th July 1797. in October 1846 at the Odeon. In the year 1848 he He studied under Baron Gros, and between 1819

first trod the classic boards of the Théâtre Français and 1823 acquired some note by painting scriptural in the rôle of Durante, and here he soon procured subjects, but first excited public admiration in an engagement and became secretary to the theatre 1824, by his 'St Vincent de Paul preaching in the

in 1850. Delaunay is one of the most accomplished Presence of Louis XIII.,' and 'Joan of Arc before actors on the French stage. He has found some of Cardinal Beaufort.' These exhibit the earliest his greatest parts in the plays of Hugo, Pailleron, indications of that style for which he afterwards De Musset, and Augiers. became famous—a style which endeavoured to unite Delavigne, JEAN FRANÇOIS CASIMIR, dramathe picturesqueness of the romantic with the dignity tist, satirist, and lyrist, was born at Le Havre on of the classic school of art.

In 1826 Delaroche pro- April 4, 1793. He became one of the most popular duced his Death of President Durante;' and in writers in France, after the publication in 1818 of 1827 his 'Death of Queen Elizabeth.' These his Messéniennes, satires directed against the monpictures greatly increased his reputation, but the archy of the Restoration. He then turned his fast is reckoned a failure by. English critics. In attention to dramatic authorship and produced Les 1831 he produced the ‘Princes in the Tower,'a work Vépres Siciliens (1819), a tragic piece, which was of high merit; in 1833, Cromwell contemplating followed by the comedies, L'Ecole des Vieillards the Corpse of Charles I.,' which is generally and Les Comédiens (1821). He was made an regarded as one of the first historical paintings of academician in 1825. As a lyrist and satirist, modern times. In 1834 appeared his ' Execution of he espoused the cause of the patriots in Italy, Lady Jane Grey;' and in 1837 his Charles I. Greece, and Poland, and of the democratic party insulted by the Parliamentary Soldiers,' and his in France, but although he appears to have been "Stratford receiving Laud's Blessing on the Way to a sincere politician, he failed to give natural Execution.' From this period until 1841 he was and original expression to his convictions. His engaged on what is probably his grandest work tragedy of Louis XI., which was partly founded on the series of paintings on the wall of the semicir- Quentin Durward, and an adaptation of which is cular saloon of the École des Beaux Arts, in the familiar to English playgoers, was brought out in execution of which he was aided by Armitage 1833. Among his other dramas were Le Paria, and other of his pupils. This composition, in which Marino Faliero, Les Enfants d'Edouard, Don Juan the style is simple, lofty, and chaste, contains 74 d'Autriche (1835), and La Fille du Cid (1839). He figures, comprising the greatest sculptors, painters, died on December 11, 1843. He had no true poetic and architects in all history, according to Dela faculty ; neither

was he a skilful dramatist, though roche's judginent. It was excellently engraved | his plays, wlien first produced, gained considerable by Henriquel Dupont, from a reduced copy made popularity. In his day he was supported by the by the painter himself. Among his later works opponents of the Romantic school, but his medimay be mentioned, ‘Bonaparte at St Bernard'ocrity has come to be recognised by critics of all (1830); “Marie Antoinette before the Revolutionary parties. Tribunal' (1851); “The Finding of Moses? (1852); *Calvary' (1853); Christ in Gethsemane' (1854); American Union, forms a part of a peninsula lying

Delaware, one of the Atlantic States of the * The Girondins in the Concierge’ (1856); and, one between the lower reaches of the Copyright 1889 in U.S. of his best-known works, The Floating. Martyr.' Susquehanna and Chesapeake Bay He also executed some striking portraits, including

on the west, and the Delaware those of M. Guizot (1838), and M. Thiers (1856). He River and Bay and Atlantic Ocean on the east. died November 4, 1856. The characteristic excel

The state is Þounded on the N. by Pennsylvania lences of Delaroche are picturesqueness of con

(the boundary there being an arc of a circle), on ception, precision of handling, and accuracy of draw

the E. by the Delaware River and Bay and the ing. He has been accused, however, of want of

Atlantic Ocean, and on the S. and W. by Maryfire, imagination, and depth, and it must be

land. With an area of 2050 sq. m., or little more admitted that he very rarely, if ever, exhibits the highest qualities of creative genius. Delaroche of all the states and territories, except Rhode

than that of Northumberland, it is the smallest was made a member of the Institute in 1832, and Island ; in 1890 it was the forty-second in popuprofessor of Painting

in the École des Beaux Arts lation.' Save in a small hilly section in the north, in 1833. See Rees, Vernet and Delaroche (1880).

nearly all the surface is low and level, and in the De la Rue, WARREN, an eminent electrician, extreme south there is much swampy land; while was born in the island of Guernsey, January 18, the most southern two-fifths of the area is in great 1815. He was educated at Paris, and early entered part a sandy region. The hill-district in the north his father's business-the manufacture of paper presents a stony surface overlying azoic rocks, such wares—for which his inventive ability and scien as gneiss and granite, with patches of serpentine tisic knowledge enabled him to devise many new and limestone. A strip of highly fertile red clay machines and processes. He took an active part lies south of the hill-country ; and next southward in the Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862 ; was a member occurs a productive and fossiliferous greensand forof the International Electrical Congress at Paris in mation, succeeded by a somewhat sandy belt, less 1861 ; and has been president of the Royal Astro- fertile than the greensand, although the greater nomical Society, of the Chemical Society, and the part of its extent is by no means unproductive. London Institution. In 1878 he succeeded Spottis- The coast-region has many salt-marshes, some of woode as secretary of the Royal Institution, and in them dyked, and thus rendered tillable ; and farther 1880 was elected a corresponding member of the inland is a considerable body of extremely rich French Académie des Sciences in the department of alluvial soil. The western border of the state is astronomy. His scientific work, done at his observ- generally well wooded, and in some places flat and atory at Cranford and at his private physical labor- I marshy. The rivers of Delaware are mostly small,

by J. B. Lippincott Company.

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