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CEPOLA

CEREALIA

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Cepola. See BANDFISH.

ally compressed body with large scales, and posCeram' (SERANG), the largest island of the sesses very unfish-like limbs with a central jointed southern Moluccas, lies NE. of Amboyna, to which axis and lateral pieces. It lives in muddy water Dutch residency it belongs, and is divided into often containing much decaying vegetable matter

. Great and Little Ceram by the Isthmus of Taruno. In this medium it does not find the gill-respiration Area, 6605 sq. m. ; pop: 195,000. The island is sufficient, and comes to the surface to take gulps of one of the least explored in the archipelago, and air into the swimming-bladder, which functions as comparatively little is known of the interior, a lung. It eats leaves and other parts of plants. which is, moreover, but scantily populated, the At nights Ceratodus sometimes leaves the water, great mass of the people, mostly native Alfuros and moves along the river-bank. The expulsion and immigrant Malays, inhabiting the coast

of air from its air-bladder or lung is supposed to villages. Much of the island is very fertile. A account for a grunting noise then often heard. mountain-chain runs through the country, reach- In the dry season it buries itself in the mud. ing in Nusa Keli some 11,000 feet. The chief exports are sago, iron, timber, earthenware, birds of Paradise, dried fish, edible nests, &c.

Ceramics (Gr. keramos, 'potter's clay,'), a term used to designate the department of plastic art which comprises all objects made of clay, such as vases, cups, bassi-rilievi, cornices, and the like. See POTTERY.

Cerastes, or HORNED VIPER, a genus of serpents of the family Viperidæ, distinguished by a

Limb of Ceratodus. broad depressed beart-shaped head, the scales of which are similar to those of the back, and partic. The flesh is much esteemed, and compared with ularly remarkable for the development of one of salmon. This interesting animal will be discussed, the scales of each eyelid into a spine or horn, often in its more technical relations, along with its of considerable length. The tail is very distinct neighbour genera—Lepidosiren and Protopterus,

under the title MUD-FISHES.

Ceratonia. See CAROB.

Cerberus, in Greek Mythology, the many; headed dog-according to Hesiod, the offspring of Typhaon and Echidna—who guarded the portal of the infernal regions. Later writers describe him as only three-headed, with the tail and mane composed of serpents, though the poets sometimes encumber him with a hundred heads. Orpheus charmed him by the magic of his lyre, and Hercules overcame him by strength and dragged him to the upper

world. Horned Viper (Cerastes vulgaris).

Cercarria, the technical name applied to an from the body. This genus is exclusively African, suckered flat parasitic worms (the Distomex

In all the two

embryonic form of many flukes. and very venomous. There is probably only one division of Trematodes) the development is indirect species, Cerastes ægyptiacus or cornutus, the Horned

or circuitous. Viper of the north of Africa, called

Cerastes by which, instead of growing into adults, produce

The eggs develop into embryos, the ancients, the name being derived from the asexually one or more sets of intermediate forms. Greek keras, a horn. It was correctly described The final form, produced more or less directly from by the traveller Bruce, but his description was for the embryo, is called a cercaria, and grows up into some time regarded with incredulity.

the adult fluke. It differs from the adult in having Cerate (Lat. cera, 'wax'), a compound of wax only rudiments of reproductive organs, in possessing with other oily and medicinal substances in such eye-spots, and in being (except in oue genus) proportions as to have the consistence of an Oint- equipped with a very movable tail

. It is (1) born ment (q.v.). Simple cerate is made by melting within some host, such as a water-snail ; (2) leaves together 6 parts of olive oil, 3 of white wax, and i this and swims freely in the water ; (3) becomes of spermaceti.

sluggish, and enters a second host, or fixes itself on Ceratites, a

Ammonites (q.v.)

some foreign body. In this state it loses its tail peculiar to, and characteristic of, the Trias.

and encapsules itself, and does not experience any Cerat'odus, the Queensland mud-fish, one of further change till (4) it or its host is eaten by a the remarkable sub-class of double breathers or vertebrate, within which the cercaria becomes an Dipnoi. The name was originally used for the adult and sexual fluke. From the latter the em. fossil possessors of certain tooth-plates found in the bryos which eventually enter the first mentioned

host arise. Sometimes the life-history is simpler,
but in all cases the cercaria is the form produced
(generally indirectly) by the original embryo, and
developing into the adult. See FLUKE.

Cercis. See JUDAS' TREE.
Cercopithe'cus (Gr., ' tail-ape'), a genus of

Monkeys 7 q.v.).
Ceratodus.

Cere. See BILL.

Cerea'lia, or CEREAL GRASSES, so named Triassic and Jurassic strata, and to this genus the from Ceres (q.v.), are the plants which produce Queensland survivor, which has similar dental grain or corn;" in strictness, all the species of arrangements, was referred when discovered in 1870.

grasses (Gramineæe) cultivated for the sake of their Barra munda is the local name.

seed as an article of food. They are also called occasionally attain a length of six feet, has a later- Corn-plants or Bread-plants; but in this wide

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CEREBRATION

CERIGO

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popular sense the term cereal ceases to have any eases, such as acute and chronic Hydrocephalus botanical limits, and includes plants of wholly (q.v.), it is greatly increased, and then it becomes distinct orders, notably Buckwheat (natural a cause of atrophy of the brain. Its value as a order, Polygonaceae), and Quinoa (Chenopodi- water-cushion in diminishing the violence of shock aceae), &c. ; even the Lotus of the Nile, the Vic- from external injury has been already referred to toria regia, and other species of water-lilies might at BRAIN, Cerebro-spinal means pertaining to the thus be added to the list.

brain and spinal cord together, to the cerebroThe cereals proper do not belong to any particular spinal system. For Cerebro-spinal Meningitis, see tribe of the great order of grasses, but the employ- MENINGITIS. ment of particular species as bread-plants seems to Cerebrum. See BRAIN. have been determined chiefly by the superior size of the seed, or by the facility of procuring it in suffi- court, instituted' by James I. for the reception of

Ceremonies, MASTER OF THE, an officer at cient quantity, and of freeing it from its unedible ambassadors and dignitaries. The same name came envelopes. The most extensively cultivated grains to be used for the supreme authority on etiquette are Wheat (Triticum), Barley (Hordeum), Rye at public assemblies at Bath and elsewhere ; Beau (Secale), Oats (Avena), Rice (Oryza), Maize or

Nash (q.v.) being the most memorable. Indian Corn (Zea), different kinds of Millet (Setaria, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, and

Cereopsis (Gr., wax-face’), a genus of birds Penicillaria), and Durra or Guinea Corn (Sorghum of the family Anatidae, to which the New Holland or Andropogon). These have all been cultivated

goose (C. novæ hollandic) belongs. This bird has from time immemorial, and there is great uncer

been known since the southern shores of Australia tainty as to the number of species to which the many adjacent islands, they were found in great abund

were first visited by navigators. There, and on the existing varieties belong; their original forms and native countries often cannot confidently be deter

ance; and so little were they acquainted with the mined. Barley, oats, and rye are the grains of the danger to be apprehended from man, that the coldest regions, the cultivation of the former two earlier navigators easily supplied themselves with extending even within the arctic circle. Wheat is

fresh provisions by knocking them down with

sticks. next to these, and in the warmer regions of the

The flight is slow and heavy, and the temperate zone its cultivation is associated with

bird is naturally becoming less abundant. The cere that of maize and rice, which are extensively culti- | (see BILL) is remarkably large, whence the name. vated within the tropics. The millets belong to Ceres, the Roman name of the great Greek warm climates, and dürra is tropical or sub-tropical. goddess Dēmētēr, the protectress of agriculture and Rice is the food of a greater number of the human the fruits of the earth. Her worship was borrowed race than any other kind of grain. See CORN, | by the Romans from Sicily. Her first temple in BARLEY, MAIZE, MILLET, RICE, WHEAT, and Rome was vowed by the dictator A. Postumius other separate articles.

Albinus (496 B.C.), to avert a famine with which

the city was threatened. A great festival, with Cerebration, UNCONSCIOUS. There can be no donbt that molecular changes in the cerebrum | and her worship acquired great importance in the

games, the Cerealia, was instituted in her honour, accompany all our conscious mental processes. The doctrine of unconscious cerebration as stated by in her temple for the inspection of the tribunes

city.

The decrees of the senate were deposited Carpenter, Laycock, and others, holds that similar of the people. See DEMETER. changes may go on in the cerebrum without any consciousness on our part, until the fully elaborated

Ceres, one of the Planetoids (q.v.), and the mental result is presented. It is an every-day first of them that was discovered. It was first seen experience that after one has been in vain trying to by Piazzi at Palermo, January 1, 1801, and is recall some name or incident, it will suddenly flash sometimes visible to the naked eye, looking like a into the mind when one is thinking of some entirely star between the seventh and eighth magnitudes. different subject. According to Carpenter the cere. Cereus, a large genus of Cactaceae (q.v.), conbrum put in action by our consciousness has gone taining many of the most imposing forms of the on working automatically but unconsciously, until order, both as respects vegetation and powering. the processes accompanying the mental operation C. giganteus reaches a height of 60 feet, often unof remembering the name or incident have been branched, its tall pillars giving an extraordinary completed. This is the physiological statement character to the landscape of New Mexico, while corresponding to the psychological doctrine that the the allied C. peruvianus (36 feet) takes its place in mind may undergo modifications without being Peru. Others have thin snake-like branches (C. conscious of the process until the new combination Aagelliformis), while the short obconical C. senilis is presented to consciousness. See CONSCIOUSNESS, l'is covered with long silky hairs. Many have MixD.

splendid flowers, and of these C. speciosissimus with Cerebro-spinal Fluid is a clear, almost scarlet or purplish flowers is often cultivated, while colourless, slightly alkaline fluid, closely resem

C. grandiflorus is the well-known night-flowering bling lymph in its composition, but containing less

cactus. The fruits are often much esteemed. For albumen. It is contained partly within the ventric

illustration, see CACTUS. ular system of the brain, and in part in the loose Cerignola, a town of Italy, 22 miles SE. of connective tissue (subarachnoid meshwork), which Foggia by rail, with manufactures of linen, and a lies between the Arachnoid and Pia Mater (q.v.), trade in almonds and cotton. The Spaniards'

decibeing continued from this latter situation along sive victory over the French here in 1503 established the lymphatic sheaths, which closely invest all | Spain's supremacy in Naples. Pop. 22,659. the blood vessels in the substance of the brain Ceri'go, the southernmost of the seven Ionian and spinal cord. The spaces which contain it com Islands (q.v.), now officially known again by its old municate with the lymphatics of the head and of Greek name of Cythera, is separated from the coast the nerves, and with the venous sinuses in the of Morea by a narrow strait.

Area, 107 sq. m. ; dura mater. Its main function, besides that of pop. (1879) 13,259. It is mostly barren and mounremoving waste products, is to equalise the pressure tainous in some parts ; but corn, wine, and olives within the skull. As the blood pressure increases and fruits are raised. Capsali is the capital. In that of the cerebro-spinal fluid diminishes, and rice ancient times the island was sacred to Venus, as versd. As the brain atrophies it is replaced by, a

the land that received the goddess when she arose proportionate increase in the fluid. In some dis- | from the sea.

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CERINTHUS

CERTIORARI

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Cerinthus, a heretic who lived at the close of forests. Area, 5735 sq. m. ; pop. (1884) 36,000, the apostolic age, but of whom we have nothing chiefly engaged in cattle-raising. Capital, Cerro better than uncertain and confused accounts. He Largo or Melo; pop. 5000. is said to have been a native of Alexandria. He Certaldo, a town of Central Italy, 19 miles passed from Egypt into Asia Minor, and lived in sw. of Florence (37 by rail). It is noteworthy Ephesus contemporaneously (according to the as the residence of Bocc cio, who was born and belief of the church) with the aged apostle John. died here. His house is still standing, much as it It is related by Irenæus, on the authority of was in the poet's time. Pop. 2500. Polycarp, that John held the heretic in such detestation that, on a certain occasion, when he in the great order Insessores or Passeres. They are

Certhiidæ, a family of birds, generally placed encountered Cerinthus in the baths of Ephesus, he

best known by their most typical representatives immediately left the baths, saying to those about him : ‘Let us fly, lest the bath fall on us, since

the Creepers (q.v.). They are widely distributed

birds, absent however from the Ethiopian and Cerinthus is within, the enemy of the truth. It is also said by Irenæus that the Gospel by St John

neo-tropical regions, and the family includes twelve was written in direct opposition to the tenets of

genera and about fifty species. They are expert

climbers, and feed on insects.
Cerinthus. He held that the world was not made
by the highest God, but by some angel or power far

Certificate, in the law of England and of the removed from and ignorant of the Supreme Being:

United States, is a written statement by a person He is also said to have held coarse and sensuai having a public or official status concerning some millenarian views, to have believed the Jewish

matter within his knowledge and authority. There ceremonial law to be in part binding upon

are a great many classes of such certificates—e.g. Christians, and to have taught that the Divine

certificate of charge upon land ; certificate of the Spirit was first united with the man Jesus in his chief-clerk in Chancery proceedings, which is practibaptism by John. Cerinthus being, so far as is cally a report of what the clerk has done ; certificate known, the oldest teacher of Judaico-Gnostic prin of incorporation under the Companies Acts ; certifi

of discharge of a debtor in liquidation; certificate ciples, and, according to Neander, “the intermediate link between the Judaising and Gnostic sects,

cate of mortgage on ships under the Merchant there would naturally be a greater incongruity and

Shipping Acts; certificate of naturalisation. In want of harmony in his system than in the later

the United States, the word is commonly applied to developments of Gnosticism (q.v.).

any formal statement made by a public servant in

the execution of his duty, as by a collector of taxes, Cerithium, a genus of Prosobranchiate Gas

a postmaster, &c. See CHARACTER.
teropods, and type of a large family, Cerithiadæ.
The shell is rough, naked, spiral, elongated, with

Certification, in the law of Scotland, signifies many coils, and with an oval oblique aperture which

the judicial assurance given to a party of the has a short canal in front.

course to be followed by the judge in case he

The species of this disobeys the will of a summons, or other writor family are numerous (140), most of them marine, order of the court. Reiterated contumacy on the rather than salt water ; some are found in lakes part of the defender was at one time punished with

confiscation of his property (1449, chap. 29), but and rivers. A few belong to temperate climates, but most of them are tropical, and in mangrove

now certification merely means that if he fails to swamps they particularly abound. The fossil

appear in the usual manner, the judge will decern, species are very numerous, and almost all limited

or pronounce judgment against him. to the Tertiary formations. C. vulgatum, over six

Certiora'ri is the writ by which, since the inches in height, is often seen in Italian markets. abolition of imprisonment for debt and the conCerium (sym. Ce, eq. 92) is a rare metal

sequent disuse of the better known writ habeas found in cerite and a few other minerals.

corpus, causes are removed from inferior courts of

It is a white metal, has not been obtained in any matter of considerable importance to the commer

record into the High Court of Justice. This is a quantity, is not therefore employed in any manufacture, and forms two basic oxides and a numerous judgment in the inferior court. Before judgment

cial public. Such removal is either before or after class of salts. The nitrate and oxalate of cerium

certiorari is competent as tort, in all cases have been employed in the vomiting of pregnancy, their action being somewhat similar to that of the Either party can remove the cause, but, where the

except where the sum sued for is less than £5. subnitrate of bismuth. Cerium biscuits are biscuits

sum is less than £20, the defendant must give his containing a small proportion of the oxalate, and they form a very convenient medium for the be within six weeks after appearance of defendant,

sureties for the debt and costs. The removal must administration of the salt.. Cerite or Ochroite is In the superior court the plaintiff must make a the silicate of cerium, and is found as a mineral fresh statement of claim. The certiorari is obeyed in gneiss, near Riddarhytta, in Westmanland in by sending up the original record. Sweden.

Judicature Acts there is a further power of removal Cerox'ylon. See WAX PALM.

when any defence or counter-claim is set up which Cerreto, a cathedral city of South Italy, on a is beyond the jurisdiction of the inferior court

. In slope of the Apennines, 14 miles NNW. of Bene the county courts, where the action on contract is vento. Pop. 5129,

above £20, or on tort above £5, the defendant has Cerro de Pasco, the capital of the Peruvian a general right to certiorari on security for costs. department of Junin, stands at an elevation of Where the discretion of the superior court is 14,276 feet, 138 miles NE. of Lima. Near it are appealed to, such considerations as the difficulty some of the richest silver-mines on the continent. of legal points, the improbability of obtaining an

The climate is cheerless and inclement. Pop. 7000, impartial jury, are important. After judgment mostly Indians and half-breeds.

certiorari is often applied for by the successful Cerro Gordo, a plateau in Mexico, the most

plaintiff for

purposes

of execution, where the Here, on 18th April 1847, the Americans totally may also be obtained as of right by the crown.to easterly on the route from Vera Cruz to the capital. person or effects of the defendant cannot be found defeated the Mexicans.

Cerro Largo, a department in the NE. of Queen's Bench Division or the Central Criminal
Uruguay, well watered, with large savannahs and / Court. This writ used also to be of right to private

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CERTOSA DI PAVIA

CERVANTES

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prosecutors, but since the institution of the Court the thick of the fight, and received three severe of Criminal Appeal it is necessary to show cause, gunshot wounds, by one of which his left hand and as in a civil case from the county courts, and to arm were permanently disabled. After having seen give security.

some further service against the Turks in Tunis, In the United States, certiorari is generally pro- | he was returning to Spain in 1575 with letters vided for by statute, but where no such provision is of recommendation to the king from Don John of made, or no other mode of review of the proceedings Austria and the Viceroy of Sicily, when the galley of an inferior court has been provided by statute, he sailed in was captured by Algerine corsairs, any superior court exercising common law jurisdic- and with his brother Rodrigo and several others tion has an inherent right to issue this writ. It is he was carried into Algiers. He remained in used in both civil and criminal cases to bring the captivity five years, during which he made four whole record of the inferior tribunal before a daring attempts to escape, and lived in almost superior court, to determine whether the former daily expectation of death or torture. It was not has proceeded within its jurisdiction, and also to for himself alone that he sought freedom. No enable substantial justice to be done whenever an nobler story of unselfish heroism has ever been inferior tribunal has failed to proceed according to told than that in the depositions of his fellow the requirements of the law. It is used as an captives at Algiers, where they testify to his selforiginal process to remove a cause, and change devotion, his dauntless spirit, and his generosity, venue, only where the superior court is satisfied and with touching earnestness strive to give exthat an impartial trial will not otherwise be hail. pression to their own gratitude, love, and admira

tion. Certo'sa di Pavi'a, a celebrated Carthusian

In 1580 he was ransomed by the charity monastery, 5 miles N. of Pavia, was founded in

of the Redemptionist Fathers and by the devo1396 by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti, first Duke of tion of his family which reduced itself to poverty Milan, in atonement for the murder of his uncle. to provide the sum required ; and rejoining his The church is a splendid structure in the form of a

old regiment in Portugal, he served in the expeLatin cross, the ground-plan being 252 feet long dition to the Azores under the Marquis of Santa by 177 feet broad. The richly sculptured façade,

Cruz. The story of a liaison with à Portuguese designed by Borgognone, was commenced in 1473. lady is an invention of the biographers to account The building is made up of various styles, but the

for a certain Isabel de Saavedra mentioned in Pointed prevails in the interior, which is decorated

an official document of 1605 as his natural with frescoes, paintings, &c., and contains à gor

daughter. There is no other evidence of her geous high-altar, the mausoleum of the founder,

existence, and if this is to be relied upon she and several monuments. After the battle of Pavia

was born after his marriage, and nearly two years (1525), Francis I. was for three days a prisoner at

after his return from Portugal. At the close the Certosa, which, since the dissolution of the

of the war he retired from military life and monasteries, has been constituted a national turned his attention to literature. His first work monument. The name certosa is a form of Car

was the Galatea, a pastoral romance of the same thụsian (q.v.), and is used of other monasteries class as the Diana of Montemayor and the Filida of the order, as that to the south of Florence.

of his friend Montalvo. It was printed at Alcalá

in 1585—not, as is commonly said, Madrid, 1584. Ceru'men is ear-wax, the yellow waxy matter

While it was passing through the press he married, which is secreted by certain glands lying in the and for two or three years strove to gain a livelipassage that leads from the external opening of the hood by writing for the stage. He produced between ear to the membrane of the tympanum. It lubri- twenty and thirty plays, of which two only, the cates the passage and entangles particles of dust Numancia and the Trato de Argel, have survived ; and small insects, preventing them from getting but from his own account it plain that, though farther in. See EAR.

not ill received, they failed to attract, and that Cervantes Saavedra, MIGUEL DE, the | he was driven to seek some other employment. author of Don Quixote, was born at Alcalá de In 1587 he migrated to Seville, where he obtained Henares in 1547. His birthday is unknown, but the post of deputy-purveyor to the fleet.

In 1594 he was baptised on the 9th of October. He was a he was appointed a collector of revenues for the descendant of a family that traced its origin back kingdom of Granada ; but in 1597, failing to make to the 10th century through a line of Castilian up the sum due to the treasury, he was sent to nobles, of whom one was the renowned warrior prison at Seville. He was released, however, on Nuño Alfonso, whose grandson took the surname giving security for the balance, but not reinstated ; of Cervantes from the old castle of San Servando, nor can the government be charged with undue or Cervantes, near Toledo. It was borne with harshness, for though no stain attaches to his honour by many church dignitaries, soldiers, and integrity, it is clear that as a business-like official magistrates of the 14th and 15th centuries, but at he was not faultless.

He remained some time the birth of the man who gave it immortality it longer at Seville, but nothing is known of his had ceased to be one of the prominent names of movements from 1599 to 1603. Local tradition Spain

. The name of Saavedra came into the poet's maintains that he wrote Don Quixote in prison branch of the family by marriage in the 15th at Argamasilla in La Mancha ; but it has nothing century: Of Cervantes personally we know little to support it save the fact that Argamasilla is or nothing beyond what he himself tells us, but of Don Quixote's village. In 1603 he was living at the events of his life there is a tolerably complete Valladolid ; in September 1604 leave was granted record. The story of his having studied at Sala to print the first part of Don Quixote, and early manca is improbable; all we know of his edu- in January 1605 the book came out at Madrid. cation is that Juan Lopez de Hoyos, a professor It is commonly asserted that its reception was cold ; of belles-lettres at Madiid, calls Nim his dearly but the truth is that it leaped into popularity at beloved pupil.' The first known productions of

Within a month two pirated editions were his pen appeared in 1569 in a collection of pieces in the press at Lisbon ; by the autumn five editions on the death of the queen, edited by the pro- had been published ; and Don Quixote and Sancho fessor. Early in the same year he passed over into Panza paraded the streets as familiar characters Italy in the service of Cardinal Giulio Acquaviva, in the pageants at Valladolid that spring. By a but shortly afterwards enlisted as a soldier under minority, however, it was not

welcomed. Lope the command, it would appear, of Marc Antony de Vega wrote sneeringly of it and its author Colonna. At the battle of Lepanto he was in 1 months before it was printed—for it had a pre

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vious circulation in manuscript—and he and his the marvels of this marvellous book is its perennial brother-dramatists showed how bitterly they re youth. After well-nigh three centuries it is as sented the criticism in chapter 48. Cervantes was fresh and full of life as when it came from La slow in taking advantage of his popularity. In: Cuesta's press. In his other works Cervantes stead of giving his readers the sequel they asked studied recognised models and consulted the tastes for, he busied himself with writing for the stage of the day ; in Don Quixote he followed the lead and composing short tales, or exemplary novels of his own genius alone, and wrote only as instinct as he called them. The Viage del Parnaso, a prompted him. Written in a desultory fashion, it poem of over 3000 lines in terza rima, reviewing had time to grow and ripen under his hand ; Don the poetry and poets of the day, was another of Quixote and Sancho, outlines at first, became by his productions at this time. In 1613 he published degrees flesh and blood realities to his mind, and his twelve Novelas, and promised his readers the beings that he loved ; and the book—the second part second part of Don Quixote “shortly.' But in 1614 especially—served him as a kind of commonplacea writer, under the pseudonym of Alonso Fer book to which he turned to when he was in the nandez de Avellaneda, brought out a spurious mood, making it the depository of his thoughts second part, with an insulting preface, full of and record of the experience and observation of a coarse personal abuse of Cervantes. It was the stirring life. We need not commit the disloyalty work of a dull plagiarist, an imitator insensible of doubting his word when he says that all he to the merits of his model ; but it served as the sought was to cure his countrymen of their passion spur Cervantes needed to urge him to the com for chivalry romances. He had motive enough in pletion of the genuine second part, which was sent the magnitude of the evil, and his was only one to the press early in 1615, and published at the of scores of voices lifted up against it; nor is end of the year. It was not too soon; his health there anything extraordinary in a champion of was already failing, and he died at Madrid on the

true chivalry, as he was, resenting a mockery that 23d of April 1616. His last labours were given made it contemptible. But the genius of Certo things more important in his eyes than Don vantes was essentially discursive, and many other Quixote. While it was in the press he revised offenders and offences were comprehended in the and published his rejected comedies and inter indictment that he brought against the romances ludes, and but a short time before his death he of chivalry and their readers. finished his romance of Persiles and Sigismunda. The only complete edition of Cervantes' works There are few pieces of his writing more charac is that of Rivadeneyra (in 12 vols. large 8vo, teristic of the man than the last two that ever Madrid, 1863–64). Editions of the selected works came from his pen—written, indeed, upon his very are those of Ibarra (16 vols. small 8vo, Madrid, deathbed—the address to the reader and the dedi 1803-5), Bossange (10 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1826), cation to the Conde de Lemos, whose generosity and vol. i. of the Biblioteca de Autores Españoles had relieved him from the pressure of poverty ; (Madrid, 1846). Of Don Quixote in the original and, like every glimpse of himself that his pages about 150 editions are known, and more than give us, they make us wish that we knew more double that number of editions in other languages. of one so full of wisdom, patience, and charity, so The first worthy of the book was Tonson's (London, bright and so brave.

1738, in 4 vols. 4to); other notable ones are the AcaIt is in right of Don Quixote that the name of demy edition (4 vols. 4to, Madrid 1780); Bowle's Cervantes has a place here; but his minor works (6 vols. 4to, Salisbury and Lond. 1781), Pellicer's entitle him to an honourable one in the history of 15 vols. 8vo, Madrid, 1797-98); Clemencin's (6 vols

. Spanish literature. His novels are the best of

4to, Madrid, 1833-39), with exhaustive commentary, their kind—a kind Spain excelled in ; and though and notes; Hartzenbusch's, in vols. iii. _vi, of the Galatea is doubtless inferior to the Diana, its the complete works, and also in 4 vols, small greatest fault is that, like the Diana, it belongs 8vo. 1863, a beautiful pocket edition printed to a radically insipid species of romance.

The

at Argamasilla, in the house which was, accord. title of poet is commonly denied him; but if a ing to local tradition, the prison of Cervantes ; in good deal of his poetry is weak, there is much these last the editor has in many instances restored that only a poet could have written, and not even the text of the first edition, but in many also Garcilaso had a finer sense of melody or a truer recklessly tampered with it.

F. Lopez Fabra's touch in verse. It would be unjust to judge of (2 vols. 4to, Barcelona, 1871-74) is an admirable his dramatic powers by the comedies printed in reproduction by photography of the first edition. 1615. They were nothing more than a desperate The claim of Señor Ortego's edition (Palencia

, attempt to gain a footing on the stage by à con 1884) to give corrections made by Cervantes himcession to the popular taste. To found a great self cannot be seriously maintained. There are national drama worthy of his country was the translations in fourteen languages. The oldest is ambition of his life, and the first step was to the English by Shelton, made in 1608 and printed obtain a hearing. The tragedy of Numancia, 1612 (second part, 1620), a vigorous but rude and with all its defects the most powerful and original inaccurate version. Other English translations

are drama in the language, is a better measure of those of Phillips (1689), Motteux (1702), Jervas Cervantes as a dramatist. And if it is impossible (commonly called Jarvis, 1742), Smollett (1755), to accept his own estimate of the Persiles and A. J. Duffield (3 vols. 8vo, 1881), John Ormsby (4 Sigismunda, no reader will deny its invention and vols. 8vo, 1885), and H. E. Watts (5 vols. 4to, 1888 grace of style. His minor works all show signs of the author's care ; Don Quixote, on the other abridgments : the oldest is Oudin's (printed in 1616),

et seq.). In French there are nine versions, besides hand, is the most carelessly written of all great the best Viardot's (1836). In German there are no books. Cervantes, it is plain, did not look upon less than thirteen, from the earliest in 1621 to the it in that light. He was very proud of its popu- latest and best by Ludwig Braunfels in 1883-84 larity ; but all he ever claims for it is that it will There are as many as ten Russian versions, but amuse, and that it did the state some service in most of these are from the French, or abridgments. laughing chivalry romances ont of fashion. He Franciosini's Italian version appeared wrote it by fits and starts ; he neglected it for his 1622, and has been followed by two others; and other works ; he sent it to the printers without there are versions in Dutch, Danish, Polish, Porturevision, and made merry over their blunders and

guese, Swedish, Hungarian, Bohemian, Servian, his own oversights. But it may be that we owe and Greek. The best Life of Cervantes is by more to this carelessness than we think. One of Navarrete ; but there is also a good one by D.

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