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special interests; real interests are concealed multitude of indivisible corporeal particles, atoms
ander party watchwords, and sacrificed to them. (see ATOM), and attributes to the e a primary
Popular passions are liable to upset the plans of motion derived from no higher principle. This
experienced policy, and the demagogue too often motion brings the atoms into contact with each
ousts the true statesman from his well-merited other, and from the multitudinous combinations
position in the esteem of the people. It may be that they form, springs that vast and varying
added that in the administration of foreign affairs, aggregate called nature, which is presented to
the changefulness and publicity usually character-

our eyes.

Democritus did not acknowledge the istic of the democracy place it at a disadvantage presence of design in nature, but he admitted that as compared with the secrecy, continuity, and of law. The word chance,' he says, 'is only an tenacity of a government like that of Russia. expression of human ignorance.' He believed

Much has been written on the merits and de- strictly in secondary or physical causes, but not
merits, the advantages and disadvantages of the in a primary immaterial cause. Life, conscious-
democracy. It really perhaps concerns us ness, thought, were, according to him, derived
to observe the fact that it is the inevitable from the finest atoms; those images of the sensu-
outcome of the prevalent historic forces, that it ous phenomena surrounding us, which we call
has a great function in modern history, and that mental representations, were, according to him,
it is the duty of the citizen and statesman to do only material impressions, caused by the more
their duty under it, and to adapt it to the material, delicate atoms streaming through the pores of our
intellectual, and moral improvement of men.

organs. Democritus boldly applied his theory to
See the articles GOVERNMENT, REPRESENTATION; De the gods themselves, whom he affirmed to be
Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1862); Motley, aggregates of atoms, only mightier and more
Historic Progress of American Democracy (1869); powerful than men. His ethical system, spite of
Freeman, Comparative Politics (1873); Sir T. E. May,
Democracy in Europe (1878); Sir H. S. Maine, Popular noble. Such fragments of his writings as we pos-

the grossness of his metaphysics, is both pure and
Government (1885); Bryce, The American Commonwealth
(1888).

sess contain beautiful, vigorous, and true thoughts

concerning veracity, justice, law, order, and the
Democrats, a political party in the United duties of rulers ; while, in a spirit not alien to the
States. So early as Washington's first administra- teaching of Christianity, he looks upon an inward
tion, a party known variously as Republicans or peace of heart and conscience as the highest good,
Democrats had already been formed, who desired to the end and the aim of all virtuous endeavour.
limit the federal power, and to increase that of the
states and of the people ; about 1808 the title of

Demodex. See ACARUS.
Republicans as synonymous with Democrats dis Demogeot, JACQUES CLAUDE, a French
appeared. See REPUBLICANS. Electing Jefferson

littérateur, born 5th July 1808 at Paris, lectured at
president in 1801, the Democrats remained in power Beauvais, Rennes, Bordeaux, and Lyons, and was
till 1841, and the administration was in their hands appointed in 1843 to the chair of Rhetoric at the
also in 1845-49, in 1853–61, and in 1885–89. Demo- Lycée St-Louis at Paris. Most of his books treat
cratic presidents have been Jefferson, Madison, of the history of literature ; the chief are Les Lettres
Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Jackson, Van Buren, Histoire de la Littérature française (1857), an

et les Hommes de Lettres au XIX. Siècle (1856);
Polk, Pierce, Buchanan, Cleveland. For the posi-
tions taken by Democrats on the most prominent admirable hand-book; Tableau de la Littérature
issues, see the article UNITED STATES. During française au XVII. Siecle (1859); and Histoire des
President Cleveland's term of office the party com-

Littératures étrangères (2 vols. 1880). His poems
mitted itself to the principle of a reform of the tariff.

are little known. Democritus, an illustrious Greek philosopher, the

crane family (Gruida), differing from the true

Demoiselle ( Anthropoides), a genus of birds in
was born at Abdera, in Thrace, about 470 or 460
Of his life little is known. The statement cranes in having the head and neck quite feathered,

The
that he was first inspired with a desire for philo- and the beak no longer than the head.
sophic knowledge by certain Mayi and Chaldeans Demoiselle (A. virgo) is about 3 feet in length
whom Xerxes had left at Abdera, on his Grecian
expedition, is as untrustworthy as that which
represents him as continually laughing at the
follies of mankind. His extensive travels, how-
ever, through a great portion of the East, prove
the reality of this desire, as does also his ceaseless
industry in collecting the works of other philo-
sophers. Democritus was by far the most learned
thinker of his age. He had also a ligh reputation
for moral worth. He appears to have left a strong
impression of his disinterestedness, modesty, and
simplicity on the mind of the community, for even
Timon the scoffer, who spared no one else, praised
him, The period of his death is uncertain. He
lived, however, to a great age. Only a few frag-
ments of his numerous physical, mathematical,
ethical, and musical works are extant. These
have been collected by Mullach (Berlin, 1843).
Cicero praises his style, and Pyrrhon imitated it.

Democritus's system of philosophy is known as
the atomic system, which is considered to have

Demoiselle ( Anthropoides virgo ).
been founded by Leucippus. Its essence consists
in the attempt to explain the different phenomena from the point of the bill to the tip of the tail, and
of nature-not like the earlier Ionic philosophers, the top of its head is about 31 feet from the ground.
by maintaining that the original characteristics It is remarkable, like its relatives, for elegance and
of matter were qualitative, but that they were symmetry of form, and grace of deportment. The
quantitative. He assumes, therefore, as the ulti- feathers covering the upper part of the wing are
mate elementary ground of nature, an infinite I much elongated, as in the cranes. The general

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748

DEMOIVRE

DEMONOLOGY

colour of its plumage is gray, but the sides of the superinduced. It is not merely family affection, head are adorned with two elegant white tufts, and but actual fear and considerations of prudence, the breast bears long blackish feathers. The that lead to the worship of ancestors and of demoiselle is an African and Asiatic bird, but the dead; and the good or bad fortune of living visits Greece and other parts of the south of men is attributed to the direct interference of the Europe. To the same genus belongs the beautiful invisible spirits with which the whole air around Stanley Crane (A. paradisæus), a larger and taller is swarming. These spirits may not only affect bird found in the East Indies.

the fortune of the individual, but may even enter Demoivre, ABRAHAM, a distinguished mathe

into his body, and cause internal diseases and matician, was born at Vitry, in Champagne, 26th such other inexplicable phenomena as frenzy, wild May 1667. A Protestant, he fled to England in ravings, hysterical epilepsy, and the like. The very 1685, on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and etymology of such words as catalepsy and ecstasy there long supported himself by private tuition and points plainly to a time when there was no metapublic lecturiny The appearance of Newton's phor in their meaning: Such is the explanation Principiu incited him to increased devotion to

of disease offered at the present day by savage mathematical studies, and at last he ranked among

man all over the world, and such was also the leading mathematicians of his time. He was

the belief of the semi-civilised ancient Egyptians a member of the Royal Society of London, and of

and Babylonians. Indeed, it disappeared but the Academies of Berlin and Paris. The Philo slowly before the progress of scientific medicine, sophical Transactions of London are enriched by and continued to reappear in survivals strangely many contributions from his pen; and he was so

perplexing on any other explanation. Hence esteemed by the Royal Society that they judged

the function of the exorcist arises naturally him a fit person to assist in the decision of the as a means of effecting a cure by expelling the famous contest between Newton and Leibnitz for demon, and we find him daily exercising his skill the merit of the invention of fluxions. He died in

in Africa, and even in China and India. A careLondon, 27th November 1754. Among his published

ful distinction is made by sorcerers as to whether works are Annuities upon Lives (1725), Niscellanea the infesting demon possesses or obsesses his Analytica de Seriebus et Quadraturis (1730); and

victim-i.e. controls him from the inside or the The Doctrine of Chances (1719 and 1738), dedicated outside. In early Christian tinres those demoniacto Sir Isaac Newton. Demoivre's name is well ally possessed, or energumens, were grouped into known from its association with a useful trigono

a class under the care of a special order of clerical metrical formula-viz. that, where I is any real

exorcists, and after the time of St Augustine the quantity, cos ko + i sin is always one value of rite of exorcism came to be applied to all infants (cos 8 + isin )".

before baptism. Indeed, exorcists still form one of

the 'minor orders of the Catholic Church. Demonetisation. See BIMETALLISM.

Reverting to the animistic theory of demonology, Demonology, the doctrine that relates to we find how well it harmonises with widely-spread demons, a body of spiritual beings inferior in rank notions in folklore of phantom-dreams-nightto deities proper, but yet capable of influencing mare (A.S. mara, 'a crusher'); the Slavonic vamhuman affairs. The earlier and more widely- pires, or witch-ghosts, who suck the blood of spread conception of the demon was merely thắt living victims; incubi and succubi, like Adam's of a more or less powerful and intermediate agent wife Lilith in the rabbinical story (Assyrian lilit

, between gods and men, at one time resolving'a succubus ’), demons who consort with women himself into a kind of special guardian or patron- and men in their sleep and by whose means children spirit, at another acting as the minister of the may be engendered between demons and women ; divine displeasure. The gradual differentiation the Hindu rakshas, malignant and gigantic demobetween the beneficent and the malignant qualities niacal ogres who can at will assume any shape ;

and of demons resulted in the division into good spirits witches, who have confessed a thousand tinies to or guardian-angels and evil spirits or devils; and being possessed with a familiar spirit, and who Christian theology, developing earlier Jewish ideas own allegiance in particular to the master-demon, -themselves powerfully modified by the influ Satan. Other embodiments of the spirit of evil are ence of Persian dualism-worked up the one class the Celtic and Teutonic Giants, and the Ogres of into an elaborate hierarchy of angels and arch southern romance, who destroy' men and devonr angels, the other into a forinidable host of fallen their flesh ; the Norse Trolls, one-eyed, maliguant angels or devils, considered as continually employed but stupid monsters; the Drakos ånd' Lamias of in frustrating the good purposes of God, and mar modern Greece; the Lithuanian Laume; the Russhalled under one master-spirit, the devil proper or sian fiery and flying snakes, Koshchei the DeathSatan, the supreme impersonation of the spirit of less, Baba Yaga, å hideous old hag who flies evil. The guardian-angel corresponds closely to through the air in a fiery mortar, propelled with such conceptions as the Roman genius and even the a pestle, and the Morskoi Tsar, or king of the famous daimon of Socrates. To primitive man the waters, with his daughters, the ubiquitous swandemon was but one of the thousand spiritual beings maidens of romance.

No mythology is richer than who controlled every one of the causes of nature, the Slavonic in malignant male and female demons and whose favour must be purchased by constant and fiends (chorti, devils'), gloomy shadows of tributes of respect and worship. It was perfectly old nature myths and degraded forms of the consistent with primitive philosophy that the manes great deities of an earlier religion, a combinaor ghosts of the dead should continue after death | tion of the most heterogeneous elements flung the influence they enjoyed in life, and thus should together in the most perplexing confusion. Traces pass into the higher class of deities. The essential

remain of an original dualism between a great distinctions between the divine and the human black and a white god (Byelun); but besides this that seem so fundamental to modern minds did not and those fiendish forms already mentioned, Mr occur to those whose notions of the visible and Ralston enumerates the karliki, or fiendish dwarfs; invisible universe alike were entirely animistic; lyeshuie, silvan demons resembling the fauns and and thus we find that the savage makes no clear satyrs of Greek mythology ; vodyanuie, or waterdistinction between ghosts and demons, and that sprites; vozdushnuie, demons who ride the whirlhis conception of the demon is constructed on the winds; domovuie, or domestic spirits like the model of the human soul, of course with any Scotch brownies and the Lithuanian kaukas; and number of terrible and superhuman qualities the rusalka, a kind of Naiad or Undine.

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Demons with specialised functions exist in myth Loki of the ancient Scandinavians, their nearest
ology everywhere, as the Japanese Oni, who bring approximation to a personification of evil, was
on winds, themselves living at the centre of the rather a demigod than a devil, not essentially
storm ; the Chinese air-dragons, whose battles hostile to the other deities, although he works
bring on waterspouts; the demons of floods in old them mischief enough; and the four archdemons
Egyptian and Akkadian mythology; the spectres of the Rabbins, Samaël, Azazel, Asaël, and Mac-
and phantoms that infest the sea; the nixies of cathiel, seeni to have been originally nothing
northern Europe, and the kelpies of Scotland, who more than personifications of the elements as
haunt pools to drown unwary travellers, and natu- energies of the deity. Even the name Lucifer
rally hate bridges, although elsewhere many bridges ('the light-bearer '), the fallen angel of the morn-
as well as other superhuman works have been ing star, fits ill with a conception of a devil utterly
erected, usually in miraculously short periods of and hopelessly evil. The widely-spread belief thatı
time, by demons, often at the command of powerful demons are lame accords well with a supposed fall
magicians like Michael Scott. Sometimes the devil from heaven and an original state of innocence. It
even consents to build a church for the reward of is not a little striking at anyrate to find the same
the soul of the first that enters it. Others again characteristic in Hephaistos, Wayland the Smith,
are those sirens who, by their unearthly beauty or and the Persian Æshma—the Asmodeus of the
the charm of their singing, draw on unwary youths Book of Tobit, the 'Diable Boiteux' of Le Sage.
to their ruin ; most famous of these, the romantic The sootiness of his abode and his blackness of
Lorelei of the Rhine. Again, particular animals, colour are persistent characteristics, although,
chiefly those with power to harm man, are favourite indeed, some

West African negroes

have
hosts for demons to inhabit, especially the serpent, white devil. The usual cloven feet of the devil
but also the cat, the hedgehog, the hare, the fox, in European folk-tales, often the last mark of
the he-goat, the raven, the wolf—the old Norse identification, when the horns and the
Fenris, and the dog, especially if black in colour, tail are hidden, is a reminiscence of the Greek
like the dog in Faust. The madness of dogs, with satyr and the forest-sprites of old Teutonic and
its peculiar horror, itself opens up a strange chapter other folklore. The ugliness of the medieval
in the history of demonology.

representations of the devil in religious art, as
One of the most systematic of demonologies is that may be seen in the fantastic gargoyles of many
elaborated by the Moslem theologians. The Jinn churches, was but a part of the early church's
(sing. Jinnee) were created two thousand years policy of degradation to which the native deities
before Adam, but sinned against God and were were subjected, and from which sprung the
degraded from their original high estate. The medieval belief that the various gods of the old
greatest among them was Iblees (Eblis), who was heathen world were the devils or degraded angels
cast out by Allah for refusing to worship Adam as of Scripture. This notion is familiar to readers
made of earth, he himself having been formed of of Paradise Lost, although Milton makes an in-
smokeless fire. The Sheytáns form his host; other genious poetic use of it that is all his own. And
species of subordinate fiends are the Jánn, the even the medieval devil, with all his terror, had
least powerful, also 'Efreets (Afrits) and Márids, strange limitations to his power, especially per-
the last the inost powerful. Eminent among the haps in the folklore of the north,

He is often
evil Jinn are the five sons of Iblees-Teer, who ludicrously outwitted, and his machinations foiled
brings about calamities, losses, and injuries ; El by some obvious enough device or verbal quibble.
Aawar, who encourages debauchery ; Sót, who it is not merely the weakest saint upon his knees
suggests lies ; Dásim, who causes hatred between that can baffle his infernal schemes, but some
man and wife; and Zelemboor, who presides over country-fellow who beats him at his own weapons,
places of traffic. Inferior demons are the Ghoul, and whom afterwards he will have in hell at no
often in human forin and devouring the bodies price. The old Scotch notion of Satan as grown so
of the dead like the Russian werewolves; the much the more dangerous from the accumulated
Sealáh, found in forests; the Delhán, living in wickedness and wisdoni of six thousand years is
islands; and the Shikk, shaped like a human being hopelessly inconsistent with the archfiend of Norse
halved lengthwise. The Jinn assume various folklore.
shapes, sometimes as men of enormous size and The early Christian idea of hell, the abode of
portentous hideousness. They live chiefly on the the demons, owed many of its features to the Jew-
mountains of Káf, which encompass the whole ish Gehenna, with its perpetual fire, the horror of
earth, and their evil influence may be averted by its sacrifices, and its loathsome worm ; and the
talismans and invocations, and pre-eminently wise characteristics of Moloch and other primitive fire-
magicians like Solomon may command their ser gods became associated with the devil, degraded
vices. They consist of forty troops, each troop from a fire-god to a mere powerful spirit. The
containing six hundred thousand. See chapter ii. Jinn of Arabian mythology, who are slaves of
of Lane's Arabian Society in the Middle Ages the lamp and ascend as clouds of smoke, serve also
(edited by Stanley Lane-Poole, 1883).

to show how fundamental was the notion of a fire.
The sulbject of dualism, or the division of all the fiend which passed, though under degraded form,
invisible powers into two great armies of good and into Christian theology. Consistent with this is
evil demons, ranged under the supreme impersona- the widespread belief in Europe that the devil can-
tions of good anıl evil, will be discussed under not touch or cross running water, of which poetic
ZOROASTER, and here it is sufficient to say that use is admirably made in the magnificent phan-
it modified the whole later Jewish and Talmudic tasy of Tam o "Shunter. Again, the struggle be-
demonology, and reappeared in the Manichæan tween Balder and the deadly powers of winter in
heresy. To it is due the distinction between the the Norse niythology was spiritualised and ampli-
demon and the devil, a notion which seems funda- fied into Christ conquering Death and Hell and
mental to the modern moral sense, but was foreign releasing the spirits from prison; and the old north-
to the earlier demonology, according to which all ern ideas of wintry cold personified into a powerful
the specially malignant qualities and the love of anı malignant demon, under new influences passed
evil for its own sake become characteristic of the to swell the attributes of the Christian devil, whose
latter. The Vritra and the other night-powers, dreary abode provided those torments of frost as
the Panis, of the Vedic hymns, are as yet hardly well as fire familiar to readers of Dante. Herein is
more than personifications of merely physical evil, the origin of the folklore notion that the home of
pot inherently and absolutely wicked ; while the the demons was the north, and hence the inveterate

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750

DE MORGAN

DEMOSTHENES

3

English preference for burial on the south side of a and who in 413, being sent to Sicily to the relief
church. No stories are more common than those of of Nicias, fell, fighting bravely, into the hands of
coinpacts with the devil, sometimes written in blood, the Syracusans, and was put to death.
by which a man gave away his soul for wisdom, Demosthenes, the greatest orator of Athens
wealth, power, or other gratifications to be enjoyed and of Greece, was born about 383 B.C. He lost
for a certain number of years. The classical story his father at an early age.

The considerable in this kind is that of Faust, which the genius of inheritance bequeathed to him was reduced by the Goethe has maile an imperishable part of the intel. neglect or the fraud of his guardians, and when he lectual birthright of Europe.

came of age he proceeded to prosecute them. The Raising the devil or liis inferior demons was a litigation was long and complicated, and though he feat within the power of the medieval sorcerers and gained verdicts in his favour, most of his inheritance masters of the black art, and elaborate formulas for

was irretrievably lost. The importance of this the purpose are gravely given in the books of magic. litigation was thåt it compelled Demosthenes to the This unholy art was maile punishable by death by study of the law, gave the first exercise to that James I., ånd his law remained upon the statute doggedness and strength of will which was to mark book of England till the reign of George II. The him through life, and by reducing him to poverty, worship of the devil was a usual feature of the drove him to the pursuit of law as a means of living. witches' sabbath, and the name is often applied At Athens the parties to a suit were compelled to still to the strange dances and other religious rites plead their cause themselves, but they could not be by which many tribes in India and elsewhere avert | prevented from getting their speeches composed for the anger of malignant deities. It must be under

them by a professional speech-writer' or 'logo, stood that there is no conscious homage to the grapher' Demosthenes became a logographer, and principle of evil as opposed to good, as the objects soon acquired a lucrative practice. Up to the age of worship are merely deities powerful for harm as of thirty Demosthenes confined himself to speechwell as for help, considered almost as entirely out: writing, and yained considerable reputation as a side any moral considerations, like the demons of constitutional lawyer. His most famous constituunmixeil primitive religion everywhere.

tional law speech is one which he delivered perSce the articles ANGEL, ANIMISM, DEVIL, Evil, sonally in support of Ctesippus against Leptines EXORCISM, HELL, SERPENT-WORSHIP,

WEREWOLF, ( 354 B.C.). He seems to have lacked by nature
WITCHCRAFT, ZOROASTER ; also Horst, Deemonomagie all the physical qualifications of a great orator,
(2 vols. 1817), and Zauberbibliothek (6 vols. 1821-26);
Ukert, Ueber" Dämonen, Heroen, und Genien (1850); self-discipline and training:

and to have acquired theni solely by indefatigable

At about the age Bastian, Der Mensch in der Geschichte (3 vols. 1860);

of thirty he made his first appearance as a Tylor's Primitive, Culture (2 vols. 1871); Roskoff's admirably learned Geschichte des Teufels (2 vols. 1869); and for politician ; he continued to practise as a logographer its facts, Moncure D. Conway's Demonology and Devil-lore until he was about forty, by which time he had (2 vols. 1879); also some of the older books, as Bodin, made a fortune sufficient to enable him to devote De Magorum Demonomania (1581), and the like. himself exclusively to political life until he died, at

the De Morgan, AUGUSTUS, son of Colonel De

age

of about sixty-one. Morgan of the Indian army, was born in 1806, in

At the beginning of his political career danger Madura, Madras Presidency. Educated at several

threatened Greece from the north, from Macedonia, private schools, he “read algebra like a novel'

a country which though at that time considered (novels themselves he devoured insatiably); but by the Greeks as semi-barbarous, and of no fter four years at Trinity College, Cambridge, the lifetime of Demosthenes to destroy the

account in Greek politics, was destined within he graduated as only fourth wrangler (1827). As a result of his revolt from his early evangelical Demosthenes claim to fame as a statesman rests

liberties and the political existence of Greece. training, he did not take orlers. He was appointed first professor of Mathematics in University College,

on the fact that he foresaw the danger threatened London, after its foundation in 1828. În 1831 he by Philip of Macedon from the beginning, and resigned this office, but was reappointed in 1836, which might have saved Athens and Greece. The

that he' from the outset advocated a policy and continued in that capacity till 1866. An energetic worker, he was secretary of the Astrono

three cardinal features of his policy were that the mical Society (1831-38 and 1848-54), and held rich should submit to direct taxation for the other offices therein. His writings are very numer

purposes of the war ; that the poor should submit, Besides being a mathematician of the first

for the same purposes, to a diminution of the public oriler, he was extensively an, minutely versed in expenditure on national festivals; and that rich and the history of the mathematical and physical poor alike should render personal military service sciences. He also devoted himself to the develop instead of employing mercenaries. Intelligent as ment of the Aristotelian or Formal' Logic, to

was the Athenian democracy, it was not intelligent which he has given so symbolical a shape as to

enough to see that Demosthenes' forecast was right, make it seem like a branch of Algebra, and wrote

and his opponents' wrong; and, consequently, it on the calculation of Insurances and on the Decimal was only when events justified Deniosthenes, that Coinaye. His works include Elements of Arith is to say, when it was too late, that his policy was metic (1831); dlgebra (1835); Numbers and Magni adopted. Philip's attack on the state of Olynthus tule (1836); Trigonometry and Trigonometrical gave occasion to the Olynthiacs, which, with the Analysis (1837); Essay on Probabilities (1838);

orations against Philip, the Philippics, are the Formal Logic (1847); Arithmetical Books (1847); greatest speeches made by Demosthenes. Athens Book of Almanacs (1850); Budget of Paradoces made war with Philip on behalf of Olynthus, but also wrote treatises on the Differential and Integral thenes was engaged in forming an anti-Macedonian (1872), reprinted from the Atheneum." De Morgan having

failed to save the city, found peace expediCalculus; and contributed largely to the Demon party, and in indicting Æschines for betraying journals. He died 18th March 1871. His library cluded with Philip. War again broke out in 340, of about 3000 volumes was purchased by Lord ending in the fatal battle of Chæronea (338). Bitte Memoir of Augustus de Morgan, by his wife (1882). Athens, having learned to trust Demosthenes, did Demosthenes, an able Athenian general, who ian party, however, were encouraged to seize on

not withdraw her confidence. The philo-Macedonin 425 B.C. assisted Cleon to reduce Sphacteria, a proposal to present Demosthenes with a public

Ous.

DEMOSTHENES

DEMULCENTS

751

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crown as an occasion for his political destruction. lectual loftiness, and his high political morality. The trial was at length held in 330, when in the These great qualities are the source of the dignity, famous speech On the Crown Demosthenes gloriously the pathos, the might, majesty, and dominion of vindicated himself against Æschines. In 324 Har- his political orations. Even these qualities, howpalus, the treasurer of Alexander the Great ( who ever, would not have raised him to the highest had succeeded Philip), absconded to Athens with pinnacle in the fane of eloquence had he not pos

enormous sum of money. This money was sessed the ear and the mind of the artist in words, placed in the state treasury, under the care of the former of which gave to his speeches the marDemosthenes and others, and when Alexander vellous melody they possess, the latter the variety demanded it, half was missing. Demosthenes was of vocabulary, which is one of Demosthenes’ accused, condemned, and escaped from prison into characteristics. Nor must it be forgotten that the exile. The evidence does not seem to have war way for Demosthenes had been paved by great preranted the verdict, which was probably given on

decessors. The summit on which he stands rests political grounds, Demosthenes having offended on the labours of Lysias, Isocrates, and others. both the. Macedonian party and the extreme Finally, oratory, to be great, must have great patriots. In 323 Alexander died, and Demosthenes themes, and it is not in every age that they are was recalled from exile to head a fruitless attempt forthcoming. Demosthenes had the lot, tragic but to throw off the Macedonian yoke. The battle of triumphant, of saving, though all else was lost, the Crannon ended the revolt. Demosthenes fled to honour of his country. Calaureia, and being there captured by Macedonian For the life of Demosthenes, A. Schäfer's Demosthenes troops, poisoned himself, 322 B.C.

und seine Zeit (2d ed. 1882) eclipses all other works, Demosthenes began life with a nervous, timid good as are the hand-books of Brodribb (1877) and nature, and, unfortunately, as a boy was allowed Butcher (1881). The most exhaustive literary criticism by his mother to shirk the physical exercises and is contained in Blass's Attische Beredsamkeit (1877). gymnastic training which formed part of the ordi

The best text is that of Bekker (1854). Kennedy's nary education of the young Athenian. He grew

English translation (5 vols. 1852-63) is a monument of up with a tendency to effeminacy, which showed

scholarship. itself in an affection for luxurious clothing, and still Demotica, a town of European Turkey, on a more in his conduct as a citizen soldier; for tributary of the Maritza, 31 miles S. of Adrianople although at Chæronea he may have displayed no by rail. It is the seat of a Greek bishop, and has more cowardice than did the other Athenians who manufactures of silks and pottery. Pop. 8000. ran away, he was far from exhibiting the heroic Charles XII. of Sweden resided here from Febbearing which distinguished Socrates at Delium. ruary 1713 to October 1714. His timidity made him unsocial, and his waterdrinking habits cut him off still more effectually

Demotic Alphabet. See HIEROGLYPHICS. from society. His luxury may have reached the Dempster, THOMAS, a professor famous for his point of extravagance : lie was certainly lavishly learning, and a miscellaneous and voluminous generous in the discharge of all claims on him, writer, was the son of Thomas, laird of Muiresk, public and private. Whether his effeminacy Aberdeenshire, and was born about 1579. He was amounted to immorality, as was charged against educated at Turriff, Aberdeen, Cambridge, Paris, him, is a question which cannot be answered off Louvain, Rome, and Douay. A zealous Catholic, hand in the negative. The natural defects which he was elected to several provincial fessorships, were to be seen in his private life may be traced in and at Paris he was for seven years professor in his public career; but here it is their conquest by the Collèges des Grassins, de Lisieux, and de force of will and determined adherence to a lofty

Plessy. But a brawl resulted, it is said, in purpose which has rightly given him his great Dempster's having to retreat to England. He His nervousness and timidity disqualified

soon returned to the Continent, bringing with him him for political life and public speaking ; these

a beautiful wife, and at Pisa in 1616 obtained a defects le combated till he conquered them. His professorship; but his wife's infidelities marring natural incapacity for amiability rendered him un

his

peace, he removed to Bologna, where he became sympathetic to the pleasure-loving Athenians; he professor of Humanities, and where his wife comcoinpelled their respect by liis intellectual power pleted her shame by eloping. Pursuing the fugiand the purity of his patriotism. The want of tives, he was stricken with sickness, and died at sympathy, however, he never overcame, and so he Bologna, 6th Septeniber 1625. Dempster's not never obtained the hold over the Athenians which too veracious autobiography forms part of his it would have been good for them that he should

Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum (Bologna, possess. In all democracies every politician who

1627)—an erudite work in which, however, his has led the masses at his own good-will has known desire to magnify the merits of his country often on occasion how, if not to flatter, at least to say

induced him to forge the names of persons and the thing that is pleasant; but Demosthenes’

books that never existed, and to unscrupulously nature did not permit him to say pleasant things. claim as Scotchmen writers whose birthplace was Even this serious practical deficiency could not

doubtful. It was edited by David Irving for the prevent his contemporaries from eventually recog. Bannatyne Club in 1829, and the manuscript is still nising his force of character and steadiness of preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Still less has it weighed withi

There is a selection from his Latin poetry in posterity.

Johnstone's Delitic Poetarum Scotorum. In the oratory of Demosthenes it is not difficult Demulcents (Lat. demulcco, 'I soften'), bland to trace the character of the man reflected. His and lubricating liquid substances, taken by the resolute hard work and his infinite capacity for mouth, for the purpose of soothing irritation of the taking pains are seen in the high finish whici dis mucous membranes, and promoting the dilution tinguished his speeches above those of every orator. of the blood, and the increase of the secretions. His moroseness is mirrored in the abuse of which Demulcents are cliefly composed of Starch (q.v.), he was too great a master; his want of amiability or Gum (9.v.), or of substances containing these, in the absence of humour. His nervousness betrays dissolved in water ; sometimes also of oily matters, itself in his over-anxiety to argue, in his lack of or the white of eggs, and other albuminous or ease and flow. But as in his life so in his speeches, gelatinous substances largely diluted. The de. all faults are blotted out by his unaffected earnest- coction of althæa, or marsh-mallow, is a favourite ness, his entire devotion to his country, his intel. I form of demulcent.

name.

noble purpose.

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