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special interests; real interests are concealed multitude of indivisible corporeal particles, atoms
Democritus did not acknowledge the istic of the democracy place it at a disadvantage presence of design in nature, but he admitted that as compared with the secrecy, continuity, and of law. The word chance,' he says, 'is only an tenacity of a government like that of Russia. expression of human ignorance.' He believed
Much has been written on the merits and de- strictly in secondary or physical causes, but not
organs. Democritus boldly applied his theory to
the grossness of his metaphysics, is both pure and
sess contain beautiful, vigorous, and true thoughts
concerning veracity, justice, law, order, and the
Demodex. See ACARUS.
littérateur, born 5th July 1808 at Paris, lectured at
et les Hommes de Lettres au XIX. Siècle (1856);
Littératures étrangères (2 vols. 1880). His poems
are little known. Democritus, an illustrious Greek philosopher, the
crane family (Gruida), differing from the true
Demoiselle ( Anthropoides), a genus of birds in
Democritus's system of philosophy is known as
Demoiselle ( Anthropoides virgo ).
colour of its plumage is gray, but the sides of the superinduced. It is not merely family affection, head are adorned with two elegant white tufts, and but actual fear and considerations of prudence, the breast bears long blackish feathers. The that lead to the worship of ancestors and of demoiselle is an African and Asiatic bird, but the dead; and the good or bad fortune of living visits Greece and other parts of the south of men is attributed to the direct interference of the Europe. To the same genus belongs the beautiful invisible spirits with which the whole air around Stanley Crane (A. paradisæus), a larger and taller is swarming. These spirits may not only affect bird found in the East Indies.
the fortune of the individual, but may even enter Demoivre, ABRAHAM, a distinguished mathe
into his body, and cause internal diseases and matician, was born at Vitry, in Champagne, 26th such other inexplicable phenomena as frenzy, wild May 1667. A Protestant, he fled to England in ravings, hysterical epilepsy, and the like. The very 1685, on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and etymology of such words as catalepsy and ecstasy there long supported himself by private tuition and points plainly to a time when there was no metapublic lecturiny The appearance of Newton's phor in their meaning: Such is the explanation Principiu incited him to increased devotion to
of disease offered at the present day by savage mathematical studies, and at last he ranked among
man all over the world, and such was also the leading mathematicians of his time. He was
the belief of the semi-civilised ancient Egyptians a member of the Royal Society of London, and of
and Babylonians. Indeed, it disappeared but the Academies of Berlin and Paris. The Philo slowly before the progress of scientific medicine, sophical Transactions of London are enriched by and continued to reappear in survivals strangely many contributions from his pen; and he was so
perplexing on any other explanation. Hence esteemed by the Royal Society that they judged
the function of the exorcist arises naturally him a fit person to assist in the decision of the as a means of effecting a cure by expelling the famous contest between Newton and Leibnitz for demon, and we find him daily exercising his skill the merit of the invention of fluxions. He died in
in Africa, and even in China and India. A careLondon, 27th November 1754. Among his published
ful distinction is made by sorcerers as to whether works are Annuities upon Lives (1725), Niscellanea the infesting demon possesses or obsesses his Analytica de Seriebus et Quadraturis (1730); and
victim-i.e. controls him from the inside or the The Doctrine of Chances (1719 and 1738), dedicated outside. In early Christian tinres those demoniacto Sir Isaac Newton. Demoivre's name is well ally possessed, or energumens, were grouped into known from its association with a useful trigono
a class under the care of a special order of clerical metrical formula-viz. that, where I is any real
exorcists, and after the time of St Augustine the quantity, cos ko + i sin kø is always one value of rite of exorcism came to be applied to all infants (cos 8 + isin )".
before baptism. Indeed, exorcists still form one of
the 'minor orders of the Catholic Church. Demonetisation. See BIMETALLISM.
Reverting to the animistic theory of demonology, Demonology, the doctrine that relates to we find how well it harmonises with widely-spread demons, a body of spiritual beings inferior in rank notions in folklore of phantom-dreams-nightto deities proper, but yet capable of influencing mare (A.S. mara, 'a crusher'); the Slavonic vamhuman affairs. The earlier and more widely- pires, or witch-ghosts, who suck the blood of spread conception of the demon was merely thắt living victims; incubi and succubi, like Adam's of a more or less powerful and intermediate agent wife Lilith in the rabbinical story (Assyrian lilit
, between gods and men, at one time resolving'a succubus ’), demons who consort with women himself into a kind of special guardian or patron- and men in their sleep and by whose means children spirit, at another acting as the minister of the may be engendered between demons and women ; divine displeasure. The gradual differentiation the Hindu rakshas, malignant and gigantic demobetween the beneficent and the malignant qualities niacal ogres who can at will assume any shape ;
and of demons resulted in the division into good spirits witches, who have confessed a thousand tinies to or guardian-angels and evil spirits or devils; and being possessed with a familiar spirit, and who Christian theology, developing earlier Jewish ideas own allegiance in particular to the master-demon, -themselves powerfully modified by the influ Satan. Other embodiments of the spirit of evil are ence of Persian dualism-worked up the one class the Celtic and Teutonic Giants, and the Ogres of into an elaborate hierarchy of angels and arch southern romance, who destroy' men and devonr angels, the other into a forinidable host of fallen their flesh ; the Norse Trolls, one-eyed, maliguant angels or devils, considered as continually employed but stupid monsters; the Drakos ånd' Lamias of in frustrating the good purposes of God, and mar modern Greece; the Lithuanian Laume; the Russhalled under one master-spirit, the devil proper or sian fiery and flying snakes, Koshchei the DeathSatan, the supreme impersonation of the spirit of less, Baba Yaga, å hideous old hag who flies evil. The guardian-angel corresponds closely to through the air in a fiery mortar, propelled with such conceptions as the Roman genius and even the a pestle, and the Morskoi Tsar, or king of the famous daimon of Socrates. To primitive man the waters, with his daughters, the ubiquitous swandemon was but one of the thousand spiritual beings maidens of romance.
No mythology is richer than who controlled every one of the causes of nature, the Slavonic in malignant male and female demons and whose favour must be purchased by constant and fiends (chorti, devils'), gloomy shadows of tributes of respect and worship. It was perfectly old nature myths and degraded forms of the consistent with primitive philosophy that the manes great deities of an earlier religion, a combinaor ghosts of the dead should continue after death | tion of the most heterogeneous elements flung the influence they enjoyed in life, and thus should together in the most perplexing confusion. Traces pass into the higher class of deities. The essential
remain of an original dualism between a great distinctions between the divine and the human black and a white god (Byelun); but besides this that seem so fundamental to modern minds did not and those fiendish forms already mentioned, Mr occur to those whose notions of the visible and Ralston enumerates the karliki, or fiendish dwarfs; invisible universe alike were entirely animistic; lyeshuie, silvan demons resembling the fauns and and thus we find that the savage makes no clear satyrs of Greek mythology ; vodyanuie, or waterdistinction between ghosts and demons, and that sprites; vozdushnuie, demons who ride the whirlhis conception of the demon is constructed on the winds; domovuie, or domestic spirits like the model of the human soul, of course with any Scotch brownies and the Lithuanian kaukas; and number of terrible and superhuman qualities the rusalka, a kind of Naiad or Undine.
Demons with specialised functions exist in myth Loki of the ancient Scandinavians, their nearest
West African negroes
representations of the devil in religious art, as
He is often
to show how fundamental was the notion of a fire.
English preference for burial on the south side of a and who in 413, being sent to Sicily to the relief
The considerable in this kind is that of Faust, which the genius of inheritance bequeathed to him was reduced by the Goethe has maile an imperishable part of the intel. neglect or the fraud of his guardians, and when he lectual birthright of Europe.
came of age he proceeded to prosecute them. The Raising the devil or liis inferior demons was a litigation was long and complicated, and though he feat within the power of the medieval sorcerers and gained verdicts in his favour, most of his inheritance masters of the black art, and elaborate formulas for
was irretrievably lost. The importance of this the purpose are gravely given in the books of magic. litigation was thåt it compelled Demosthenes to the This unholy art was maile punishable by death by study of the law, gave the first exercise to that James I., ånd his law remained upon the statute doggedness and strength of will which was to mark book of England till the reign of George II. The him through life, and by reducing him to poverty, worship of the devil was a usual feature of the drove him to the pursuit of law as a means of living. witches' sabbath, and the name is often applied At Athens the parties to a suit were compelled to still to the strange dances and other religious rites plead their cause themselves, but they could not be by which many tribes in India and elsewhere avert | prevented from getting their speeches composed for the anger of malignant deities. It must be under
them by a professional speech-writer' or 'logo, stood that there is no conscious homage to the grapher' Demosthenes became a logographer, and principle of evil as opposed to good, as the objects soon acquired a lucrative practice. Up to the age of worship are merely deities powerful for harm as of thirty Demosthenes confined himself to speechwell as for help, considered almost as entirely out: writing, and yained considerable reputation as a side any moral considerations, like the demons of constitutional lawyer. His most famous constituunmixeil primitive religion everywhere.
tional law speech is one which he delivered perSce the articles ANGEL, ANIMISM, DEVIL, Evil, sonally in support of Ctesippus against Leptines EXORCISM, HELL, SERPENT-WORSHIP,
WEREWOLF, ( 354 B.C.). He seems to have lacked by nature
and to have acquired theni solely by indefatigable
At about the age Bastian, Der Mensch in der Geschichte (3 vols. 1860);
of thirty he made his first appearance as a Tylor's Primitive, Culture (2 vols. 1871); Roskoff's admirably learned Geschichte des Teufels (2 vols. 1869); and for politician ; he continued to practise as a logographer its facts, Moncure D. Conway's Demonology and Devil-lore until he was about forty, by which time he had (2 vols. 1879); also some of the older books, as Bodin, made a fortune sufficient to enable him to devote De Magorum Demonomania (1581), and the like. himself exclusively to political life until he died, at
the De Morgan, AUGUSTUS, son of Colonel De
of about sixty-one. Morgan of the Indian army, was born in 1806, in
At the beginning of his political career danger Madura, Madras Presidency. Educated at several
threatened Greece from the north, from Macedonia, private schools, he “read algebra like a novel'
a country which though at that time considered (novels themselves he devoured insatiably); but by the Greeks as semi-barbarous, and of no fter four years at Trinity College, Cambridge, the lifetime of Demosthenes to destroy the
account in Greek politics, was destined within he graduated as only fourth wrangler (1827). As a result of his revolt from his early evangelical Demosthenes claim to fame as a statesman rests
liberties and the political existence of Greece. training, he did not take orlers. He was appointed first professor of Mathematics in University College,
on the fact that he foresaw the danger threatened London, after its foundation in 1828. În 1831 he by Philip of Macedon from the beginning, and resigned this office, but was reappointed in 1836, which might have saved Athens and Greece. The
that he' from the outset advocated a policy and continued in that capacity till 1866. An energetic worker, he was secretary of the Astrono
three cardinal features of his policy were that the mical Society (1831-38 and 1848-54), and held rich should submit to direct taxation for the other offices therein. His writings are very numer
purposes of the war ; that the poor should submit, Besides being a mathematician of the first
for the same purposes, to a diminution of the public oriler, he was extensively an, minutely versed in expenditure on national festivals; and that rich and the history of the mathematical and physical poor alike should render personal military service sciences. He also devoted himself to the develop instead of employing mercenaries. Intelligent as ment of the Aristotelian or Formal' Logic, to
was the Athenian democracy, it was not intelligent which he has given so symbolical a shape as to
enough to see that Demosthenes' forecast was right, make it seem like a branch of Algebra, and wrote
and his opponents' wrong; and, consequently, it on the calculation of Insurances and on the Decimal was only when events justified Deniosthenes, that Coinaye. His works include Elements of Arith is to say, when it was too late, that his policy was metic (1831); dlgebra (1835); Numbers and Magni adopted. Philip's attack on the state of Olynthus tule (1836); Trigonometry and Trigonometrical gave occasion to the Olynthiacs, which, with the Analysis (1837); Essay on Probabilities (1838);
orations against Philip, the Philippics, are the Formal Logic (1847); Arithmetical Books (1847); greatest speeches made by Demosthenes. Athens Book of Almanacs (1850); Budget of Paradoces made war with Philip on behalf of Olynthus, but also wrote treatises on the Differential and Integral thenes was engaged in forming an anti-Macedonian (1872), reprinted from the Atheneum." De Morgan having
failed to save the city, found peace expediCalculus; and contributed largely to the Demon party, and in indicting Æschines for betraying journals. He died 18th March 1871. His library cluded with Philip. War again broke out in 340, of about 3000 volumes was purchased by Lord ending in the fatal battle of Chæronea (338). Bitte Memoir of Augustus de Morgan, by his wife (1882). Athens, having learned to trust Demosthenes, did Demosthenes, an able Athenian general, who ian party, however, were encouraged to seize on
not withdraw her confidence. The philo-Macedonin 425 B.C. assisted Cleon to reduce Sphacteria, a proposal to present Demosthenes with a public
crown as an occasion for his political destruction. lectual loftiness, and his high political morality. The trial was at length held in 330, when in the These great qualities are the source of the dignity, famous speech On the Crown Demosthenes gloriously the pathos, the might, majesty, and dominion of vindicated himself against Æschines. In 324 Har- his political orations. Even these qualities, howpalus, the treasurer of Alexander the Great ( who ever, would not have raised him to the highest had succeeded Philip), absconded to Athens with pinnacle in the fane of eloquence had he not pos
enormous sum of money. This money was sessed the ear and the mind of the artist in words, placed in the state treasury, under the care of the former of which gave to his speeches the marDemosthenes and others, and when Alexander vellous melody they possess, the latter the variety demanded it, half was missing. Demosthenes was of vocabulary, which is one of Demosthenes’ accused, condemned, and escaped from prison into characteristics. Nor must it be forgotten that the exile. The evidence does not seem to have war way for Demosthenes had been paved by great preranted the verdict, which was probably given on
decessors. The summit on which he stands rests political grounds, Demosthenes having offended on the labours of Lysias, Isocrates, and others. both the. Macedonian party and the extreme Finally, oratory, to be great, must have great patriots. In 323 Alexander died, and Demosthenes themes, and it is not in every age that they are was recalled from exile to head a fruitless attempt forthcoming. Demosthenes had the lot, tragic but to throw off the Macedonian yoke. The battle of triumphant, of saving, though all else was lost, the Crannon ended the revolt. Demosthenes fled to honour of his country. Calaureia, and being there captured by Macedonian For the life of Demosthenes, A. Schäfer's Demosthenes troops, poisoned himself, 322 B.C.
und seine Zeit (2d ed. 1882) eclipses all other works, Demosthenes began life with a nervous, timid good as are the hand-books of Brodribb (1877) and nature, and, unfortunately, as a boy was allowed Butcher (1881). The most exhaustive literary criticism by his mother to shirk the physical exercises and is contained in Blass's Attische Beredsamkeit (1877). gymnastic training which formed part of the ordi
The best text is that of Bekker (1854). Kennedy's nary education of the young Athenian. He grew
English translation (5 vols. 1852-63) is a monument of up with a tendency to effeminacy, which showed
scholarship. itself in an affection for luxurious clothing, and still Demotica, a town of European Turkey, on a more in his conduct as a citizen soldier; for tributary of the Maritza, 31 miles S. of Adrianople although at Chæronea he may have displayed no by rail. It is the seat of a Greek bishop, and has more cowardice than did the other Athenians who manufactures of silks and pottery. Pop. 8000. ran away, he was far from exhibiting the heroic Charles XII. of Sweden resided here from Febbearing which distinguished Socrates at Delium. ruary 1713 to October 1714. His timidity made him unsocial, and his waterdrinking habits cut him off still more effectually
Demotic Alphabet. See HIEROGLYPHICS. from society. His luxury may have reached the Dempster, THOMAS, a professor famous for his point of extravagance : lie was certainly lavishly learning, and a miscellaneous and voluminous generous in the discharge of all claims on him, writer, was the son of Thomas, laird of Muiresk, public and private. Whether his effeminacy Aberdeenshire, and was born about 1579. He was amounted to immorality, as was charged against educated at Turriff, Aberdeen, Cambridge, Paris, him, is a question which cannot be answered off Louvain, Rome, and Douay. A zealous Catholic, hand in the negative. The natural defects which he was elected to several provincial fessorships, were to be seen in his private life may be traced in and at Paris he was for seven years professor in his public career; but here it is their conquest by the Collèges des Grassins, de Lisieux, and de force of will and determined adherence to a lofty
Plessy. But a brawl resulted, it is said, in purpose which has rightly given him his great Dempster's having to retreat to England. He His nervousness and timidity disqualified
soon returned to the Continent, bringing with him him for political life and public speaking ; these
a beautiful wife, and at Pisa in 1616 obtained a defects le combated till he conquered them. His professorship; but his wife's infidelities marring natural incapacity for amiability rendered him un
peace, he removed to Bologna, where he became sympathetic to the pleasure-loving Athenians; he professor of Humanities, and where his wife comcoinpelled their respect by liis intellectual power pleted her shame by eloping. Pursuing the fugiand the purity of his patriotism. The want of tives, he was stricken with sickness, and died at sympathy, however, he never overcame, and so he Bologna, 6th Septeniber 1625. Dempster's not never obtained the hold over the Athenians which too veracious autobiography forms part of his it would have been good for them that he should
Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum (Bologna, possess. In all democracies every politician who
1627)—an erudite work in which, however, his has led the masses at his own good-will has known desire to magnify the merits of his country often on occasion how, if not to flatter, at least to say
induced him to forge the names of persons and the thing that is pleasant; but Demosthenes’
books that never existed, and to unscrupulously nature did not permit him to say pleasant things. claim as Scotchmen writers whose birthplace was Even this serious practical deficiency could not
doubtful. It was edited by David Irving for the prevent his contemporaries from eventually recog. Bannatyne Club in 1829, and the manuscript is still nising his force of character and steadiness of preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Still less has it weighed withi
There is a selection from his Latin poetry in posterity.
Johnstone's Delitic Poetarum Scotorum. In the oratory of Demosthenes it is not difficult Demulcents (Lat. demulcco, 'I soften'), bland to trace the character of the man reflected. His and lubricating liquid substances, taken by the resolute hard work and his infinite capacity for mouth, for the purpose of soothing irritation of the taking pains are seen in the high finish whici dis mucous membranes, and promoting the dilution tinguished his speeches above those of every orator. of the blood, and the increase of the secretions. His moroseness is mirrored in the abuse of which Demulcents are cliefly composed of Starch (q.v.), he was too great a master; his want of amiability or Gum (9.v.), or of substances containing these, in the absence of humour. His nervousness betrays dissolved in water ; sometimes also of oily matters, itself in his over-anxiety to argue, in his lack of or the white of eggs, and other albuminous or ease and flow. But as in his life so in his speeches, gelatinous substances largely diluted. The de. all faults are blotted out by his unaffected earnest- coction of althæa, or marsh-mallow, is a favourite ness, his entire devotion to his country, his intel. I form of demulcent.