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DEMURRAGE

DENBIGHSHIRE

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VEREBNY
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Demurrage is an allowance made to a ship. was thus rather more than 84d., and of the later owner by the freighter, for the detention of the ship in port beyond the specified time of sailing. The demurrage is properly the delay itself, but the term is generally used to signify the compensation due for the delay. A certain number of days, called lay-days or lie-days, are allowed for receiving and discharging cargo, and it is usually stipulated in charter-parties that the freighter may detain the vessel, either for a specified time, or as long as he pleases, after the expiration of these days, on pay. Denarius of the earliest kind, actual size; ing so much per diem for overtime. Whether the

weight, 60:6 grains. days for which demurrage is due are working days (i.é. with Sundays and holidays exceptel) or running days will, in the absence of special agreement, dinâr and the English slang deaner, 'a shilling.'

period about 7£d. From denarius come the Persian depend upon the custom of the port. All the ordi nary causes of detention, such as port-regulations,

Denary Scale. See NoTATION. the crowded state of the harbour, and the like, Denbigh, a parliamentary_and municipal are at the risk of the freighter, and demurrage miles W. of Chester by rail. It stands near the

borough, the county town of Denbighshire, 30 must be paid, though it be proved that the delay was inevitable. But demurrage is not due where middle of the vale of the Clwyd, on the sides and the delay arose from detention of the ship by a at the base of a rugged steep limestone-hill. The public enemy, or from hostile occupation of "the castle, whose imposing ruins crown this hill, was port; and it cannot, of course, be claimed where built in 1284 hy Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, on the fault lay with the owners themselves, or the

the site of a fortress erected by William the Conmaster or crew of the vessel. The demurrage queror. The newer part of Denbigh was built at ceases as soon as the vessel is cleared for sailing,

the bottom of the hill, after the destruction and though she should be prevented from actually doing desertion of a great part of the town on the top of so by adverse winds. When the days of deinurrage the hill, about 1550, Denbigh has manufactures of are limited by special contract, and the ship is

shoes and leather ; but it is more a place of genteel detained beyond them, the sum due as demurrage retirement than of commerce. Pop. (1851) 5498 ; under the contract will be taken as the measure (1891 ) 6412 With Ruthin, Holt, and Wrexham, of the loss for the further time which may be Denbigh sends one member to parliament. In 1645 claimed in the form of damages. It will be open, Charles I. took refuge in the castle after the battle however, to both parties to show that the rate thus of Rowton Heath. The garrison surrendered to the fixed

per diem is either too high or too low. When parliamentary forces after a siege of two months. the time allowed for loading and discharging ex

It was shortly afterwards dismantled. The fortifipires, including the extra lays if such be stipulated, cations have an area of a square mile in extent. the master will be entitled either to sail or to claim | A lunatic asylum for the five counties of North damage for (letention.

Wales was erected near the town in 1848. A noble The allowance of 1 d. per oz. claimed by the institution for the maintenance and education of Bank of England for giving gold coin in exchange twenty-five orphan girls, and twenty-five day for bullion is also called deinurrage.

pupils, was built here in 1860, with funds in the Demurrer, in English law, is a form of plead

hands of the Drapers' Company of London, from ing whereby a party, admitting, for the sake of

money left to theni in 1540 by one Thomas Howell,

a Welshman. argument, his opponent's allegations, says they are not sufficient in law to support his opponent's Denbighshire, a county of North Wales, on

A demurrer must be argued in court before the Irish Sea, and between the Dee and the Conthe pleadings can proceed further. Demurrer to way. With 8 miles of coast, it is 41 miles long, evidence and demurrer to a criminal indictment

17 broad on an average, and 603 sq. m. in area, are now obsolete. If a prisoner wishes to object being the sixth in size of the Welsh counties. The to the sufliciency in law of an indictment, his best surface is partly rugged and mountainous, with course is to plead to the indictment, and, if con some beautiful and fertile vales, as the vale of the victed, to move in arrest of judgment.

Clwyd, 20 miles by 7. In the north is a liorseshoe Demy', a particular size of paper. In that of

range of hills, 65 miles long, and convex to the printing paper. each sheet measures 22 inches by feet; and many others rise above 1500 feet. The

coast. The highest hill is Cader Fromwen, 2563 174; drawing-paper, 22 by 17; and writing-paper, rocks are chiefly Silurian clay and graywacke 20 by 15.1. Demy (i.e. half-fellow), the name borne by the Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian strata.

slates, with some granite and trap, and bands of scholars of Magılalen College, Oxford.

There occur coal, iron, slates, flags, millstones, Denain, a town in the French department of limestone, lead, and copper. The chief rivers are Vord, near the Scheldt and Selle rivers, 20 miles the Dee, Conway, Elwy, and Clwyd. The Rhaiadr NNE of Cambrai by rail. It lies in the centre of waterfall is 200 feet high in two parts. Llangollen an extensive coalfield, and has important iron- vale is famed for romantic beauty and verdure, works, and with manufactures of beetroot sugar amid hills of savage grandeur. The climate is mild and brandy. An obelisk marks the scene of in the lower parts, but cold and bleak among the Varshal Villars' victory over the allies under hills, where small hardy sheep and ponies are Prince Eugene, 27th July 1712. Pop. (1872) / reared. About two-thirds of Denbighshire are 10,442 ; (1886) 16,115.

under cultivation; its corn, cheese, butter, and Dena'rius (dleni, ‘ten each'), the principal live-stock are greatly esteemed. It is also well silver coin among the Romans, was equal to ten timbered. Salmon are caught in the rivers. The cases, but upon the reduction of the weight of the chief towns are Denbigh, Wrexham, Ruthin, Holt, us, the denarius equalled sixteen of it. It was first Llangollen, Llanrwst, Abergele, and Ruabon. Pop. coined 269 B.C. Its weight at the end of the Roman (1841) 88,478; (1881) 108,931 ; (1891) 117,950. Dencommonwealth is estimated at 60 grains, while bighshire returns three members to parliament. It under the empire the weight was 52-5 grains of was anciently occupied by the Ordovices, a powerful silver. The value of the denarius under the republic tribe, not entirely subdued by the Romans till the

case.

DENDERA

DENHAM

753

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time of Agricola. Of British or pre-Roman remains Dendrophis (Gr.,'tree-snake'), a genus of non-
there still exist tumuli, two kistvaens or stone cells, venomous snakes in the sub-order Colubriformes.
barrows, and forts. To the times of the Welsh and They are tropical, and especially oriental, in their
Saxon struggles are referable the Pillar of Eliseg, distribution; diurnal, active, and arboreal in
near Llangollen, and the dikes of Offa and Watt. habit; and feed chiefly on tree-lizards. The head
The dike of Offa, king of Mercia, to keep out the is long and distinct from the neck, the gape is
Welsh, was a ditch, with small forts on mounds at wide, the body and tail are very slender, the
intervals, and ran from Herefordshire to the estuary, colours are vivid and like their surroundings.
of the Dee; Watt's dike ran on the east side of

D’Enghien. See ENGHIEN.
Offa's dike, and parallel to it. Wrexham Church
is one of the seven wonders of Wales.' Chirk

Dengue, or BREAK-BONE FEVER, also called

DANDY and BUCKET FEVER, is a disease first Castle is a fine Edwardian stronghold, lately re

certainly known to have occurred in 1779-80 in stored.

Egypt, parts of the East Indies, and probably in Dendera (Gr. Tentyra ; Coptic Tentore, prob- Philadelphia. Since that time there have been ably from Téi-n-Athor, the abode of Athor), a great epidemics in India and Further India (1824village of Upper Egypt, once a populous town, 25), America and West Indies (1826–28), Southern and the capital of the sixth none of the southern United States (1850), East Africa, Arabia, India, kingdom,' situated near the left bank of the Nile,

and China (1870-73), besides numerous minor in 26° 13' N. lat., 32° 40' E. long., is celebrated on outbreaks. The disease occurs almost exclusively account of its temple, one of the finest and best pre in the tropics, in hot weather, and in towns either served structures of the kind in Egypt, dating from near the sea-coast or on large rivers. It is characthe period of Cleopatra and the earlier Roman terised by sudden onset, with high fever, and ex. eniperors. The temple measures 220 feet in

tremely violent pains in the bones, muscles, and length by about 50 in breadth, and has a noble

joints; by a remission, usually at the end of one portico or hypostyle hall supported on twenty-four or two days, during which the patient feels almost colunins. The walls, columns, &c. are covered well; and after one or two days more by a second with figures and hieroglyphics, among which are period of fever, less severe than the first, which still to be seen the contemporary portraits in profile lasts for two or three days. Each attack of fever of Cleopatra and er son ; but the beauty of the

is often accompanied by a well-marked skinEgyptian queen is not apparent in her portrait, eruption. Though often followed by much emawhich belongs to almost the most degraded period ciation and loss of strength, it is very rarely fatal of conventional art in Egypt. On the ceiling of or succeeded by serious after-effects. It occurs the portico is a zodiac, in which the crab is re almost always in well-marked epidemics; but presented by a scarab. Beyond the portico are a observers are much divided upon the question Hall of six columns and several rooms, which once whether it is communicable directly from the sick contained altars, the sacred boats, perfumes, vest to the healthy. See Hirsch, Geographical and ments for the religious ceremonies, and offerings of Historical Pathology, vol. i. first-fruits, and the like (Mariette, The Monuments

Denham, Sir John, a Caroline poet, was the of Upper Egypt). There are several other sacred

only son of an Irish judge, himself of English buildings at Dendera, including a temple of Isis. birth, and was born at Dublin in 1615. He was The temples stand within a wall of unbaked bricks,

educated in London and at Trinity College, 1000 feet long on one side, and in some parts 35 Oxford, where Wood tells us he was 'a slow feet high. The people of Tentyra were peculiar for dreaming young man, and more addicted to gamtheir detestation of the crocodile, which led to a

ing than study’-a taste from which his own violent religious war with the city of Ombos, where

essay against gaming (1651) did not cure him. the reptile was worshipped.

In 1634 he married and went to live with his Dendermonde (Fr. Termonde), a town of father at Egham in Surrey, an estate to which he Belgium, in the province of East Flanders, situated succeeded four years later. At the outbreak of the at the confluence of the Dender and the Scheldt, Civil War he was high-sheriff of Surrey, and he im18 miles E. of Ghent by rail. The principal mediately joined the king. He fell into Waller's buildings are the town-house and the church of hands on the capture of Farnham Castle, and was Notre Dame, containing two pictures by Van Dyck. sent prisoner to London, but soon perniitted to The manufactures are linens, cottons, and beer repair to Oxford. In 1641 he produced Sophy, a Louis XIV. besieged it in vain in 1667, but Marl feeble tragedy which was acted with great applause borough succeeded in taking it in 1706. Its forti at Blackfriars. Next year was issued his long poem, fications, destroyed in 1784, were restored in 1822. Cooper's Hill, a poetical description of the scenery Pop. 8883.

around Egham, itself still read, but more famous Dendrerpeton, a small lizard-like carbonif- in the merits of its greater successors, Pope's erous amphibian, found by Lyell and Dawson in Windsor Forest, avowedly an imitation, and Garth's the interior of the hollow trunk of an upright sigil- Claremont. The final form of the poem is that publaria in Nova Scotia. It belongs to the wholly lished in 1655, all the changes in which, according extinct order of Stegocephala or Labyrinthodonts to Pope, were made with admirable judgment. (9.v.)

Here first appeared its finest lines—the famous Dendrites, the name given to thin films of apostrophe to the Thames : mineral matter which assume branching shapes

O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream that resemble moss or seaweed. These films occur

My great example, as it is my theme ! as coatings on the faces of fissures and joints in Though deep yet clear, though gentle yet not dull, rocks or on the surfaces of bedding-planes, and

Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full. have often been mistaken for fossils. The hydrous

In 1647 Denham was engaged in the performance oxide of manganese is the mineral that generally of secret services for Charles I., but these being assumes this form.

discovered, was obliged to flee to Holland and Dendrolites (Gr. dendron, *tree;' lithos, France. In 1650 le collected money for the stone'), a general term sometimes applied to young king from the Scots resident in Poland, and fossil stems, branches, or other fragments of trees. he made several journeys into England on secret

Dendrology is that department of botany service. At the Restoration he was appointed which deals with the natural history of trees and surveyor-general of works, and created Knight shrubs. See ARBORICULTURE, TREES.

of the Bath. He was a better poet than architect, 152

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754

DENIA

DENMARK

but he had Christopher Wren to his deputy. In the Areopagite, first Bishop of Athens. The 1665 he married a young girl, who soon showed Western Church celebrates his memory on the 9th such open favour to the Duke of York that the of October. For a long period his name was the poor poet became crazy for a few months. Soon war-cry of the French soldiers, who charged or after his recovery his wife died suddenly, not rallied to the words ‘Montjoye Saint-Denys?' without suspicion of poison—a charge which

Denison, JOHN EVELYN, for fourteen years Pepys evidently, believed. Denham's last years Speaker of the House of Commons, and afterwards were miserable betwixt poverty and the satires Viscount Ossington, was born 27th January 1800, of Marvell, Butler, and others. He died early in at Ossington, Nottinghamshire. Educated at Eton 1669, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His and Christ Church, Oxford, he entered parliament Elegy on Cowley, written in the short interval

in 1823, and was a Lord of the Admiralty 1827-28. between recovery from frenzy and his death, is

In 1872 he retired from the Speaker's chair, and one of his most successful poems, and is much less shortly after was created Viscount Ossington. He obscure and laboured, ungrammatical, and over was à D.C.L. of Oxford ; and it was on his suggesladen with tedious moralising, than usual. His

tion that the Speaker's Commentary to the Bible other works, as the Destruction of Troy, a para

was undertaken. He died 7th March 1873.-His phrase of part of the Æneid, and especially his brother, GEORGE ANTHONY DENISON, Archdeacon satirical doggerel verses, are comparatively worth

of Taunton, was born in 1805, and educated at less. “Nothing,' says Dr Johnson, ‘is less exhilar

Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, in 1828 being ating than the ludicrousness of Denham; he does elected a Fellow of Oriel. In 1843 he became Vicar not fail for want of efforts; he is familiar, he is

of East Brent, Somerset; in 1851 Archdeacon of gross; but he is never merry.' His fame rests

Taunton. In 1854 proceedings were taken against securely on Cooper's Hill, but more securely still

him for heresy, contained in three sermons on the on the commendations of Dryden, Pope, Swift, Real Presence, and he was condemned to be deprived and Johnson. He is especially eulogised for his

of all ecclesiastical preferments; but on appeal to strength, as Waller is for his sweetness ; indeed,

the Court of Arches and the Privy-council, this Dryden's critical judgment stands expressed in the judgment was quashed. He has been a leader of words that Cooper's Hill 'for the majesty of its the High Church party, a strenuous opponent of style is and ever will be the standard of exact

secular education, and an advocate of the restorawriting.'

tion of the confessional. He was chairman of Denia, a port on the coast of the Spanish pro the Committee of Convocation which condemned vince of Alicante, near Cape St Martin. It exports Essays and Reviews and Bishop Colenso's works. grapes, raisins, and fruit, and has a population of See his delightful Notes of my Life (1878).-Other 8623.

brothers were Edward, Bishop of Salisbury (1801Denina, CARLO GIOVANNI MARIA, an Italian 54), and Sir William Thomas, Governor of New author, was born 28th February 1731, at Revello, South Wales and Madras (1804—71). in Piedmont, studied at Turin, and in 1756 became Denman, THOMAS, BARON, was born in professor of Rhetoric in the university of Turin. London, 23 February 1779, graduated at CamIn 1777 he published anonymously at Florence his bridge, and entered Lincoln's Inn in 1806. He Discorso sull' Impiego delle Persone, in which he was associated with Brougham in the courageous sought to show how monks might be transformed defence of Queen Caroline (1820), and shared his into useful members of society. This cost him his consequent popularity. He sat in parliament from chair, and caused his banishment. In 1782 he went 1818–26, and was Attorney-general in Earl Grey's to Berlin on the invitation of Frederick the Great. administration in 1830-32; he succeeded Lord Here he lived for many years, and wrote many his- Tenterden as Lord Chief-justice of England in 1832, torical works. In 1804 he dedicated to Napoleon and was raised to the peerage in 1834. He retired his Clef des Langues (1804), and was in conse from the bench in 1850, and died 222 September quence appointed imperial librarian at Paris, where 1854. See Memoir by Sir Joseph Arnould (2 vols. he died 5th December 1813.-Denina's principal 1873).--His fourth son, the Right Hon. SIR GEORGE works are Delle Rivoluzioni d'Italia (3 vols. 1770) DENMAN, was born 23d December 1819, studied at and Storia dell'Italia Occidentale (6 vols. 1810), Cambridge, and entered Lincoln's Inn in 1846. He besides works on ancient Greece, Frederick the represented Tiverton in parliament in 1859-65 and Great, and Prussia.

1866–72; in the last year he was raised to the Denis, St, the traditional apostle of France and bench of the Court of Common Pleas, receiving first Bishop of Paris, who suffered martyrdom in the the customary honour of knighthood, and in 1873 3d century. He was sent from Rome about 250 to he became a judge of the High Court of Judicapreach the gospel to the Gauls. After various ture. detentions at Arles and other places, he arrived Denmark (Dan. Danmark), the smallest of in Paris, where he made numerous proselytes. the three Scandinavian kingdoms, consists of the The Roman governor of this part of Gaul ordered peninsula of Jutland and a group of islands in the Denis to be brought before him, along with other Baltic, and is situated between 54° 33' and 57° 45' two Christians. As they continued firm in their n. lat., and 8° 4' and 12° 34' E. long., excepting faith, in spite of threats, they, were cruelly the sinall island of Bornholm, which lies in 15° 10' tortured, and afterwards beheaded, in 272 or in E. long. Denmark is bounded on the N. by the 290. Gregory of Tours, Fortunatus, and the Latin | Skagerrak; on the E. by the Cattegat, the Sound, martyrologists, state that the bodies of the three and the Baltic ; on the s. by the Baltic, Little Belt, martyrs were thrown into the Seine, but were and Sleswick; and on the W. hy the North Sea. recovered and buried by a Christian woman. At a The area of Denmark Proper is a little less, the later period, a chapel was built over their tomb. population a little more, than half that of Scotland. In 636 King Dagobert founded on the spot an The population of Denmark Proper in 1870 was abbey, called St Denis, which soon grew to be one 1,784,741 ; in 1890 (including the Faroe Islands, it of the richest and most important in the whole was returned at 2,185,159. În 1887 the population kingdom, and was long the sepulchre of the French of Copenhagen had reached 289,900. In 1890 there kings. The collection entitled the Acts of St Denis, were five towns in Denmark, besides the capital, written about the end of the 7th or beginning of with over 10,000 inhabitants-viz. Aarhuus (33,308), the 8th century, has no historical value. The Odense (30,277), Aalborg (19,503), Horsens (17,290), Greek Church identifies St Denis with Dionysius l and Randers (16,617).

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Area in
Eng. sq. miles,

Population in

1890.

513

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The following table gives the main divisions of 47° F. The transitions from winter to summer the kingdom, along with its dependencies :

are rapid, and scarcely broken by the intervention

of spring or of autumn. The climate is, however, }

not unhealthy, except in the low-lying islands,

such as Laaland, where the short and sudden heat Denmark Proper, comprising

of the summer occasions fevers. the islands of Zealand, Fünen,

The soils of Jutland are generally light, but Laaland, Falster, &c., and

14,731 2,172,205

those in the south-east part and in the islands are the peninsula of Sutland..

stronger; about 80 per cent. of the area of DenThe Faröe Islands..

12,954 Iceland..

40,300

69,224

mark is productive, and of the remainder about Greenland (region free from ice). 33,885

(1888) 10,221

one-sixth is in peat-bogs. Nearly half the popuDanish W. I. Islands-St Croix,

138 (1880) 33,763

lation is engaged in agriculture; the land for the St Thomas, and St John...

most part is parcelled out into small holdings, 89,567 2,298,367

and this is encouraged by the laws, which since

1849 have prohibited the throwing of small farms Except in Bornholm (q.v.), the surface of Den into large estates. In 1888, of 223,892 tenancies mark is very similar in every part of the kingdom, not 2000 were over 144 acres in extent; there were and is uniformly low, reaching its highest point in 150,000 cottars and labourers cultivating land of Eiers-Bavnehöj, in south-east Jutland, which is from three to twelve acres; and the peasant only 564 feet above sea-level. The country pre- farms,' varying from 12 to 144 acres-the majority sents little variety, except in its low isolated hills, under 50—numbered close upon 72,000. A third but does not leave an impression of monotony; of the whole kingdom is arable, while over twoin the islands and in the south-east of Jutland fifths is in meadow, pasture, or fallow land. the landscape is broken by noble forests, green Nearly four-fifths of the arable land is under oats, meadows, and fertile fields; and even in the west barley, or rye, and little over a twenty-third part and north of the mainland the wide stretches of under wheat. Flax, hemp, potatoes, and legumoorland are clothed with heather, and have a minous plants are also raised; lucerne has been solemn beauty of their own. The coast seldom introduced, and the cultivation of the beet-root rises even to low cliffs ; generally it is flat, skirted has increased of late years. Barley is largely by sand-ridges and shallow lagoons, especially exported, but the imports of breadstuffs greatly along the west side, where the dunes cover an exceed the exports. The raising of cattle is taking area of nearly 225 sq. m. The east coast is much more and more the place of arable farming in indented by bays, useful for navigation and valu- Denmark, and has now become one of the chief able for their fisheries ; and here and in the islands sources of wealth. Much progress has of late are many good harbours. Both the continental | been made in this direction owing to the efforts of portion and the islands are penetrated deeply by government and of various institutions ; bull and numerous fjords, the largest being Limfjord, which stallion shows have been promoted by royal grants, intersects Jutland, and has insulated tỉie northern breeding farms have been similarly encouraged, extremity of the peninsula since 1825, when it broke and the farmers have been instructed by lectures through the narrow isthmus which had separated it on the various forms of cattle disease and other from the North Sea. There are about seventy light- subjects. Dairy, produce has largely developed, houses along the shores of Denmark, and seven and the export of butter more than doubled in the lightships (see SOUND). From its formation, the years 1882–87—an increase attributed to improved kingdom can have no rivers, properly so called ; methods and the co-operative dairy system, which its streams, called Aa, are mostly large brooks. is now very successfully worked in over 200 estabThere are several important canals, however, includ lishments (see DAIRY FACTORIES); in 1888 there ing in Jutland works for the canalisation of the were 2200 centrifugal cream separators (see CREAM) Guden-Aa, its largest stream, and of the Limfjord ; in daily use. Within the same period of six years and lakes abound in all parts of the kingdom, the the export of bacon was quintupled, that of cheese most considerable being found in Zealand. The trebled, and of horses nearly doubled, while the centre and west of Jutland is nearly bare of wood, export of cattle and sheep slightly decreased. but in the other parts of the peninsula the forests 19,880,000 eggs were exported in 1877, and cover about 215,000 acres, and in the islands over 72,480,000 in 1885, the great development of 291,000 acres. The beech, which flourishes more this trade being the direct result of the efforts luxuriantly in Denmark than in any other land, of a company for improving the breed of Danish is almost universally predominant, although three fowls. In 1888 there were 1,459,527 cattle of centuries ago the oak, now comparatively rare, all kinds, 375,533 horses, 1,225,196 sheep, and was the characteristic Danish tree. Peat, which is 770,785 swine. got in abundance from the bogs, brown coal or In 1880, 23 per cent. of the inhabitants were lignite, and seaweed_generally take the place returned as engaged in manufacturing industries, of wood fuel. In minerals Denmark is which, although not yet of great importance, show poor. Porcelain clay and some coal are found a marked advance within recent years. Machinery, in Bornholm, and fuller's earth, potter's clay, porcelain and delf wares, and bricks are leading saltpetre, chalk, and a poor marble occur manufactures; beet-root sugar refineries are inseveral parts of the kingdom, while some amber creasing, and the distilleries, though declining, are is collected on the west coast of Jutland. The still numerous ; there are ironworks, over eighty climate is modified by vicinity to the sea, and is tobacco-factories, and several paper-mills in Copenconsiderably milder, and the air more humid, than hagen, Silkeborg, and elsewhere; and there are in the more southern but continental Germany. many large steam corn-mills. Generally, in spite Mists are frequent, as are also sea-fogs on the of the scarcity of fuel in the country, steam-mills west coast; and rain, snow, or hail falls over the are taking the place of the windmills, and though country on 150 days on an average in the year. the peasants still continue to manufacture much of The annual rainfall is 23 to 25 inches. Westerly what they require within their own homes, linens winds prevail ; in the spring a cold, dry wind, and woollens, as well as wooden shoes, are now known as the skai, blows from the north-west, increasingly made in factories. The fisheries and whirls clouds of fine sand from the coast (including the lobster and oyster fisheries ) and the inland, frequently doing irreparable damage to the mercantile marine employ less than 3 per cent. of crops. The mean temperature ranges from 14° to the people.

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reserve.

The navy

The principal articles of export are cattle, sheep, and prosperous.

The total revenue for the financial swine, butter, hams, hides, wool, grain, fish, eggs, year 1885-86 was £2,981,534, and the expenditure meat, and wooden goods. Among the imports are £2,779,763. The budget estimates for 1887–88 and textile fabrics, cereals, and flour, manufactures of 1888-89 show slight deficits. Since the war of 1866, metal and timber, coal, oil, salt, coffee, sugar, and the government has maintained a comparatively tobacco. About two-thirds of the export trade is large reserve fund, to meet any sudden emergency. carried on in native vessels. The total value of the That fund stood in 1887 at £990,000. In 1888 imports in 1880-85 ranged from £12,650,000 in 1880 the national debt was £10,723,203, or over £5 per to £16,028,602 in 1883; and of the exports in the head of the population ; but as the investments of same period from £9,014,520 in 1885 to £11,103,476 the state (in telegraphs, &c.) amount to nearly in 1883. The bulk of the foreign trade is with £5,000,000, this proportion is reduced to less than Germany, Great Britain, and Norway and Sweden. £3. The decimal system was introduced in 1875, In 1887 the mercantile marine consisted of 3324 the unit being the krone, or crown, of 100 öre; the vessels, including 281 steam-ships; total tonnage, average rate of exchange is 18 kroner to the pound 272,500. In 1886 there were 1214 miles of railway sterling. The Danish army in 1887 numbered open, of which about 1000 miles belonged to the 1495 officers and 58,067 men, inclusive of the state; in 1886 there were 2523 miles of state landwehr ; but only a sufficient establishment telegraph lines.

for garrison purposes is maintained, and the peace Elementary education is widely diffused, although strength was 319 officers and 16,334 men. The in this regard Denmark is no longer so pre total war strength is about 50,000 men, to which eminent as formerly ; it is compulsory for children an extra reserve of 14,000 could be added on between the ages of seven and fourteen years, emergency. Conscription prevails, and the period poor parents paying only a nominal sum towards of military service is divided into eight years the government or parochial schools, of which in the line and reserve, and eight in the extra there are about 3000. There are training colleges

is recruited by levies from for teachers, and classical and other higher edu the coast districts.The fleet was represented in cation is afforded by a large number of colleges 1887 by thirty-two steamers (of which nine were in the more important towns, with the university ironclads). The navy numbered in 1888, 134 of Copenhagen (1300 students) for the centre of officers and 1477 men. Besides Copenhagen (9.v.), the entire system. Denmark has also a theo the only fortresses are the coast defences at Hel. logical seminary, a royal surgical college, a veter singör (Elsinore), Fredericia, Korsör, Frederiksinary and agricultural school, and numerous mili havn, and Hals. The arsenal is at Copenhagen, tary, technical, and commercial schools, while fifty History.—The early history of Denmark is lost 'people's high schools' provide instruction in agri in the twilight of the saga-period, out of which cultural subjects. There are three public libraries loom dimly the figures of its heroes, their brave in Copenhagen, of which the Royal Library, with deeds, and daring voyages.

Within its borders 500,000 volumes, is especially rich in oriental and the Celts had first their home, and from its Icelandic MSS. The established religion is Luth shores the Angles and Saxons sailed in the 5th eran, to which the king must belong; but complete century to the conquest of England; while in their toleration is enjoyed in every part of the kingdom. place the Danes from Zealand settled on the The Reformation was introduced in 1536, when the deserted lands, extending their sway as far south church revenues were seized by the crown. Den as the Eider. One of their earliest kings, Harald mark is divided into seven dioceses, in which there Hildetand, fell in battle against the Swedes in were 1353 clergy in 1885. There were in 1880 only 695; and shortly afterwards a branch of the Yng. 17,526 persons not belonging to the Lutheran linger occupied "Jutland, where they held a footing Church, of whom 3946 were Jews, 2985 Roman for two centuries. One of their kings, Harald Catholics, 1363 Calvinists, 1722 Mormons, 3687 Klak, received baptism in 826 from Ansgar (q.v.); Baptists, and 1036 Irvingites.

but the introduction of Christianity did not at The government of Denmark is a constitutional once place any check on the long-accustomed inmonarchy, the king being assisted by a cabinet of roads on Frankish territory, or on the piratical seven ministers. The crown was elective until i expeditions of the Vikings, although the country 1660, when the people and clergy, impelled by was soon torn by dissensions between the adhatred towards the nobles, invested the sovereign herents of the old and new faiths. Gorm the (Frederick III.) with absolute power, and declared , Old, who drove the Ynglinger from the peninsula, the succession to the throne hereditary. From and first united the mainland and islands under that time the crown exercised absolute rule till one rule, was the bitter enemy of Christianity ; 1831, when a constitution was granted. This and although his death in 936 gave fresh vigour proving unsatisfactory, was superseded in 1849 by to the diffusion of the new faith, yet even its ultithe form of government which, with some altera mate success was only insured by the zealous tions, Denmark now enjoys. The national assem support it received from Gorm's grandson, Canute hly or Rigsdag. consists of the Folkething and (9.7.). On his death in 1035 the three kingdoms Landsthing, which meet annually, the members of his Anglo-Scandinavian empire separated, and receiving a fixed allowance during their sittings. his sister's son, Svend Estridsen (1047-76), ascended The Landsthing is composed of sixty-six members, the throne Denmark, founding a princely line of whom twelve are nominated for life by the king, that Hourished 400 years. Internal dissensions and while the remainder are elected for a term of eight external wars weakened the country, and the in. years by certain bodies representing the large tax- troduction of a feudal system raised up a powerful payers of the kingdom. The members of the nobility, and ground down the once free people to a Folkething, whose number is fixed by statute in condition of serfdom. Waldemar I. (1157-82) added the proportion of one to every 16,000 of the popu. Rügen to the other Wendish districts of Mecklenlation, are elected for three years, by practically burg and Pomerania, and extended his sway over universal suffrage. To this body all budgets must Norway also. Under Waldemar II. the conquests first be submitted ; but in the years 1877–87, when of Denmark extended so far into German and the government had a minority in the lower house, Wendish lands, that the Baltic was little more than the king was induced to give the royal ratification an inland Danish sea. The jealousy of the German to successive provisionary budgets, which had princes and the treachery of his vassals combined never received the assent of the Rigsdag. Never. ; to rob him, however, of these brilliant conquests, theless the financial condition of Denmark is sound ! and his death in 1241 was followed by a century of

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