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the Runic monuments) are the earliest specimens Grammaticus (i.e. the learned') in the second
of this Danish-Swedish language, there are three half of the 12th century wrote in Latin his
dialects—that of Skaane (the southmost province Historia Danica, the only literary production of
of Sweden ) and those of Zealand and Jutland, the medieval Denmark that retains any interest.
first of which is nearest the old language, while The earliest writings in Danish are the church
the last two have deviated from it by dropping laws of Skaane (1162) and Zealand (1170), and
the final consonants from the old inflexional end the civil laws of Skaane (1160), Zealand (1170),
ings and changing their vowels a, i, u to a less and Jutland (1241); and after these a num-
distinct e ora, retaining, however, the hard ber of chronicles, partly in verse, of which
mutes p, k, t after vowels, as on the whole is the best known is the Riimkrönike, which was
still the case in Swedish and spoken Norwegian. the first Danish book printed (in 1495). It is
The dialect of Zealand in the 14th and 15th essentially an abridgment of Saxo. The famous
centuries forms the foundation of modern Danish. Danish ballads called Kæmpeviser ('hero-songs'),
The original vowels in almost all endings are there some of which are said to belong to the latter
replaced by half-vowels, and the dental aspirate } part of the 11th century, were handed down orally
by t or d; P, k, t, when following long vowels, from generation to generation, and were first
are changed to b, g, di masculine and feminine collected, to the number of 1001 by A. S. Vedel
are merged in one common gender ; nouns have in 1591. In 1695 Peder Syv published a new
no other case-ending than the possessive s for both edition with 100 more, and in 1812–14 appeared a
numbers ; verbs cease to indicate person (except selection of 222, edited by Abrahamson, Nyerup,
in the imperative); and the singular number and Rahbek. The' most complete collection is in
begins to supersede the plural, as it does every- Svend Grundtvig's unfinished Gamle Folkeviser (5
where in the spoken language from the 16th century. vols. 1853-77). They are about 500 in number, and
Danish, like Swedish, retains the suffixed definite treat of the adventures of heroes, love, enchant-
article, which is characteristic of the Scandinavian ment, spectres, and historical events. Doubtless
languages. Its form is -et in the neuter, -en in the they were sung to the dance, as is still the case
common gender, and -ne in the plural of both. in the Faroe Islands. They must have suffered

The intluence of the Hanseatic League and the much by their not being written down till the 16th
Oldenburg dynasty (from 1448) brought in a great and 17th centuries.
number of Low-German words, especially relating The Reformation only emancipated Danish cul-
to navigation and trade; while that of the order ture from Latin to bind it fast to German,
of St Bridget contributed a considerable Swedish which at the death of Frederick I. in 1533 was the
element. In the first half of the 16th century language of the upper classes. About that time
the Danish language was chiefly used by religious Christian Pedersen set up a printing-press at
writers, and the translation of the Bible (1550) is Malmö, at which he published a great number of
the first important monument of modern Danish. popular books, and finally in 1550 the first com-
After this period Latin became once more the plete translation of the "Bible. Pedersen (1480–
language of learning and culture, and for a 1554) is justly called the father of Danish literature.
century and a half there was no Danish writer The hymns and translations of the Psalms by his
of eminence. The influence of French was pre contemporary Tausen (1494-1561), as also by Kingo
dominant in the 17th century, and that of High-|(1634–1703), Vormondsen (1491-1551), and Arrebo
German, which had been constant since the Re- (1587-1637), and the national history (10 vols.
formation, culminated in the 18th century under Copenhagen, 1595-1604) of Hvitfeld (1549-1609)
the Struensee administration, when it was the were well received; but the Danish language was
language of government and public instruction. still banished from higher society till the advent of
The result is, that Danish is indebted to German the Norwegian Holberg (1684–1754), the founder of
for fully one-third of its vocabulary. It was not Danish comedy. He found Denmark on the point
till Holberg that the Danish written language of being absorbed in Germany. The common
began to be enriched from the stores of native people,' he says, 'had no histories but dry lists of
expression in the spoken tongue. From the end dates; no poetry but congratulatory verses ; no
of the 18th century revived study of Old Scandi- theology but homilies and funeral sermons; and
navian and the development of a national poetic for plays, nothing but old stories about Adam
literature unfolded the language in a hitherto un and Eve. He wrote histories of Denmark, of the
suspected richness and fullness, and since that time Jews, and of the Church ; and the irresistible
Danish prose has to a considerable extent worked humour of his comedies and satires covered with
itself out of its poverty and dependence. Danish | ridicule the imitators of foreign_speech and
is the softest of the Scandinavian languages,

What Holberg did for Danish prose, though less euphonious than Swedish. It is the another Norwegian, Tullin (1728-65), did for language of the educated class in Norway, where Danish poetry. "Equally dissatisfied with the curit is considerably augmented from the native rent imitations of the 17th century court-poetry dialect, and is spoken with a somewhat harder of France, and with the poetic reform of Klop; pronunciation. The best histories of the language stock (at 'Copenhagen from 1751), Tullin followed are by Petersen (2 vols. Copenhagen, 1829–30) and the guidance of the English poets Pope, Young, Molbech (ib. 1846); gramniars by Rask (2d ed. and Thomson, and in this was followed by most Lond. 1846), Lökke, Munch, Lyngby, Jessen, and of his countrymen who were settled at CopenMöbius (Kiel, 1871); and dictionaries by the hagen, while the Danes clung to German models. Danish Academy (Copenhagen, 1793-1881), and Ewald (1743-81), an ardent disciple of Klopstock, Molbech (2d ed. 2 vols. ib. 1859), who also pro was Denmark's first great lyric poet and tragic duced a Dansk-Dialekt-Lexikon (ib. 1841) and a dramatist. His

shows unsurpassed Dansk Glossarium (ib. 1853-66) for antiquated mastery of forin, and is expressed in pure, clear, words. Ferrall, Repp, and Rosing's Danish and and noble language. Wessel (1742–65), by his English Dictionary, in 2 parts (4th ed. Copen- tragedy, Love without

tragedy,' Love without Stockings (1772), a humorhagen, 1873), is the best for English students. ous parody of the Danish imitations of the classi

Literature. ---After the Danish dialect had gradu- cal French drama, succeeded in laughing them ally separated itself from the Old Scandinavian as

off the stage.

Nordahl Brun (1745-1818), preacher a softer and simpler speech, with a strong infusion and poet, Claus Frimann (1746–1829), 'the Burns of German ingredients, it was little used in writ of the Norwegians,' Claus Fasting (1746-91), Jonas ing down to the time of the Reformation. Saxo | Rein (1760-1821), Jens Zetlitz (1761-1821), and

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others, formed theniselves (1772) into a 'Nor- the erotic and piquant and sometimes frivolous
wegian Society' at Copenhagen, under the leader-song-writer Aarestrup (1800–56); and Lembcke
ship of Wessel. It was the literary manifestation (b. 1815), the translator of Shakespeare.
of the Norwegian aspiration to separate nation: A great impulse was given to all branches of
ality, which afterwards led to the foundation of science from the beginning of the 19th century.
the university of Christiania in 1811. From the The leading theologians were Grundtvig, the en-
death of Wessel in 1785 to the beginning of the thusiastic champion of the faith of his fathers
present century the literature became entangled against rationalism, and advocate of a union of
in rationalistic and political polemics, and pro- the Scandinavian kingdoms, but with the church
duced little that is noteworthy. Its chief writers separated from the state; Mynster (1775-1850),
were P. A. Heiberg (1758-1841) and Malte Kon- Bishop of Zealand; Clausen (1793-1877), the
rad Brun (1775-1826), both of whom were driven disciple of Schleiermacher, and theological op-
into exile in 1799–1800, the latter afterwards ponent of Grundtvig ; Martensen (1808–84), Bishop
famous as a geographer ; the critic Rahbek (1760- of Zealand, and author of standard works on

the dramatists Samsö (1759–96) and Sander systematic theology and ethics; and Kierkegaard
(1756-1819); and the lyrist Thaarup (1749–1821). (1813-55), the most original thinker of Denmark.

The poet and humorist Baggesen (1764-1826) The chief exponents of philosophy were Sibbern
forms the link between the 18th century and the (1785–1872), Nielsen (b. 1809), and Bröchner
early part of the 19th, when Danish literature (1820-76); and in natural science the greatest
took an entirely new departure, partly owing to names were those of Oersted (1777–1851), the dis-
the study of Kant, Fichte, and Schelling, and the coverer of electro-magnetism, the botanist Schouw
influence of Schelling's follower Steffens (1773- (1789-1852), the geologist and chemist Forch-
1845); partly also to the strict censorship of the hammer (1794–1864), and the zoologist and archæ-
press in force from the year 1799. The educated ologist Steenstrup (b. 1813). Much has been
classes turned from their controversies on points done for the study of Scandinavian antiquity by
of literary criticism and theology to scientific the Sagabibliothek of Müller (1776-1834), and the
inquiry ; and the people, whose national feeling researches of Finn Magnusson (1791-1846) in
had been aroused by the French Revolution, by mythology, and of Thomsen (1785–1865) and
the share of Denmark in the Napoleonic wars, Worsaae (1821–85) in archæology: The chief
and especially by the events of 1801 and 1807, the 19th-century writers of national history have been
war with Sweden (1808), and the loss of Norway | Werlauff (1781-1871), Molbech (1783–1857), Allen
(1814), welcomed with enthusiasm the rise of a (1811-77), Schiern (b. 1816), and K. P. Paludan-
new school, led by the romantic poet Oehlen Müller (1805–82); and of the history of the
schläger ( 1779-1850), who was equally distinguished national literature and language, Petersen (1781-

a lyrical and dramatic writer, and is still 1862). In philology, Rask (1787–1831 ) and Mad-
regarded by many as the greatest Danish poet. vig (1804–86) have a European fame.
Contemporary with him were the poets Schack About 1850 the enthusiasm for the national .
Staffeldt (1769-1826), and Grundtvig (1783–1872), past, which had been excited by Oehlenschläger
afterwards more eminent as a theologian ; Inge. in Denmark, and by Tegnér, Geijer, and others
mann (1789-1862), long the most popular novelist in Sweden, together with the hatred of Germany
of Denmark; J. L. Heiberg (1781-1860), director aroused by the war of 1848–50, rose to a pitch of
of the royal theatre at Copenhagen, writer of fanaticism. “The northern force which had con-
numerous vaudevilles, and of the still popular trolled the world' was extolled by Ploug and
national play, Elves' Hill (1828); Hauch (1791- others as the only means whereby the victory of
1872), dramatist, novelist, and critic; and Blicher the Cause of Humanity could be achieved.' After
(1782-1848), who in his tales of Jutland was the Ploug. (b. 1813) the chief exponents of this great
first worker in the field which has since been historic mission of the northern kingdoms were
cultivated in Germany by Jeremias Gotthelf and C. K. F. Molbech (1821-88), a euphonious lyrist
Berthold Auerbach. Of the other novelists of this and skilful_dramatist, and translator of Dante ;
period the chief are Brosböll (b. 1820); Fru Gyllem- and Erik Bögh (b. 1822), a fertile writer of
bourg-Ehrensvärd (1773-1856), mother of 'J. L. feuilletons and adapter of plays. A cosmopolitan
Heiberg; Saint-Aubain, or · Karl Bernhard' (1798– reaction set in about 1870, led by Georg Brandes
1865); and the still more popular Winther ( 1796- | (b. 1842), who proved in his lectures on literature
1876), the charming poet of Danish country life. that Denmark was only a side-chapel in the temple
Herz (1798-1870), from the time when his Ghost Let of European thought and art, and that this over-
ters (1830) surprised the public with a poetic revival strained Scandinavianism' was but the northern
of the muse of Baggesen, has, now with his lyric phase of the reaction from the tendencies of the
poems, now with his tales, now in romantic and 18th century, which had been experienced in Eng-
national tragerlies, now in comedies and light land, France, and Germany many years before.
vaudevilles, provided his countrymen with artistic Brandes withdrew to Berlin for some years from
and attractive works. Overskou (1798-1874) is a the storm of popular opposition. Not only in Den-
skilful dramatist, and Hostrup (b. 1818) a popular mark, but in Norway and Sweden also, his followers
author of come.lies. All these writers are sur are now the prevailing party. The most conspicu-
passed by Hans Christian Andersen (1805-75), i ous of these have been Jacobsen (1847–85), the
whose wonderful stories are known throughout translator and adherent of Darwin, and author of
the civilised world. Less popular, but more pro- ! Mogens (1872) and other novels; and (till in 1883
found, was the versatile writer Fr. Paludan-Müller, he became a Conservative) Draclımann (b. 1846).
(1809-76), who from his play Love at Court (1832) Of recent writers, the most noteworthy are Schan-
to his great epic poem Adam Homo (1841-48) has dorph (1). 1836), who is equally happy in his
wooed all the muses in succession. Here may be sketches of the Zealand peasant and the Copen-
mentioned Bergsöe (b. 1835), writer of novels and hagen snob); the versatile writer Hermann Bang
popular works on scientific subjects ; Goldschmidt (h. 1858); and the dramatist Edvard Brandes (b.
(1819–87), editor of the intluential democratic 1847), brother of Georg Brandes.
journals, The Corsair, North and South, and Home Of the three Scandinavian nations, the Danes
and Abroad, and afterwards author of numerous have shown the greatest aptitude for the imita-
romances; Holst (b. 1811), a writer of pleasing tive arts, and their art is comparatively the most
lyrics and tales ; Kaalund? ( 1818-85), with his two independent. While the painters of Norway have
collections of poems, d Spring and An Autumn ; ! been mostly trained at Düsseldorf, and those of

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Sweden at Paris, the artists of Denmark have the Essay on Criticism, but_finally damned him
been especially attracted to Rome. The sculptor to everlasting fame' in the Dunciad. Yet he was
Thorwaldsen (q.v.) has left a great monument of no fool, and his Advancement and Reformation of
his genius in the works contained in the Thor- Modern Poetry (1701) and The Grounds of Criti-
waldsen Museum at Copenhagen. Of later artists cism in Poetry (1704) will still repay perusal.
may be mentioned the painters Marstrand, Carl Spite of the growling of poor old Dennis,' says
Bloch, Exner, Kroyers, Henningsen, and Otto Mr Lowell, his sandy pedantry was not without
Bache. Of music, the chief composers in the 19th an oasis of refreshing sound judgment here and
century have been Hartmann, Gade, and Heise. there."

See Nyerup and Rahbek, Den danske · Digtekunsts Dénouement (Fr. dénouer, 'to untie'), a
Historie, 4 vols. (1800-8), and Udsigt over den danske French term naturalised in England, applied gener-
Digtekunst under Frederik V. og Christian VII. (1819-28); ally to the termination or catastrophe of a play
Nyerup and J. E. Kraft, Almindeligt Litteraturlexikon

or romance; but, more strictly speaking, to the
for Danmark, Norge og Island (Copenhagen, 1818–20);
Petersen, Den danske Literaturs Historie, 6 vols. (1853-

train of circumstances solving the plot, and hasten64); Overskou, Den danske Skueplads i dens Historie ing the catastrophe. (1859–74); G. Brandes, Ludvig Holberg og hans Tid Dens, PETER, a well-known Roman Catholic (1884); the general treatises in Danish by Thortsen theologian, was born in 1690, at Boom, near (1814; 6th ed. 1866), Heiberg (1831), Molbech (1839), Antwerp. Little is known of his early life ; but Ström (1871), Erikson (Christiania, 1878), Winkel-Horn from the epitaph on his tomb in the chapel of (1840), and Hansen (1884 et seq.); and in German by the archiepiscopal college of Malines, it appears Strodtmann (1873), Wollheim de Fonseca (1874-77), and

that he was reader in theology at Malines for Winkel-Horn (1880). See also a part of Edmund w. Gosse's Studies in the Literature of Northern Europe Rumold's, and president of the College of Malines

twelve years, plebanus or parish priest of St (1879).

for forty years. He died 15th February 1775, in Dennery, ADOLPHE PHILIPPE, a French dra- the eighty-fifth year of his age. The work which matic writer of Jewish extraction, was born at has rendered Dens's name familiar, even to the Paris on June 17, 1811. His first employment was Protestant public, is his Theologia Moralis et Dogthat of clerk to a notary ; but he soon became a matica. It is a systematic exposition and defence successful dramatic author, and was so prolific in the form of a catechism—of every point of ethics that between 1831 and 1881 he produced, by him- and doctrine maintained by Roman Catholics, and self or in concert with others, about two hundred is extensively adopted as the text-book of the pieces in one style or another, including regular ology in their colleges. It appears to owe its popudramas, vaudevilles, and operatic texts. One of larity more to its being a handy and usable comthe most successful was the drama, Marie Jeanne pilation than to any great talent exhibited by its (1845). He was the creator of the now well- | author. The casuistical parts of the work have known Norman watering-place, Cabourg.

been severely criticised by Protestant moralists. Dennewitz, a small village in the province of An edition was published at Dublin in 1832. Brandenburg, Prussia, 42 miles SSW. of Berlin. Density. When of two bodies of equal bulk, Here was fought, on the 6th of September 1813, a one contains more matter than the other, it is said battle in which 70,000 French, Saxons, and Poles, to have greater density than that other. Since under Ney, were routed, after obstinate fighting; weight is proportional to mass, the same numbers by 50,000 Prussians, under Bulow.

may be and are used to represent specific gravity Dennis, John, critic, was born in London in and density: Lithium is the least dense metal 1657, the son of a prosperous saddler. He had known, its density being 0:59 if that of water be his education at Harrow, and Caius College, Cam

called unity. Ordinary air may be easily combridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1679. After a pressed so as to be denser than lithium. Iridium tour through France and Italy, he took his place

is probably the densest substance known, its density among the wits and men of fashion, and brought a being 22-4 times that of water. Osmium, however, sufficiently rancorous pen to the assistance of the is very nearly if not quite as dense. The more Whig party. His acquaintance with Dryden and ordinary metals stand in the following order as Wycherley and other distinguished wits, as well regards density : Aluminium, antimony, zinc, iron as his native bent, made him a playwright. His (wrought), copper, bismuth, silver, lead, gold, plays had but little success. Of the nine, the two platinum, most famous were Liberty Asserted (1704) and Dental Formula. See TEETH. Appius and Virginia (produced 1709). Pope's Dentalium (Lat. dens, 'a tooth'), or Elephant's Essay on Criticisin (1711) contained a contemptu- Tusk Shell, a remarkable genus of molluscs, type ous allusion to the latter, answered by Dennis of a small class called Scaphopoda.

The shell is next month in Reflections, Critical and "Satirical, tubular, like an elephant's tusk, open at both ends, which was the commencement of a long and em and lined by an almost completely tubular 'mantle.' bittered feud between the poet and the critic. Pope's Narrative of Dr. Robert Norris, concerning the Strange and Deplorable Frenzy of John Dennis, an officer in the Custom-House (1713), was a virulent, vulgar, and officious attack made on Addison's behalf, but in which that genial author, through Steele, disavowed any complicity. Dennis was poor and blind during his last years. A few weeks after a theatrical performance, got up for his benefit by Pope and some others, he diedl, 6th January 1734. Dennis was embroiled in contro

Dentalium, in natural position in sand. versy all his life, and his naturally impatient temper became completely soured. He made The animal has an indistinct cylindrical head with many enemies, and his name, which his own a mouth at its extremity, surrounded by a circle of writings could scarce preserve, will live for ever tentacles. Two pads at the base of the head and in their contempt and hate. He is one of the best- above the foot bear ciliated contractile filaments, abused men in English literature. Swift lam- possibly respiratory. The 'foot' is long and pooned him, and Pope not only assailed him in | divided into three at the end. The mouth includes

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a rasper. There are no eyes, but an ear-sac is (1) Dental Surgery. The disorders to which the
present. Neither heart nor gills are developed. teeth are liable are those arising from defective
The sexes are similar and separate. The larva is development, such as imperfections in form or
ciliated and free-swimming. The type is of much structure, irregularity of position, &c.; those,
zoological interest, but its affinities are still un. again, constituting diseases more properly so called,
certain. The animal lives with the anterior end such as caries or dental decay, necrosis or death of
plunged into the sand on the sea-coast, at depths a tooth, inflammation of the soft tissues, such as
of ten to a hundred fathoms. By means of the the gum, the central pulp or nerve, as it is popularly
foot they can creep slowly. They feed on minute called, neuralgic affections, &c. ; lastly, those
animals, and have an almost cosmopolitan distri- arising from accidents of various kinds, such as
'bution. The class includes two or more other blows, falls, and the like. For the constitution
genera. D. entale occurs off British coasts; and and diseases of the teeth, see TEETH.
about forty living species are known.

The object of the dentist, in treating decayed
occurs as a fossil from Carboniferous strata (or teeth, is twofold : he either attempts to arrest the
perhaps earlier) onwards. The shells are used for decay, and repair its ravages; or he removes the
currency and for ornament by the Indians of the diseased tooth altogether. These operations, along
northern Pacific coast of America. See Lacaze with supplying artificial teeth when the natural ones
Duthiers, Histoire des Dentales (1856-58).

are lost, constitute the main offices of dentistry, Dentaria, or CORAL-ROOT (both names due to Scaling.- This is a little operation, by which the knobbed root-stock), is a small genus of Cruciferæ,

accumulation of a substance termed tartar is represented in Britain by the rare D. bulbifera, in removed from the teeth. Tartar or salivary calwhich the upper leaves bear Bulbils (q.v.), while culus is of different densities and colours, and is a the pods rarely ripen. The root-stock being pun- deposit from the saliva. It is most frequently gent, was formerly dried as a remedy for toothache. found at the necks of the teeth, and lodges in D. diphylla, a North American species, is called greatest quantity most commonly behind the lower Pepper-root from the same property. The name

front-teeth. Where it accumulates it is generally Coral-root is also applied to the orchid Corallorhiza, accompanied by absorption of the gums, whereby while the true Toothwort (q.v.) is Lathræa squa

the necks of the teeth are exposed, and they become maria.

loosened. Its removal is effected by little hoeDentex, a genus of acanthopterous fishes near

shaped steel instruments, bent in a manner to reach perches. One species (D. vulgaris), the Dentex of

more easily those situations in which the tartar the ancient Romans, abounds in the Mediterranean, point of any one of them under the

free edge of
is found. Their mode of use is by inserting the
the mass of tartar, at the gum, and lifting it away
from the backs of the teeth to which it is adherent.
The teeth are then freed from any particles still
sticking about them, and their surface smoothed
by being rubbed with pumice-powder or chalk.
In certain diseased conditions of the structures
about the necks of the teeth, considerable purulent
discharges occur, and tartar frequently becomes
largely deposited.

Regulating. The teeth of the second, or per-

manent or adult set, are very liable to be crowded

and misplaced, one overlapping the other, or those and has occasionally been taken on the southern of the upper jaw falling behind those of the lower shores of Britain. It is an excessively voracious when the mouth is closed, thus producing the profish, with large sharp teeth, and attains a large minent condition of the under jaw denominated size, sometimes three feet in length, and 20 to 30 under-hung.' To remedy these defects, a variety pounds weight. Great numbers are taken in the of means have been adopted by dentists; the prinmouths of rivers in Dalmatia and the Levant, ciple upon which all of them act, however, being where they are cut in pieces, and packed in barrels that of pressing the displaced tooth or teeth into with vinegar and spices, just as the ancients used the natural position. This, of course, requires that to treat them,

room or space should exist for them to be thus Dentifrice. See TOOTH-POWDER.

adjusted ; and where this is not the case, the usual Dentine, or Ivory, the principal constituent procedure is to remove one or more of the backof mammalian teeth. See TEETH.

teeth, or any others which it is less desirable to

preserve. In other cases the dental arch itself is Dentirostres, a somewhat old-fashioned title malformed, and may be enlarged by regulated for one of the subdivisions of singing Passerine birds

pressure so as to afford more accommodation for or Oscines. The term, as equivalent to 'toothed- the teeth, as well as to improve its contour. Some billed,' is used in opposition to Conirostres (“cone considerable time is necessary to complete the billed') and Tenuirostres (“slender-billed '). It

regulation of misplaced teeth ; and even after they
would include warblers, thrushes, chatterers, crows, have assumed their proper position, they require
&c., but the character is purely adaptive to the to be carefully maintained there, otherwise a
better securing of the prey and the like, and is oftendency to resume their former irregularity soon
little significance in classification.

manifests itself.
Dentistry, the art of the dentist, or that of Stopping or Filling.–This is one of the most
treating disease in the teeth (Dental Surgery), and important and delicate operations the dentist has
of replacing these organs when lost (Mechanical to perform. The first step to be taken in filling or
Dentistry). The art is a very ancient one. The 'stopping' a tooth, is to clear away all decayed
Laws of the Twelve Tables (5th century B.C.) pro- and decaying substance.

For this purpose,
vided for the case of 'teeth bound with gold, it number of slender digging and excavating steel
beiny lawful in this connection to burn or bury instruments, termed excavators,' are required.
gold with the dead person. An Etruscan skuil The dental-engine' is another valuable means
found in 1885 has a set of animal's teeth artificially of preparing the cavity for filling, and acts by
fixed in it. The dentistry of the United States has means of small drills and file-headed points rapidly
in recent times become specially celebrated.

rotating, so as to cut away what is desired of

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the tooth substance. With these, the hollow in able, are in use for what is termed toothache the tooth is scooped out and thoroughly cleaned. --a disorder which, however, is not always one If pain be occasioned by this process, the obtund- and the same in its nature. Their intention, ing of the tooth's sensitiveness, or destroying the in general, is either to destroy the nervous fibres nerve, as it is called, had better at once be resorted existing in a tooth, or to narcotise and render them to.

This is performed in several ways. Where insensible. Among those acting in the former the tooth is single-fanged, as in front-teeth, the manner are such as creasote, arsenious acid, carbolic nerve, or more correctly the pulp, may be removed acid, pepsine, chloride of zinc, nitrate of silver, by passing a slender broach, or square and pointed alum, tannin, &c.; among those acting in the brad-shaped, or slender serrated steel probe up latter mode are chloroform, laudanum, ether, spirit into the central cavity of the tooth, with a slight of camphor, menthol, cocaine, &c. In all cases the rotary motion, so as to break up and remove the decayed cavity should previously be well cleaned pulp. Where this cannot be done at once the best out, otherwise the remedy employed may be altoplan is to destroy the pulp by some caustic applica- gether prevented from reaching the spot where it tion, such as arsenious acid, chloride of zinc, car is intended to act. bolic acid, &c., carefully applied, a variety of other Extraction.—This is the principal surgical operasubstances being used for the same purpose. tion falling to the dentist. It is performed by

The cavity being properly shaped and cleaned means of instruments adapted to the special out until its walls are of sound and hard tooth- peculiarities of the tooth requiring removal, or bone, is to be well dried, and the plug of stopping to the circumstances in which it exists. The material inserted. Various substances are em- great matter is, that each tooth should be exployed for this purpose, and the mode of using each tracted in accordance with its anatomical configuis somewhat different. For temporary stoppings, ration; and to accomplish this of course requires pure gutta-percha is a serviceable material. A an intimate knowledge of the natural form proper quantity sufficient to fill the cavity, and somewhat to each of these organs individually; without this, more, is to be gently warmed over a spirit-lamp, it is impossible to extract any tooth upon a correct not in hot water—and when quite plastic is to be principle. The tooth is grasped, as far as the firmly pressed with a blunt-pointed stopping-instru- instrument can be made to do so, by that portion ment or 'plugger' into all the interstices of the of the root or fang which just emerges from, or hollow in the tooth-more and more being pressed perhaps which is just within, the socket; it is in, until the surface of the plug so formed is on then loosened, not exactly by pulling, but rather a level with the surface of the tooth, when all by moving it in a lateral or in a rotatory manner, superfluous portions should be removed, and the in strict accordance with the respective character solid plug smoothly finished. Osteo-plastic fillings of fang possessed ; and finally, on its being thus consist of varieties of the metallic oxychlorides and detached from its connection with the jaw, it is, phosphates. They are inserted in a soft condition with very little force, easily lifted from its socket

. into the tooth, where they harden in the course of a Anästhetics are employed in the extraction of few minutes.

teeth in the same manner as for other surgical Another variety of stopping-material consists of operations, where it is desirable to abolish pain. amalgams of different kinds. Many absurd state- See ANÆSTHESIA. Neither ether nor chloroform ments have been made regarding the evil effects of should be given by inexperienced hands, nor should amalgam stoppings, but the only real disadvantage both the giving of the anesthetic and the extraction attending their use is shrinkage, and that many of be attempted by one individual on any occasion. them get black in the mouth, and discolour the Nitrous oxide or laughing-gas is of much service, tooth, while some that do not get black are friable, answering all the purposes of chloroform or ether and crumble away in a short space of time. Some in short operations. A combination of two or of those containing copper exercise a beneficial more of these anæsthetics has been employed with action on the tooth-bone, but darken its colour apparent success, such as nitrous oxide with ether. very much. The amalgam is rubbed up with mer- Freezing the gum, the injection into it of cocaine, cury to a firm, plastic consistence, and carefully and other modes of inducing insensibility, local or introduced into the dried cavity in the same way general, have been proposed from time to time, but as the gutta-percha plug.

one after another has been abandoned as unserviceGold-stopping is an operation of a much more able. complicated and difficult description. The materials (2) Mechanical Dentistry. The various conused here are either gold-foil—that is, thick gold ditions of the mouth requiring the adaptation leaf--or the peculiar form in which gold exists of artificial teeth, range from cases where only known as sponge-gold; or again, 'pellets' of gold one tooth may be wanting, to those where not a made up in a soft spongy condition of various sizes single tooth remains in the jaw, above or below; ready for use. In stopping a tooth with gold, even Accordingly, artificial teeth are spoken of as partial more care is necessary in preparing the cavity than or complete sets--a partial set being one for either what has been already inculcated. Its shape and upper or lower jaw, where some of the natural condition must now be particularly taken into teeth still remain ; a complete set being one for account, and the nearer it approaches to a cylin- either jaw, where none are left, or for both jaws, drical form the better. Various modes of pack. when both are in such circumstances. ing the gold are adopted according to two con The transplantation of the teeth of another in. ditions in which gold exists-namely adhesive, dividual is a very old usage revived every now where each portion can be welded to the other; and again, and equally often falling into desuetude ; or non-adhesive, where they are securely fixed and implantation is a recent modification of the merely by tightly wedging thein together. Non process. adhesive gold can be made adhesive by heat The simplest form of partial sets is what is ing it to redness.

The surface of a gold plug, termed a pivoted tooth. This is an artificial tooth formed in any of these ways, should be well con fixed in the mouth upon the fang or root of one solidated by hard pressure with a blunt plugger, whose crown has been lost by decay or otherwise. or lightly hammered with a suitable mallet, and The most usual mode of procedure is as follows : the superfluous portion being removed, it ought to An artificial tooth, as near as possible to the colour be burnished until it assumes a brilliant metallic and form of that to be replaced, is selected. This lustre.

artificial tooth used to be the crown of a natural Remedies. – Many remedies, more or less service- l human tooth corresponding to that lost, but is

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