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the Runic monuments) are the earliest specimens Grammaticus (i.e. the learned') in the second
The intluence of the Hanseatic League and the much by their not being written down till the 16th
What Holberg did for Danish prose, though less euphonious than Swedish. It is the another Norwegian, Tullin (1728-65), did for language of the educated class in Norway, where Danish poetry. "Equally dissatisfied with the curit is considerably augmented from the native rent imitations of the 17th century court-poetry dialect, and is spoken with a somewhat harder of France, and with the poetic reform of Klop; pronunciation. The best histories of the language stock (at 'Copenhagen from 1751), Tullin followed are by Petersen (2 vols. Copenhagen, 1829–30) and the guidance of the English poets Pope, Young, Molbech (ib. 1846); gramniars by Rask (2d ed. and Thomson, and in this was followed by most Lond. 1846), Lökke, Munch, Lyngby, Jessen, and of his countrymen who were settled at CopenMöbius (Kiel, 1871); and dictionaries by the hagen, while the Danes clung to German models. Danish Academy (Copenhagen, 1793-1881), and Ewald (1743-81), an ardent disciple of Klopstock, Molbech (2d ed. 2 vols. ib. 1859), who also pro was Denmark's first great lyric poet and tragic duced a Dansk-Dialekt-Lexikon (ib. 1841) and a dramatist. His
shows unsurpassed Dansk Glossarium (ib. 1853-66) for antiquated mastery of forin, and is expressed in pure, clear, words. Ferrall, Repp, and Rosing's Danish and and noble language. Wessel (1742–65), by his English Dictionary, in 2 parts (4th ed. Copen- tragedy, Love without
tragedy,' Love without Stockings (1772), a humorhagen, 1873), is the best for English students. ous parody of the Danish imitations of the classi
Literature. ---After the Danish dialect had gradu- cal French drama, succeeded in laughing them ally separated itself from the Old Scandinavian as
off the stage.
Nordahl Brun (1745-1818), preacher a softer and simpler speech, with a strong infusion and poet, Claus Frimann (1746–1829), 'the Burns of German ingredients, it was little used in writ of the Norwegians,' Claus Fasting (1746-91), Jonas ing down to the time of the Reformation. Saxo | Rein (1760-1821), Jens Zetlitz (1761-1821), and
others, formed theniselves (1772) into a 'Nor- the erotic and piquant and sometimes frivolous
the dramatists Samsö (1759–96) and Sander systematic theology and ethics; and Kierkegaard
The poet and humorist Baggesen (1764-1826) The chief exponents of philosophy were Sibbern
a lyrical and dramatic writer, and is still 1862). In philology, Rask (1787–1831 ) and Mad-
Sweden at Paris, the artists of Denmark have the Essay on Criticism, but_finally damned him
See Nyerup and Rahbek, Den danske · Digtekunsts Dénouement (Fr. dénouer, 'to untie'), a
or romance; but, more strictly speaking, to the
train of circumstances solving the plot, and hasten64); Overskou, Den danske Skueplads i dens Historie ing the catastrophe. (1859–74); G. Brandes, Ludvig Holberg og hans Tid Dens, PETER, a well-known Roman Catholic (1884); the general treatises in Danish by Thortsen theologian, was born in 1690, at Boom, near (1814; 6th ed. 1866), Heiberg (1831), Molbech (1839), Antwerp. Little is known of his early life ; but Ström (1871), Erikson (Christiania, 1878), Winkel-Horn from the epitaph on his tomb in the chapel of (1840), and Hansen (1884 et seq.); and in German by the archiepiscopal college of Malines, it appears Strodtmann (1873), Wollheim de Fonseca (1874-77), and
that he was reader in theology at Malines for Winkel-Horn (1880). See also a part of Edmund w. Gosse's Studies in the Literature of Northern Europe Rumold's, and president of the College of Malines
twelve years, plebanus or parish priest of St (1879).
for forty years. He died 15th February 1775, in Dennery, ADOLPHE PHILIPPE, a French dra- the eighty-fifth year of his age. The work which matic writer of Jewish extraction, was born at has rendered Dens's name familiar, even to the Paris on June 17, 1811. His first employment was Protestant public, is his Theologia Moralis et Dogthat of clerk to a notary ; but he soon became a matica. It is a systematic exposition and defence successful dramatic author, and was so prolific in the form of a catechism—of every point of ethics that between 1831 and 1881 he produced, by him- and doctrine maintained by Roman Catholics, and self or in concert with others, about two hundred is extensively adopted as the text-book of the pieces in one style or another, including regular ology in their colleges. It appears to owe its popudramas, vaudevilles, and operatic texts. One of larity more to its being a handy and usable comthe most successful was the drama, Marie Jeanne pilation than to any great talent exhibited by its (1845). He was the creator of the now well- | author. The casuistical parts of the work have known Norman watering-place, Cabourg.
been severely criticised by Protestant moralists. Dennewitz, a small village in the province of An edition was published at Dublin in 1832. Brandenburg, Prussia, 42 miles SSW. of Berlin. Density. When of two bodies of equal bulk, Here was fought, on the 6th of September 1813, a one contains more matter than the other, it is said battle in which 70,000 French, Saxons, and Poles, to have greater density than that other. Since under Ney, were routed, after obstinate fighting; weight is proportional to mass, the same numbers by 50,000 Prussians, under Bulow.
may be and are used to represent specific gravity Dennis, John, critic, was born in London in and density: Lithium is the least dense metal 1657, the son of a prosperous saddler. He had known, its density being 0:59 if that of water be his education at Harrow, and Caius College, Cam
called unity. Ordinary air may be easily combridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1679. After a pressed so as to be denser than lithium. Iridium tour through France and Italy, he took his place
is probably the densest substance known, its density among the wits and men of fashion, and brought a being 22-4 times that of water. Osmium, however, sufficiently rancorous pen to the assistance of the is very nearly if not quite as dense. The more Whig party. His acquaintance with Dryden and ordinary metals stand in the following order as Wycherley and other distinguished wits, as well regards density : Aluminium, antimony, zinc, iron as his native bent, made him a playwright. His (wrought), copper, bismuth, silver, lead, gold, plays had but little success. Of the nine, the two platinum, most famous were Liberty Asserted (1704) and Dental Formula. See TEETH. Appius and Virginia (produced 1709). Pope's Dentalium (Lat. dens, 'a tooth'), or Elephant's Essay on Criticisin (1711) contained a contemptu- Tusk Shell, a remarkable genus of molluscs, type ous allusion to the latter, answered by Dennis of a small class called Scaphopoda.
The shell is next month in Reflections, Critical and "Satirical, tubular, like an elephant's tusk, open at both ends, which was the commencement of a long and em and lined by an almost completely tubular 'mantle.' bittered feud between the poet and the critic. Pope's Narrative of Dr. Robert Norris, concerning the Strange and Deplorable Frenzy of John Dennis, an officer in the Custom-House (1713), was a virulent, vulgar, and officious attack made on Addison's behalf, but in which that genial author, through Steele, disavowed any complicity. Dennis was poor and blind during his last years. A few weeks after a theatrical performance, got up for his benefit by Pope and some others, he diedl, 6th January 1734. Dennis was embroiled in contro
Dentalium, in natural position in sand. versy all his life, and his naturally impatient temper became completely soured. He made The animal has an indistinct cylindrical head with many enemies, and his name, which his own a mouth at its extremity, surrounded by a circle of writings could scarce preserve, will live for ever tentacles. Two pads at the base of the head and in their contempt and hate. He is one of the best- above the foot bear ciliated contractile filaments, abused men in English literature. Swift lam- possibly respiratory. The 'foot' is long and pooned him, and Pope not only assailed him in | divided into three at the end. The mouth includes
a rasper. There are no eyes, but an ear-sac is (1) Dental Surgery. The disorders to which the
The object of the dentist, in treating decayed
are lost, constitute the main offices of dentistry, Dentaria, or CORAL-ROOT (both names due to Scaling.- This is a little operation, by which the knobbed root-stock), is a small genus of Cruciferæ,
accumulation of a substance termed tartar is represented in Britain by the rare D. bulbifera, in removed from the teeth. Tartar or salivary calwhich the upper leaves bear Bulbils (q.v.), while culus is of different densities and colours, and is a the pods rarely ripen. The root-stock being pun- deposit from the saliva. It is most frequently gent, was formerly dried as a remedy for toothache. found at the necks of the teeth, and lodges in D. diphylla, a North American species, is called greatest quantity most commonly behind the lower Pepper-root from the same property. The name
front-teeth. Where it accumulates it is generally Coral-root is also applied to the orchid Corallorhiza, accompanied by absorption of the gums, whereby while the true Toothwort (q.v.) is Lathræa squa
the necks of the teeth are exposed, and they become maria.
loosened. Its removal is effected by little hoeDentex, a genus of acanthopterous fishes near
shaped steel instruments, bent in a manner to reach perches. One species (D. vulgaris), the Dentex of
more easily those situations in which the tartar the ancient Romans, abounds in the Mediterranean, point of any one of them under the
free edge of
Regulating. The teeth of the second, or per-
manent or adult set, are very liable to be crowded
and misplaced, one overlapping the other, or those and has occasionally been taken on the southern of the upper jaw falling behind those of the lower shores of Britain. It is an excessively voracious when the mouth is closed, thus producing the profish, with large sharp teeth, and attains a large minent condition of the under jaw denominated size, sometimes three feet in length, and 20 to 30 under-hung.' To remedy these defects, a variety pounds weight. Great numbers are taken in the of means have been adopted by dentists; the prinmouths of rivers in Dalmatia and the Levant, ciple upon which all of them act, however, being where they are cut in pieces, and packed in barrels that of pressing the displaced tooth or teeth into with vinegar and spices, just as the ancients used the natural position. This, of course, requires that to treat them,
room or space should exist for them to be thus Dentifrice. See TOOTH-POWDER.
adjusted ; and where this is not the case, the usual Dentine, or Ivory, the principal constituent procedure is to remove one or more of the backof mammalian teeth. See TEETH.
teeth, or any others which it is less desirable to
preserve. In other cases the dental arch itself is Dentirostres, a somewhat old-fashioned title malformed, and may be enlarged by regulated for one of the subdivisions of singing Passerine birds
pressure so as to afford more accommodation for or Oscines. The term, as equivalent to 'toothed- the teeth, as well as to improve its contour. Some billed,' is used in opposition to Conirostres (“cone considerable time is necessary to complete the billed') and Tenuirostres (“slender-billed '). It
regulation of misplaced teeth ; and even after they
For this purpose,
rotating, so as to cut away what is desired of
the tooth substance. With these, the hollow in able, are in use for what is termed toothache the tooth is scooped out and thoroughly cleaned. --a disorder which, however, is not always one If pain be occasioned by this process, the obtund- and the same in its nature. Their intention, ing of the tooth's sensitiveness, or destroying the in general, is either to destroy the nervous fibres nerve, as it is called, had better at once be resorted existing in a tooth, or to narcotise and render them to.
This is performed in several ways. Where insensible. Among those acting in the former the tooth is single-fanged, as in front-teeth, the manner are such as creasote, arsenious acid, carbolic nerve, or more correctly the pulp, may be removed acid, pepsine, chloride of zinc, nitrate of silver, by passing a slender broach, or square and pointed alum, tannin, &c.; among those acting in the brad-shaped, or slender serrated steel probe up latter mode are chloroform, laudanum, ether, spirit into the central cavity of the tooth, with a slight of camphor, menthol, cocaine, &c. In all cases the rotary motion, so as to break up and remove the decayed cavity should previously be well cleaned pulp. Where this cannot be done at once the best out, otherwise the remedy employed may be altoplan is to destroy the pulp by some caustic applica- gether prevented from reaching the spot where it tion, such as arsenious acid, chloride of zinc, car is intended to act. bolic acid, &c., carefully applied, a variety of other Extraction.—This is the principal surgical operasubstances being used for the same purpose. tion falling to the dentist. It is performed by
The cavity being properly shaped and cleaned means of instruments adapted to the special out until its walls are of sound and hard tooth- peculiarities of the tooth requiring removal, or bone, is to be well dried, and the plug of stopping to the circumstances in which it exists. The material inserted. Various substances are em- great matter is, that each tooth should be exployed for this purpose, and the mode of using each tracted in accordance with its anatomical configuis somewhat different. For temporary stoppings, ration; and to accomplish this of course requires pure gutta-percha is a serviceable material. A an intimate knowledge of the natural form proper quantity sufficient to fill the cavity, and somewhat to each of these organs individually; without this, more, is to be gently warmed over a spirit-lamp, it is impossible to extract any tooth upon a correct not in hot water—and when quite plastic is to be principle. The tooth is grasped, as far as the firmly pressed with a blunt-pointed stopping-instru- instrument can be made to do so, by that portion ment or 'plugger' into all the interstices of the of the root or fang which just emerges from, or hollow in the tooth-more and more being pressed perhaps which is just within, the socket; it is in, until the surface of the plug so formed is on then loosened, not exactly by pulling, but rather a level with the surface of the tooth, when all by moving it in a lateral or in a rotatory manner, superfluous portions should be removed, and the in strict accordance with the respective character solid plug smoothly finished. Osteo-plastic fillings of fang possessed ; and finally, on its being thus consist of varieties of the metallic oxychlorides and detached from its connection with the jaw, it is, phosphates. They are inserted in a soft condition with very little force, easily lifted from its socket
. into the tooth, where they harden in the course of a Anästhetics are employed in the extraction of few minutes.
teeth in the same manner as for other surgical Another variety of stopping-material consists of operations, where it is desirable to abolish pain. amalgams of different kinds. Many absurd state- See ANÆSTHESIA. Neither ether nor chloroform ments have been made regarding the evil effects of should be given by inexperienced hands, nor should amalgam stoppings, but the only real disadvantage both the giving of the anesthetic and the extraction attending their use is shrinkage, and that many of be attempted by one individual on any occasion. them get black in the mouth, and discolour the Nitrous oxide or laughing-gas is of much service, tooth, while some that do not get black are friable, answering all the purposes of chloroform or ether and crumble away in a short space of time. Some in short operations. A combination of two or of those containing copper exercise a beneficial more of these anæsthetics has been employed with action on the tooth-bone, but darken its colour apparent success, such as nitrous oxide with ether. very much. The amalgam is rubbed up with mer- Freezing the gum, the injection into it of cocaine, cury to a firm, plastic consistence, and carefully and other modes of inducing insensibility, local or introduced into the dried cavity in the same way general, have been proposed from time to time, but as the gutta-percha plug.
one after another has been abandoned as unserviceGold-stopping is an operation of a much more able. complicated and difficult description. The materials (2) Mechanical Dentistry. The various conused here are either gold-foil—that is, thick gold ditions of the mouth requiring the adaptation leaf--or the peculiar form in which gold exists of artificial teeth, range from cases where only known as sponge-gold; or again, 'pellets' of gold one tooth may be wanting, to those where not a made up in a soft spongy condition of various sizes single tooth remains in the jaw, above or below; ready for use. In stopping a tooth with gold, even Accordingly, artificial teeth are spoken of as partial more care is necessary in preparing the cavity than or complete sets--a partial set being one for either what has been already inculcated. Its shape and upper or lower jaw, where some of the natural condition must now be particularly taken into teeth still remain ; a complete set being one for account, and the nearer it approaches to a cylin- either jaw, where none are left, or for both jaws, drical form the better. Various modes of pack. when both are in such circumstances. ing the gold are adopted according to two con The transplantation of the teeth of another in. ditions in which gold exists-namely adhesive, dividual is a very old usage revived every now where each portion can be welded to the other; and again, and equally often falling into desuetude ; or non-adhesive, where they are securely fixed and implantation is a recent modification of the merely by tightly wedging thein together. Non process. adhesive gold can be made adhesive by heat The simplest form of partial sets is what is ing it to redness.
The surface of a gold plug, termed a pivoted tooth. This is an artificial tooth formed in any of these ways, should be well con fixed in the mouth upon the fang or root of one solidated by hard pressure with a blunt plugger, whose crown has been lost by decay or otherwise. or lightly hammered with a suitable mallet, and The most usual mode of procedure is as follows : the superfluous portion being removed, it ought to An artificial tooth, as near as possible to the colour be burnished until it assumes a brilliant metallic and form of that to be replaced, is selected. This lustre.
artificial tooth used to be the crown of a natural Remedies. – Many remedies, more or less service- l human tooth corresponding to that lost, but is