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Geronimo Moran attached to the édition de luxe and summary method of distributing a small estate of Don Quixote, in 3 vols. imp. 4to, Madrid, 1863. among the creditors. The petition must be pre

Cervet'ri (from Cære Vetus), a village of Italy, sented in the sheriff-court either by a creditor or 19 miles WNW. of Rome, on the site of the ancient by the notour bankrupt himself. Notice is given Cære or Agylla, formerly one of the most important in the Gazette, there is a meeting of creditors, the cities of Etruria. Conquered and degraded by the debtor is publicly examined, the sheriff grants a Romans in 353 B.C., it experienced but a brief decree appointing a trustee and ordering the debtor renewal of prosperity under the empire as a water to convey all his estate (except working tools, ing-place (the warm Bagni del Sasso, still used), alimentary funds, and future acquisitions) to the and finally fell into decay in the 13th century. trustee, who then ranks the various claims on the Many Etruscan remains have been found near by. estate, subject to an appeal to the sheriff. A most Cer'vidæ and Cervus. See DEER.

important change was introduced by the Bank

ruptcy and Cessio Act, 1881, which provides for the Cervin, MONT. See MATTERHORN.

first time that the debtor under a cessio may Cesalpino. See CÆSALPINUS.

obtain a statutory discharge, but only if he pays Cesarewitch. See CZAR.

5s. per £1, or satisfies the sheriff that failure to pay

such a dividend is not due to his fault. The proCe'sari, GIUSEPPE (sometimes called ARPINO),

cess of cessio must be distinguished in some of its an Italian painter, born at Arpino about 1568, effects from the English and American assignment was greatly honoured by no less than five popes, for the benefit of creditors under insolvent statutes. and died at Rome, 3d July 1640. His works-in See BANKRUPTCY, SEQUESTRATION ; Goudy on fresco and oil-display lively imagination, and Bankruptcy (1886). great tact in execution. Cesarotti, MELCHIORE, an excellent Italian

Cesspool. See SEWAGE. poet, was born 15th May 1730, at Padua, where he

Cestoid Worms (Cestoda), an order of flat filled the Greek and Hebrew chairs. He gained

worms (Plathelminthes), of internal parasitic a reputation by_his translation of Macpherson's The adult consists of an asexual "head, attached

habit, and generally known as Tapeworms (9.v.); Ossian (1763). The versification of this work, like that of his free translation of the Iliad, under the by hooks or suckers or both to the host, and title of La Morte di Ettore, was admired by Alfieri, budding off a long chain of flat kual, hermaphroand Cesarotti unquestionably threw fresh life into distance from the head,' have a measure of in

dite ‘joints,' which become mature at a certain Italian literature. He also wrote on the philosophy dividuality and independence, and are eventually of language and of taste. 1785) and Ragionamento sulla Filosofia del Gusto expelled. There is no alimentary canal nor vasare his best works. He died 3d November 1808.

cular system;

the nervous system is usually com

plex, but of a low order ; there is a well-developed Cese'na, a town of Central Italy, 12 miles SE. of excretory system of branching tubes. Forli by rail, with a cathedral and a trade in silk, ductive organs of the joints' are usually very wine, hemp, and sulphur. Cesena gave birth to complex. The liberated 'joints' or 'proglottides' two popes-Pius VI. and VII. Pop. (1881) 11,435. break up, and set free embryos, which find their Here Murat defeated the Austrians, 30th March 1815. way into other hosts, and undergoing considerable

Ces'nola, Count LUIGI PALMA DI, archæolo- change become bladder-worms, develop a head, or gist, was born near Turin, June 29, 1832.' He served in some cases heads, and only become sexual when with the Sardinian contingent in the Crimean war,

their host is in turn eaten by the original species went to New York in 1860, and served as a volunteer in which the tapeworm flourished. There is thus in the civil war. Appointed American consul at

an alternation of generations between the asexual Cyprus in 1865, he commenced a series of excava

bladder-worm and the sexual tapeworm. The order tions which he continued for about ten years with includes about 25 genera and 500 species, mostly the most remarkable success. His splendid collec- parasitic in vertebrates. The genus Tænia (tapetion of statues and figures, lamps, vases, inscrip- worm) includes more than half

the known species. tions, and other antiquities, was opened in New The Cestodes are linked to the flukes or Trematodes York in 1872 as the 'Cesnola Collection of Cyprian þy forms like Amphilina, Caryophyllæus, and ArchAntiquities.' Doubts expressed in 1879 as to the igetes, which have no joints,' and a single reproauthenticity of part of the collection were proved to ductive system ; and there is a well-marked series be groundless. His chief work is Cyprus, its ancient from these up to the most specialised Tænia. Cities, Tombs, and Temples (1877).

Echineibothrium, Phyllobothrium, Anthobothrium, Ces/pedes, PABLO DE, Spanish painter, born Bothriocephalus (9.v.), are the important genera

Acanthobothrium, Tetrarhynchus, Ligula (q.v.), at Cordova in 1536, studied at Rome under Michael besides Tänia. See TAPEWORMS ; also BLADDERAngelo and Raphael, and in 1577 becanie a pre; WORM, PARASITISM, and Leuckart's Parasites of bendary at Cordova, where he established a school

Man, of art, and was also active as an architect, painter, and writer. He died 26th July 1608.

Cestracion, a genus of sharks, regarded as Cess (short for assess). See LAND-TAX.

constituting a distinct family, Cestraciontidæ, al

though not more than four species are known as Cessio Bonorum (Lat. cession or surrender now existing. It is characterised by having two of goods”), a process which the law of Scotland dorsal fins and one anal, the first dorsal situated borrowed from that of Rome, and which also over the space between the pectorals and ventrals; appears in most of the continental systems. On a spine forming the front of each dorsal ; a short making a surrender of estate to his creditors, the wide tail, with its upper lobe strongly notched debtor was granted a judicial protection from im- beneath ; the mouth at the fore end of the snout; prisonment in respect of all debts then due by him. spiracles distinctly visible, rather behind the eyes ; As

, however, imprisonment for debt was abolished and small gill-openings. The front of the mouth by the Debtors Act, 1880, except in the case of is armed with obtuse angular teeth, whilst the rates and taxes due, cessio as a process for the margins and inner surface of the jaws are covered protection or liberation from imprisonment of in with pavement-like teeth, presenting a general solvent debtors is now practically obsolete. The continuity of surface, as in skates, and disposed Act of 1880, however, introduced a new process of in rounded oblique scrolls—the former evidently cessio, resembling sequestration, and really a cheap adapted to the seizing of food, the latter to the





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crushing and bruising of it. They are of obvious neck indistinct; there is generally a median dorsal
use with a diet of hard-shelled crustaceans and fin, and the tail has lateral flukes; the fore-limbs

are reduced to paddles, the hind-limbs are at most
represented by slight internal traces; the skin is
smooth, and, with the occasional exception of &
few bristles nea the mouth, hairless; there is a
thick layer of fat or blubber under the skin which
serves instead of hair as a heat-retainer. The eye
is small, there is no external ear, the nostrils
are situated vertically. The bones are spongy
and oily, the neck vertebræ are compressed and
often fused, there is no union to form a sacrum.
The skull is peculiarly modified, the brain-case
being high, and the front part prolonged into more
or less of a snout. There are no collar-bones;
the bones of the arm are flattened and stiff; the
joints of the second and third fingers are always
above the normal number; the whole arm forms &
flipper ; the hip-girdle and hind-leg are degenerate.
In one group teeth are absent except in the fætus,
and are replaced by 'whalebone'growths from the

palate ; in no case is there more than one set of Upper Jaw of Port-Jackson Shark (Cestracion philippi). teeth. The stomach has several chambers; the

intestine is simple. The liver is less divided than molluscs. The front teeth are sharp in the young usual, and there is no gall-bladder. The bloodforms. The egg-case has two curious spiral ridges vessels form wonderful networks (retia mirabilia).

surrounding it. The Port-Jackson The top of the windpipe is prolonged forwards so
Shark, or Nurse' (C. philippi) of as to form, when embraced by the soft palate, &
the Australian seas, and the Cat continuous air-passage from nostrils to lungs

Shark of Japan and China (C.

The brain is large. The placenta is ‘non-deciduate zebra), seem to differ chiefly in the and diffuse.' The teats are two in number, and patterns of colour. None exceed

lie beside the female genital aperture ; the milk
five feet in length. The Cestra is squeezed into the mouth of the sucking young.
ciontidæ are particularly interest The Cetacea are widely distributed in all seas
ing to geologists, for the oldest and in some large rivers. They swim powerfully,
fossil sharks belong in great part to and the tail works up and down, not sideways

this family:
· The remains are

They rise to the surface to breathe, and do not found even in the Palæozoic strata ; spout sea-water from their blowholes. The expirathey become more numerous in the tion is periodic and violent, and the forcibly exCarboniferous series ; they are very pelled air being laden with water, yapour may

numerous in the Lias and Chalk condense in a pillar of fine spray, or the ascending Outside view of formations ; but there they cease

column may carry up some surface sea-water along Egg-case of almost entirely, the strata of the with it, but it must be recognised that the process Cestracion Tertiary series containing scarcely is simply that of ordinary expiration in peculiar philippi. any of them.' In modern times the conditions. They are mostly inoffensive, generally species are reduced, as we have

social in habit, vary from 4 to 60 feet in length, seen, to four at most, and other types of shark

and feed on jelly-fish, crustaceans, pteropods

, have become more prevalent. The fossil forms cuttlefish, fishes, and in one genus (Orca) on seals were abundant, also much larger, and the cestra

and on other whales. cions thus furnish a particularly good illustration

Two very distinct series have to be distinguished of a decadent family.

-(a) the Toothed Whales or Odontoceti, and (6) Cestui que Trust, a person for whom another the Baleen Whales or Mystacoceti.

The fornier is a trustee. The term is Norman- French, and include Sperm Whales (Physeter), the Bottlenose means in English law, and also in the United (Hyperoodon), the genus Platanista and its allies

, States, exactly what Beneficiary (q.v.) means in and the great family of Dolphins (q.v.). The Scots law.

latter sub-order includes the Right Whale (Balena), Cestus (Gr. kestos, ‘embroidered'), a girdle the Humpbacks' (Megaptera), and the Rorquals worn by Greek and Roman women, but at what (Balænoptera). part of the body is somewhat uncertain. It was In the Eocene, Cetacea are represented by primiworn apparently between the cingulum, which was tive, less specialised forms, known as Zeuglodons, a sash" or girdle over the tunic just under the but the remains are, as one would expect, somebosom, and the zone, worn mostly by young un what fragmentary, and the conclusions to be drawn married women lower down the body, just above from them very uncertain. In Miocene and Pliothe hips. According to Winckelmann, the cestus cene strata still more fragmentary cetacean remains was itself worn round the loins; according to have been found, and are grouped together in the Heyne and Visconti, immediately under the bosom.

genus Squalodon. The cestus of Aphrodite was covered with such There is much doubt and dispute in regard to the alluring representations of the joys of love that she origin and affinities of Cetacea. They are related who wore it was irresistible. It was borrowed by by some to Carnivores, but the researches of ProHera when she desired to win the love of Zeus. fessor Flower have made it more probable that they ---CESTUS, or more correctly, CÆSTUS, the boxing have much closer affinities with Ungulates

. He gauntlets worn by the ancient prize-fighters, which regards it as not unlikely that the whole consisted of leather thongs bound round the hands a fresh-water origin.

Fuller details must

be sought and wrists. They sometimes reached as high up as under the article WHALE. See Flower's article the elbows, and were armed with lead or metal | 'Mammalia,' Ency. Brit. bosses to increase the force of the blow.

Çeteosaurus (kētos, “whale;' sauros, lizard”), Cetacea, an order of mammals, of aquatic a large dinosaurian reptile belonging to the habit and fish-like form. The head is large, the Jurassic System (q.v.). According to Professor

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English Miles 0510 20 30 49 50



Phillips, it may have reached a length of 50 feet, several sieges by the Moors (1694–1720 and 1732), and when 'standing at ease was probably not less and is still the most important of the four African than 10 feet in height and of bulk in proportion. Presidios (q.v.). It appears to have frequented the marshes and

Cevadilla. See SABADILLA. river-sides of the period, and to have been a vege

Cévennes (ancient Cebenna), the chief mountable-feeder. The word is also spelt Cetiosaurus.

tain-range in the south of France. With its conCetewayo. See ZULUS.

tinuations and offsets, it forms the watershed Cetinje (also spelt Cettigné), capital of Monte between the river-systems of the Rhone and the negro, lies in a rocky valley 2093 feet above sea Loire and Garonne. Its general direction is from level, and 17 miles E. of Cattaro, with which it is north-east to south-west, commencing at the connected by a carriage road. It is the residence of southern extremity of the Lyonnais Mountains, the prince, and of an archimandrite, and consists of and extending under different local names as far as an unpretentious palace, a few private houses, an the Canal du Midi, which divides it from the abbey, gaol, arsenal, theatre (which serves also for northern slopes of the Pyrenees. The Cevennes the state library and national museum), hospital, extend for over 150 miles, through or into nine theological seminary, gymnasium, and a girl's high departments. The central mass lying in Lozère school, maintained at the charge of the Empress of and Ardèche, where Mont Lozère attains 5584 Russia

. Behind the palace is an elm, under which and Mont Mézenc (the culminating point of the the prince delivers judgments. Pop. 1200.

chain ) 5754 feet. The average height is from 3000 Cetotolites, a name given by Owen to fossil to 4000 feet. The mountains consist chiefly of cetacean ear-bones, which occur in great abund- primary rocks, covered with tertiary formations, ance in the Red Crag of Suffolk (see PLIOCENE). which in many places are interrupted by volcanic They are rubbed and water-worn, and have rocks. For the religious wars of which the Cevennes evidently been washed out of some earlier strata, have been the arena, see ALBIGENSES, CAMISARDS, which remain yet unrecognised. The extent of WALDENSES ;, and for a vivid description of the these earlier strata must have been very great, scenery and the peasantry, Mr R. L. Stevenson's seeing that the crag beds now extend over a large Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes (1879). district in Essex and Suffolk, and attain a thick Ceylanite. See SPINEL. ness in some places of not less than 40 feet. Ceylon (the Taprobane of the Greeks and Professor Henslow in 1843 drew the attention of Romans, and the Serendib of the Arabian Nights), agricultural chemists to this deposit as a source of an island and British crown colony in the Indian materials for manure, and since then superphos- | Ocean, to the south-east of India, from which it is phate manures have been manufactured from it to the value of many thousand pounds annually ; a striking example of the valuable practical results

CEY LON which frequently flow from a purely scientific dis O N D I A covery, Cette, an important seaport town of France, in the department of Hérault, is built on a neck of land between the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, 23 miles SW. of Montpellier. The space inclosed by the piers and breakwater forming the harbour can accommodate about 400 vessels; and

Ramiseram the harbour is defended by forts. A broad deep canal , lined with excellent quays, connects the port

NORTHERN with the Lake of Thau, and so with the Canal du

PROVINCE Midi and the Rhone, thus giving to Cette an extensive inland traffic; it has likewise an active Gulf of Aripo foreign commerce. The principal trade is in wine, Manzarar


"Madawarchy Allen brandy, salt, dried fruits, fish, dyestuffs, per


Smoottiar fumery, and verdigris. Cette has shipbuilding

Anaradhapura Mihintate'sKantno lij Tank

Kalpitiya yards, salt-works, glass-works, factories for the

S. Virger manufacture of syrups and grape-sugar, &c.


Puttalam Wank

Polikardaanvendeloos is a resort for sea-bathing, and has extensive fisheries. Colbert founded it in 1666. Pop. (1872) 25,181 ; (1886) 36,762.


Kurunegalao Ce’uta, a fortified port belonging to Spain, on the coast of Morocco, opposite Gibraltar. The

kolla Randy town occupies the site of the Roman colony of Ad Septem Fratres, so called from the seven hills rising here in a group, of which the most prominent are Montes Almina and Hacho; on the latter, the

Adarah ancient Abyla (one of the Pillars of Hercules), is a

PRO VENETO strong fort, and on the former, among beautiful gardens, lies the New Town. Ceuta contains a

Palatupane cathedral, a hospital, and convents, but is chiefly

Hambanotä of importance as a military and convict station.

"Pt:deGalle The harbour is small, and exposed to the north, but has a lighthouse and some small trade. The mixeil population number about 9700. The place was a flourishing mart under the Arabs, who corrupted its Roman name to Sebtah ; there the first paper manufactory in the Western world is said to have been established by an Arab who had brought the industry from China. In 1415 it was separated by the Gulf of Manaar and Palk Strait, captured by the Portuguese, and annexed

to 32 to 120 miles broad. It lies between 5° 55' and Portugal; it fell to Spain in 1580. It has resisted | 9° 51' N. lat., and 79° 42' and 81° 55' E. long.

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Extreme length from north to south, from Point which provides safe anchorage for ships of any size Palmyra to Dondera Head, 266 miles; greatest in all weather, has concentrated the commerce of width, from Colombo to Sangemankande, 140 miles. the island there, and has also attracted from Galle Area, 24,702 sq. m., of which more than one-fifth the mail and passenger steamers from Europe, is under cultivation.

India, Australia, and China, which used to coal Physical Features. — In natural scenery Ceylon and tranship at Galle. At Trincomalee are the can vie with any part of the world, and as it rises naval stores and dockyard, and the harbour is the from the ocean, clothed with the rich luxuriance of finest in eastern waters. a tropical vegetation, it seems to the voyager like In climate, Ceylon has a great advantage over some enchanted island of Eastern story. Its hills, the mainland of India, and as an island enjoys a draped with forests of perennial green,' tower more equable temperature. The average for the grandly from height to height, till they are lost in year in Colombo (q.v.) is 80° in ordinary seasons. clouds and mist. Near at hand, a sea of sapphire April is the hottest month; and in May the southblue dashes against the battlemented rocks that west monsoon commences amid a deluge of rain, occur at isolated points, and the yellow strands are and continues the prevailing wind till October

, shaded by groves of noble palms. In shape Ceylon when the north-east monsoon sets in : 80 inches is resembles a pear, but its inhabitants more poetically the average annual fall of rain, though in an compare it to one of their elongated pearls. Un exceptional year 120 inches have been registered. dulating plains cover about four parts of the island, The beautiful tableland of Nuwara-Eliya was first and the fifth is occupied by the mountain-zone of visited by Europeans in 1826, and is now used as the central south, which has an elevation of from a sanatorium. Here the thermometer in the shade 6000 to 8000 feet above the sea-level. Pedrotalla never rises above 70°, while the average is 62° ; the galla, the highest mountain in the range, attains nights are cool and refreshing. The north of the the height of 8260 feet; the celebrated mountain of island, including the peninsula of Jaffna, the Adam's Peak, 7420 feet; and the tableland of plains of Nuwara-Kalawa, and the Wanny, may be Nuwara Eliya, 6210 feet.

reckoned as a third climatic division. Here the Geology.The mountain-system is mainly com annual fall of rain does not exceed 30 inches, and posed of metamorphic rocks, chiefly gneiss, fre- irrigation is largely employed in agriculture. quently broken up by intrusive granite. With the Flora.—The general botanical features of Ceylon exception of some local beds of dolomitic limestone, are in many respects similar to those of Southern the gneiss is everywhere the surface rock, and the India. A very large number of the species of plants soil is composed of its disintegrated materials. is, however, peculiar to the island. About 800 species The northern part of the island is rising; and the (nearly 30 per cent. of the whole number found in immense masses of corals continually increasing, Ceylon) are endemic-that is, found nowhere else retain the debris brought from the Indian continent in the world. The tree-vegetation of the forests by the currents of the sea, and thus form a flat, is almost wholly composed of such endemic species

, ever-increasing madrepore plain.

and not a few of endemic genera. The affinities Metals and Precious Stones.--Iron can be obtained and near alliances of these are with the plants of in great quantities, and anthracite and rich veins the Malay Islands and Peninsula. Hence, to of plumbago exist on the southern range of hills. speak more correctly, the flora of Ceylon partakes Gold has recently, been found. The gems of of an Indian as well as a Malayan character

, but Ceylon have been celebrated from time immemorial. is identical with neither. As may be expected Sapphires, rubies, the oriental topaz, garnets, from the climatic eculiarities of the country amethysts, cinnamon stone, and cat's-eye are the the flora is greatly diversified. In the south-west principal gems and precious stones of the island. mountainous parts of the island, with the excep: The declared value of the precious stones exported tion of some grassy tracts called patanas and the is about £10,000 annually; but as large numbers plantations of tea, coffee, and cinchona, the slopes are purchased by passengers calling at Colombo and summits are forest-clad. The trees are everand by native merchants for sale in Southern India, green, with thick coriaceous leaves, growing closely the actual value is doubtless very far in excess of together and forming dark jungles. The underthe sum named. The pearl-fisheries of Ceylon were growth is largely made up of gregarious plants known at a very remote date in the commercial known as Nilu, species of the genus Strobilanthes, history of the world. Under the Portuguese and which only flower at regular intervals of five

, Dutch governments, and now under the British six, or seven years. Tree-ferns, often 25 feet in government, the pearl-fisheries form a monopoly, height, scarlet-flowering rhododendrons, numerous and are under the inspection of an officer, who tufted bamboos, melastomads, and orchids are reports when a sufficient number of pearl-yielding found in mountain forests. In the low country

, oysters have reached maturity, and when the pro- the vegetation is marked by the prevalence of spect of a successful fishing is thus probable

. palms, the cocoa-nut being pre-eminent. The The fishings are intermittent and occur at irreg: beautiful areca-palm, the feathery, jaggery or ular dates. In 1863 the value of pearls obtained kitul, and the Tordlý talipat are the glories of was £56,000 ; in 1874, it was £10,000; in 1877, Ceylon lowland vegetation. In the recesses of £19,000; in ’1879-80, £29,500 ; in 1881, £59,800; low-country forests the trees are high and closely in 1887, £39,000 ; and in the intermediate periods packed. Amongst the timber-trees the most between these dates there was practically no fishing valuable are the calamander, satin-Food, and

ebony. Two very interesting and peculiarly Rivers

. The most important river in Ceylon is slender tree-ferns grow in the hot steamy forests the Mahavila-ganga.

its source in the of Ceylon, as also the most admired of Ceylon vicinity of Adam's Peak, and after draining

more orchids, Dendrobium Maccarthia. There has been than 4000 sq. m., it separates into several branches, extensive cutting down of forest in the mountains and enters the ocean near Trincomalee. The south of Ceylon to establish plantations, and the low: side of the island is watered by ten rivers of con lands have suffered no less severely by the indolent siderable size. Harbours. --Galle, at the southern extremity of As a consequence numerous foreign weeds, such

and improvident practice of native cultivation

. Ceylon, and Trincomalee on the eastern coast, are the only natural harbours capable of containing have established themselves to the exclusion of ships of large draught.

The construction of a native vegetation in the hills ; while in the lowbreakwater at Colombo, the capital of the island, I lands coarse grasses and worthless scrub. have

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covered the country. The orchids of Ceylon of the native communities, are met with in every number about 150 species. With the excep. province as enterprising traders, and are generally, tion of about a dozen Dendrobiums, Erias, and believed to be of Arab descent. The burghers Saccolabiums, and the lovely Wana-rájah, there of Ceylon are people of European descent, who are few of a striking character. The ferns num have become naturalised. Those of Portuguese ber about 270 species. Among the latter is an extraction hold the lowest place, and are mostly anomalous variety which bear's spores on the tradesmen and artisans ; but the Dutch burghers upper instead of on the under side of the frond. frequently fill responsible posts, and are employed One of the handsomest native trees of Ceylon is in the government offices. There is besides a the Muruta (Lagerstroemia Flos-reginae). To this remarkable tribe of outcasts-the Veddalis-hardly might be added the Saraca indica, and the lovely removed from the wild animals of the forest, and Na (Mesua ferrea), or ironwood. In the forests believed to be descended from the Yakkhos, the climbing plants and epiphytes of prodigious size aboriginal inhabitants of the country. They and striking appearance cover the trees with a occupy a district in the eastern part of the islandi, mass of parasitical foliage of extraordinary growth. and have there preserved their ancient customs In the north of Ceylon the dry forest-region is and manner of living unaltered for more than remarkable for its valuable timber-trees, such as the Palu, Halmilla or Trincomalee wood, and Religion.—The Singhalese are devoted to Budebony. The characteristic palm of the north and dhism (q.v.), which is the prevailing religion of of the peninsula of Jaffna is the Palmyra (Boras- the island. " Its sacred books are identical with sus flabelliformis).

those of Burma and Siam, and both record the Fauna.--In Ceylon, quadrumanous animals are doctrines of Gautama in the Pali language; the represented by the Loris gracilis and five species deviations are in matters of practice. The Malaof monkeys. Sixteen species of bats exist in bar kings adulterated Buddhism to a considerable Ceylon, including the flying-fox. Of the larger extent with Brahmanism, introducing the worship carnivora, the bear and leopard ; and of the of Hindu deities into the Buddhist temples, and smaller, the palm-cat and the glossy genette (the this continues more or less to be the case. More civet of Europeans) may be mentioned. The than once have the Buddhists of Ceylon sought to tiger is not met with in Ceylon. Deer, buffaloes, restore the purity of their faith-at one time sendand the humped ox of India are plentiful; the chev- ing deputies to Siam, at another to Burma, with rotains (q.v.) are also said to be abundant. The this object in view. The Burman or Amarapura elephant, which is for the most part tuskless, is sect have long been the reformers of Singhalese emphatically lord of the forests of Ceylon. The Buddhism, and maintain no very friendly relations wild boar is also found. Whales are captured off the with the party who, supported by the priests of coast. Three hundred and twenty species of birds Siam, sanction the worship of Hindu deities and are found. The song of the robin and long-tailed the employment of the priesthood in secular thrush, and the flute-like voice of the oriole, occupations, uphold caste, and restrict the sacred are heard over the whole mountain-zone and books. Caste was acknowledged by the Singhalfar down into the neighbouring plains. Eagles, ese prior to the introduction of Buddhism, which the beautiful peregrine falcon, owls, swallows, in principle is opposed to it; but so firmly was it kingfishers, sun-birds, bulbuls, crows, parroquets, rooted that it still endures, though more as a pigeons, pea-fowl, jungle-fowl, and many others social than a sacred institution. Gautama Buddha of the feathered tribe, might be mentioned did is said to have visited Ceylon three different times space permit. Myriads of aquatic birds and to preach his doctrine, and his Sri-pada, or sacred waders, amongst which the flamingo is conspicu- footstep, on the summit of Adam's Peak (q.v.), ons, cover the lakes and lagoons. The crocodile still commands the liomage of the faithful. Budis the largest reptile" in the island ; tortoises and dhism was not, however, permanently introduced lizards are also found. There are a few species of into Ceylon till 307 B.C. The influence of the venomous snakes, and of these the ticpolonga and priests gradually increased, and, by the piety of the cobra da capello are the most deadly.

the Singhalese kings, monasteries were richly Inhabitants. --The Singhalese (Sinhalese, also endowed, and at the present day no less than onespelt Cingalese), the most numerous of the natives third of the cultivated land of the island is comof Ceylon, are supposed to be the descendants of puted to belong to the priesthood, and is exempt those colonists from the valley of the Ganges who from taxation. The priests of Ceylon are divided first settled in the island 543 B.C., and speak an into two orders; any member is at liberty to lay Aryan language closely allied to the Pali (q.v.). aside his ascetic character, and return to å secular The dress of the men, who have delicate features life. The most celebrated Buddhistic relic in and slender limbs, looks singularly effeminate, and Ceylon is the Dalada, or sacred tooth of Gautania, consists of a comboy or waist-cloth, very much at Kandy, which is guarded with jealous care, resembling a petticoat; their long hair, turned and preserved in an elegant shrine ; but it is well back from the forehead, is confined with combs, known that the original relic was destroyed by and earrings are worn by way of ornament. Poly: the Portuguese, and the present substitute is å andry still lingers in the interior of Ceylon; but piece of discoloured ivory, bearing no resemblance this and many other customs repugnant to Chris to a human tooth. Brahmanism or Hinduism (9.v.) tianity are disappearing under the influence of is the faith of the Tamils or Malabars, but the Mooreducation, of which the Singhalese readily avail men are Mohammedans. After the expulsion of themselves . The Kandyans, or Highlanders, are a

the Dutch Christians, Protestant missions to the more sturdy race, and maintained their independ- natives of Ceylon were commenced by the Baptists ence for thiree centuries after the conquest of the in 1813. Tlie Wesleyan Methodists followed in low country by European settlers. The Malabars, 1814, the Americans în 1816, the Church of Enyor Tamils, have sprung from those early invaders land' in 1818, and Christian instruction has made of Ceylon who from time to time swept across some progress amongst the native populations. from Southern Hindustan, and contended with Schools, collegiate institutions, and female semin. the Singhalese kings for the sovereignty of the aries, under the direction of the missionaries, are island. They have formed the chief population in successful operation ; and there is a government of Jaffna for full 2000 years, and constitutionally system of education. excel the Singhalese and Kandyans. The Moor Ancient Buildings.In all Buddhist countries men, who are the most energetic and intelligent I the sacred buildings present, with certain modifica

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