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tions, the same general character (see articles people—the ruined tanks, with which scarcely any. BUDDHISM, BURMA, &c.); and in Ceylon we thing of a similar kind, whether ancient or modern, find the three classes represented by the dagoba, be compared Thirty colossal reservoirs

, or relic-shrine, the temple proper, and the vihara and about 700 smaller tanks, still exist, though or monastery. The labour bestowed on these edi for the most part in ruins. The restoration of tices in the early ages of the Singhalese monarchy these magnificent works of irrigation has been is truly astonishing. In the north of the island, for some time carried on by the government. In ruined cities buried for ages in the depths of the February 1888 the largest and most important forest have been discovered, revealing monuments tank in Ceylon, that of Kalawewa, was, after four that in dimensions may almost compare with the years of labour, completely restored. It was built pyramids of Egypt. The most remarkable of 460 A.D. to supply Anuradhapura with water, but these vestiges of an early civilisation is Pollanar has been ruinous for centuries. Now again it conrua, the ancient capital of Ceylon; and here is tains an area of seven square miles of water 20 feet the celebrated Gal-wihara, a rock-hewn temple. | deep, and supplies smaller tanks more than 50

miles distant.

The history of Ceylon may be conveniently divided into ancient and modern, and the latter into the Portuguese, Dutch, and British periods. The most famous of the Singhalese books is the Mahâvansa, a metrical chronicle in the Pali language, extending from the earliest period to 432 A.D., and continued to 1756. The story begins with the invasion of Wijayo (543 B.C.), son of a petty Indian sovereign in the country watered by the Ganges. He subdued the Yakkhos, the aboriginal inhabitants; founded a dynasty that held undivided sovereignty in Ceylon for nearly eight centuries; and bestowed on his kingdom his patrimonial name of Sihala (whence Singhalese, Ceylon). In the reign of King Devenipiatissa (307 B.C.), Buddhism was established as the national religion, and his reign was further remarkable by the planting of the sacred Bo-tree, 288 B.C.; and now commenced the erection of those stupendous buildings already noticed. The next important epoch in Singhalese history is the usurpation of the Malabars ( 237 B.c.), foreign mercenaries from the Coromandel coast, to

whom the native sovereigns had intrusted the Entrance to the Temple of Dambula.

defence of the island. In 1071 A.D. à native

dynasty was re-established in the person of Wijayo The cave-temple of Dambula was built 100 B.C., Bahu, which, for 100 years, delivered the country and is the most celebrated in the island. The from the dominion of the Malabars. Prakrama bell-shaped tapering dagobas of Ceylon, as relic- Bahu commenced a reign in 1153, the most reshrines, answer to the pagodas of Burma—which nowned in the records of Ceylon. He devoted they very much resemble -- and the topes of himself to religion and agriculture, and besides Afghanistan. The ruins of the Jaytawanarama many notable religious edifices, he caused no less dagoba still reach the height of 249 feet; its than 1470 tanks to be constructed, subsequently diameter is 360 feet; and from base to pinnacle known as the seas of Prakrama. Thirty years

after the death of this monarch, the Malabars landed with a large army, and speedily conquered the whole island. In 1235 a native dynasty recovered a part of the kingdom. During the reign of Dharma Prakrama LX. the Portuguese first visited Ceylon (1505); but it was in 1517 that they first formed a permanent settlement at Colombo for trading purposes. Their encroachments soon met with fierce resistance from the patriotic Kan. dyans.

Amity, commerce, and religion,' was the Portuguese motto ; but their rule in Ceylon is a sad story of rapacity, bigotry, and cruelty. They were at last driven from the island by the Dutch in 1658, after a contest of twenty years, when the fanatical zeal of Roman Catholic sovereigns for the propagation

of the faith was replaced by the earnest toil of the Dutch traders to intrench their trading monopolies.

But the purely military tenure of the Dutch was destined to give place

to the colonisation of the British. It was during The Ambustella Dagoba, Mihintala.

the great European war succeeding the French Revolution that the English gained® possession of

the island. On the 1st August 1795 an expedition it is covered with trees of the largest size. The under Colonel James Stuart landed at Trincomalee, Ambustella of Mihintala is another remarkable which was speedily captured, and finally the garri. dagoba.

A very famous object in connection with son of Colombo surrendered on the 16th February Buddhism in Ceylon is the sacred Bo-tree (q.v.) 1796. By this capitulation, all the Dutch settleof Anuradhapura. Amongst the antiquities of ments and strongholds in Ceylon were ceded to the Ceylon must be mentioned those wonderful monu English; though the island was not formally, anments of the former greatness of the Singhalese nexed to the British crown till the Peace of Amiens,

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10,000,000. CEYLON

CHADWICK

81 27th March 1802. The native sovereigns, however, 2,000,000 are Singhalese, 750,000 Tamil immi12

continued in the possession of their mountain ter- grants and settlers, 200,000 Moormen (Mohamme

ritory; but at length the Kandyan king, Wikrama dans of Arab descent), 5500 Europeans, 20,000 ETETE

Raja Singha, after perpetrating the most frightful Eurasian descendants of Portuguese and Dutch, ME

atrocities on his own people, seized and murdered | 2500 Veddahs, 22,000 mixed races. lices

certain native merchants, British subjects, trading The revenue, which in 1882 was 12,161,570 to Kandy. War followed, January 1815; Kandy rupees, was in 1886, 12,682,548 rupees ; but owing was taken, and the tyrant sent a captive to the to the depreciation of the rupee, the value in fortress of Vellore. On the 2d March 1815, a pounds sterling was £1,140,147 in 1882, and treaty was concluded with the native chiefs, by £1,004,035 in 1886. The total annual trade is about which the king was formally deposed, and his

There are 2500 miles of metalled territories annexed to the British crown.

roads ; 185 miles of railways ; and 120,000 scholars After the settlement of the Kandyan provinces, in the government schools, and those of the various attention was drawn to the hill country of Ceylon religious denominations. See Ceylon, by Sir James as a probable field for the profitable investment of Emerson Tennent (2 vols. 1859); Captain Suckling's British capital and energy, and among other agri- Ceylon (2 vols. 1876); The Colonial Office List for cultural enterprises the cultivation of coffee was the current year; Ceylon in the Jubilee Year, by

entered upon. The condition of soil and climate John Ferguson (1887). Due

proved favourable, and the abolition of slavery in Ceyx. See KINGFISHER. he

the West Indies, and the consequent labour diffi-
culties, caused a rush towards Ceylon, and the miles S. of Lisbon. Pop. 6815.

Cezimbra, a coast town of Portugal, about 18
area under coffee cultivation rapidly extended.
The enterprise, though subject to all the vicissi-

Chabas, FRANÇOIs, a great French Egyptolotudes incidental to tropical agriculture, steadily Though at first engaged in commerce, he found

gist, was born January 2, 1817, at Briançon. grew, and coffee soon became the staple export time to become a learned linguist, but it was not from the island; and the revenue directly and indirectly derived from it enabled successive

till 1851 that he gave himself up to the study of

governors to bridge rivers, to make roads and railways,

hieroglyphics. The first results of his studies and to restore many of the ancient irrigation works appeared in 1856, followed by a series of invaluable which, in the period antecedent to British rule, portant periods of ancient Egyptian history—the

books and papers, elucidative chiefly of two imhad fallen into disrepair. In 1869, however, a fungus (Hemileia vastatrix) attacked the leaves of conquest of the country by the Hyksos, and the the coffee-trees, and the energy of the tree which

time of their expulsion. Among the more importhad hitherto produced fruit was now required for ant of his many books are-Les Pasteurs en Égypte the constant reproduction of leaf. Everything des Temps de l'Exode (1873), and Études sur l'Anti

(1868), Histoire de la XIX. Dynastie et spécialement to mitigate or overcome the pest, but in spite of quité historique d'après les Sources égyptiennes (20 all efforts it steadily increased in virulence, and the ed. 1873). From 1873 to 1877 he edited L’Égyptocoffee-planters were obliged to turn their attention logie. He died at Versailles, May 17, 1882. to other products of the soil.

Chabasite. See ZEOLITE. Cinchona, cacao, cardamoms, and many other Chablis, a town in the French department of products were introduced with varying success, Yonne, 12 miles E. of Auxerre. It gives name to but it soon became plain that Ceylon was capable an esteemed white Burgundy (q.v.) wine. Pop. of becoming a great tea-producing country, and tea 2363. has become the chief factor in restoring the finan Chaco, EL GRAN. See GRAN CHACO. cial equilibrium.

Chaconne (Fr.), an obsolete dance, probably Cinnamon and cocoa-nut cultivation are chiefly Spanish (chacona, from Basque chocuna, “pretty'); in the hands of natives; tea, cinchona, cacao, The movement is slow, and the music, a series of and cardamom cultivation in the hands of Euro- | variations on a ground bass, mostly eight bars in peans ; and the export table shows how through length, appears in sonatas as well as in ballets. the energy of the planters new products have to a great extent replaced coffee.

Chad, LAKE. See TSAD.

Chad, ST (Ceadda), was born in Northumbria,

became a pupil of St Aidan, spent part of his youth Year ending 30th Sept. 1873 995,493

in Ireland, and in 666 became Bishop of York, 1878 620,292 173,497 3,515 Doubt having been cast on the validity of his con1883 260,053 6,925,950 1,522,882 secration, he withdrew in 669, but was immediately 1887 180,429 14,389,184 12,013,886

made Bishop of Mercia, fixing the see at Lichfield Between 1883 and 1887 the export of cacao rose

(q.v.). He died in 672, after a life eminent for from 3588 to 16,638 lb., and of cardamoms from humility and sanctity. 21,655 to 321,560 lb. Between 1873 and 1887 Chadwick, EDWIN, C.B., a social reformer, the export of cinnamon rose from 1,265,757 to born in the vicinity of Manchester, 24th January 2,299,844 1b. Between 1873 and 1883, that of 1801, studied law, and was called to the bar in 1830. cocoa-nut oil

, from 163,274 to 306,209 cwt.; He attracted the notice of Jeremy Bentham by an of coir yarn from 56,921 to 98,697 cwt.; of plum- | article on Life Assurances. He early devoted his bago from 168,627 to 279,057 cwt. ; while that attention to questions of social, sanitary, and politof ebony fell from 46,635 to 18,273 cwt. Minor ical science, and was by Lord Grey's government exports are oils, fibres, and dyes.

appointed an assistant-commissioner to inquire Ceylon is the largest and most important of what into the operation of the poor-laws. His report, are known as the crown colonies of the British published in 1833, commanded great attention, and empire. The government is administered by a faid the foundation of the later systems of governgovernor aided by executive and legislative conn

ment inspection. On the organisation of the new cils (the former consisting of five members, the Poor-law Board, Chadwick

was appointed secretary: latter of fifteen, partially elective), and municipal In connection with this Board, and the Generai councils. Local boards and village tribunals give Board of Health, Chadwick for twenty years was a measure of self-government to the people. The energetic in improving the administration of poorpopulation of Ceylon, 2,763,984 at the census of law funds and the sanitary condition of the country. 18Êi, has risen to 'about 3,000,000, of whom His report on interments in towns (1843) laid the

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Cinchona Bark,

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82

CHÆRONEA

CHAFFINCH

numerous

foundation of later legislation on the subject. He Chætopods (Gr., bristle-footed'), a class of served on commissions as to the employment of worms including familiar types like the Earthchildren in factories, on preventable diseases, and worm, the Fisherman's Lobworm, and the Seaon education. On a change being made in the mouse. They are often included under the title of Board of Health in 1854, Chadwick retired with a Annelids or ringed worms. The body consists of pension. He afterwards took great interest in

more or less similar joints; and the promoting competitive examinations for govern. locomotor organs are furnished with or represented ment offices, and indeed in almost all questions of by bristles. The class is split into two main social economy. He was an active member of the orders of Oligochæta and Polychæta, of which Social Science Association. Some of his papers the latter is much the larger. The Oligochæta appear in the Transactions of the Statistical Society have very rudimentary locomotor structures, and of the British Association. Died July 5, 1890. which are in fact reduced to bristles; they are See Chadwick's Work and Works on Health and fresh-water or subterranean in habit; the familiar Social Reform, by Richardson (2 vols. 1885).

earthworm (Lumbricus) and certain river and Chæronea, a town in ancient Bæotia, near the pond worms (e.g. Tubifex and Nais) are comriver Cephissus, memorable for the disastrous defeat mon representatives. The Polychæta are, with of the Athenians here by Philip of Macedon, 338 B.C. three or four exceptions, marine; the bristles, which This defeat struck a death-blow to the liberties of are numerous, are fixed in special locomotor outGreece, and broke the heart of Isocrates ; it was growths; and many other characters, such as the the 'dishonest victory' that ' killed with report that possession of antennæ, gills, &c., distinguish them old man eloquent. A colossal marble lion, together from the earthworm order, and are in obvious assowith the bones of 260 Greeks, was dug up here in ciation with their very different habits. Many of 1880. Here also Sulla defeated the generals of them, described as errant, lead a free life, and are Mithridates in 86 B.C. The famous Plutarch was

carnivorous in their diet. The common Nereis, or a native of Chæronea.

Alitta, and the Sea-mouse (Aphrodite) are good Chatoderma, a remarkable primitive gas

examples. A large number, however, are sedentary teropod, which in some respects serves as a con

in habit, vegetarian in diet, and often inhabit tubes. necting link between the worm and snail type. See

The lobworm (Arenicola), the common Serpula

, CHITON.

and Terebella are characteristic types. To the two Chætodon, a typical genus of a family of bony parasitic Myzostomata causing ' galls' on feather

main orders of Chætopods above mentioned, the fishes, known as Squamipennes. much compressed sideways, and consequently high; stars (Crinoids), and the primitive aberrant Sacco

cirrus must be added. the scales are more or less smooth, and cover portions

Polygordius is another of the dorsal and anal fins in such a fashion that others, is usually regarded as a survival of the

common marine worm which, along with a few the boundary between fins and body is indistinct.

ancestral Chætopods or Annelids. See EARTHWORM, LOBWORM, SEA-MOUSE, WORMS, &c.

Chafer, a common name for beetles or coleopterous insects, especially for those which, either in the perfect or larval state, are destructive of plants

, particularly of the wood, bark, or roots of trees. The word 'is seldom used alone, but generally as part of a name, with some prefix; thus, we have Cock-chafer, Rose-chafer, Bark-chafer, &c. Käfer is the German word for beetle.'

Chaffinch (Fringilla cælebs), one of the com; monest British birds, a species of Finch (q.v.), and probably that to which the name Finch, now so extended in its signification, originally belonged.

Fink, the German form of the name, and pink and Chaetodon setifer.

twink, still used in England as popular names,

have some resemblance in sound to the common The mouth is generally small in front of the snout, call-note of the chaffinch. The whole length of and the slender teeth are arranged in bands. The the bird is about six inches. The tail is very lower rays of the pectoral fins are branched, and slightly forked. The beak is almost equal in the hind fins are situated far forward on the thorax. breadth and height.

The male, in summer, has the The Squamipennes, or as some would call them, the top of the head and nape of the neck bluish-gray; Chaetodontidæ, are tropical fishes, abounding near the back, chestnut; the wings almost black, with coral reefs, and well suited in the beauty of their

two conspicuous white bars; the tail nearly black. colouring to such brilliant surroundings. They The lower surface is reddish. The colours of the feed on small animals, are never very large, and female are much duller than those of the male. but little used for food. Chætodon itself is a large The chaffinch is a very widely distributed species, genus, with some 70 beautiful species from the being found in almost all parts of Europe, in tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific.

It has one

some parts of Asia, in the north of Africa, and as dorsal fin, and a moderately long snout. In Chelmo far west as the Azores. In the colder northern the snout is longer, and is used to draw animals countries it is migratory; in more southern from their crevices

. It often gets false credit for regions it is stationary." oLinnæus gave it the catching insects by spouting water. Heniochus is specific name cælebs, from observing that the another pretty genus with horns on its head.

flocks seen during winter in Sweden consisted Holacanthus, one species of which is called the chiefly of males, the females having, as he sup: * Emperor of Japan' by the Dutch, is yet more posed, sought a milder cliniate. A partial separabrilliantly adorned, and Pomacanthus is peculiarly tion of

the sexes is observed also in the great variable in its colouring. The Atlantic species of winter-flocks in Britain, but it is only partial; Ephippus (E. faber) is peculiar in the pathological and Yarrell thinks that the young males of the like enlargement of some of the bones at the back previous season, which resemble the females in of the head.

The Archer-fish (q.v.) is an allied plumage, are associated with them, and have been genus. See Günther, Study of Fishes (1880). mistaken for them. The flocks seen in Britain in

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winter are believed to be augmented by migration made by men trained to the work, although from Scandinavia. The eggs are usually four or some of the very small sizes of common chains five in number, of pale purplish buff colour, spar are made by women, boys, and girls. Chains ingly streaked and spotted with reddish brown. are of two generally distinct kinds-short-link The chaffinch feeds in great part on insects, and or unstudded (frequently called close-link) chain, does much service in summer by destroying aphides and stud-link or stayed chain. The former usually and caterpillars; but eats also seeds, and is some embraces the smaller sizes of chain up to 12 inches, times persecuted, because in spring it pulls up and and the latter comprises ships' cables and other eats young turnips and radishes when in the seed- heavy chains. Short-link chain is made in the leaf

. It is particularly fond of the seeds of beeches following manner : The end of the bar from which and conifers. Great numbers of chaffinches are the link is to be made is heated, then cut to killed for the table in Italy. In Germany this gange, and while still hot is bent into U-form ; the bird was formerly in the highest esteem as a song free ends are then heated to a white heat and flatbird. Its notes are very clear and loud, but some tened or scarphed by a hammer, and in this state individuals greatly excel the ordinary multitude of they are brought together and welded so as to form their species.—The common Scotch name of the the other end of the link. The flattening or scarphchaffinch is Shilfa.

ing of the two ends and the closing of them being Chagny, an important railway junction and all done in one heat, the scarphed ends are again commercial centre in the French” department of heated to welding-point, and the link is placed in a Saône-et-Loire, on the Canal du Centre, 32 miles S. suitable recess under a hollow-faced tool, worked of Dijon. As the key of the roads to the Loire mechanically, which strikes the roughened weld district, it has been strongly fortified. Pop. 4291.

and ultimately finishes it off as smooth as the other

end of the link. The result is the finished link, Chagres, a town of the United States of Colombia , on the N. coast of the Isthmus of Panama, piece of iron is bent in the same way and threaded

and when the first has been completed, another situated at the mouth of the Chagres River. It is a poor place, with a harbour for vessels drawing from

or rove through it, and another link formed and 10 to 12 feet of water. The river of the same name

finished in the same manner as the first. In this rises about 10 miles NE. of Panama, makes an

way each successive link is added until the required immense bend round to the NE., and enters the length of chain is made. Caribbean Sea. Though towards its mouth it

The foregoing illustrates the way in which varies in depth from 16 to 30 feet, it is yet, by chains generally are made, but as å rule, links reason at once of its rapidity and its falls, but little of chains of 1-inch diameter and over are welded available for navigation. The route of the Panama

at the side instead of at the end, and a stud Canal (q.v.) is by the valley of the Chagres for

or stay-pin is welded across from side to side of part of its course ; and the canal crosses the river

the link. The larger sizes of chains and chainrepeatedly.

cables are made by men, and the expert workman

when employed making first-class chains of all Chaillu, PAUL DU. See Du CHAILLU.

descriptions gets an extra price for his skill and Chain, in Surveying (called Gunter's Chain, labour. Common (not to say inferior) chains, from its inventor, Edmund Gunter, q.v.), is a mea however, are too often welcomed by bargain-loving sure of 22, yards long, composed of 100 iron links, users if they can at all be made to pass the statueach of which is thus 7.92 inches long.

As an

tory tests, Chains which stand certain of the acre contains 4840 square yards, 10 square chains standard tests may be found totally unequal to (22 x 22 x 10 = 4840 square yards) or 100,000 meet certain others, and superior and inferior parts square links make an acre.

are often purposely mingled in one chain by disChain Cable. See CABLE.

honest makers to cheapen production and defeat Chain-mail, or CHAIN-ARMOUR, much used in

the system of testing. The iron used for very Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries, and still superior chains is selected not only for its tensile

used in India strength and welding properties, but for its ductility,
and the inte-

as high tensile strength is not infrequently possessed
rior of the by a hard brittle iron, liable to snap upon the appli-
Asiatic conti- cation of a sudden jerk, and therefore totally iin-
nent,

suited for chains. The system of testing cables
consists

followed by Lloyds' Register Society well exem-
of hammered
iron links, con-

plifies what should be adopted in the case of all

chains. nected together

Every 15-fathom length is subject to a

fair standard strain, sufficient to detect bad workby riveted

links so that manship; by pulling asunder or opening any defecPiece of Chain-armour.

each link em

tive welds, yet not so severe as to injure the nature

of the material by crystallising it—a result invari

braces four others, and worked into the form of a garment.

ably produced by overstraining. This standard Such armour was much more flexible and con

test, however, not being the extreme limit of strain venient to the wearer than that which was formed

which the chain ought to bear in actual use at sea,

a few links are required to be cut out at random of steel or brass plates, but was less fitted to bear the thrust of a lance. See ARMOUR.

from any part of each 15-fathom length, and sub

mitted to a so-called breaking strain of 50 per cent. Chain-plates, on shipboard (wood vessels), in excess of the standard test

If these trial pieces are iron plates bolted below the channels to serve are found to withstand this extra strain satisfacas attachments for the dead-eyes, through which torily, they are then assumed to represent a fair the standing rigging or shrouds and back-stays are average of the strength of that particular length to more and secured. In most of the modern iron-steel which they belong: This operation being gone ressels rigging-screws take the place of the older through with satisfactory results in each length of dead-eyes," the chain-plates to which they are cable, the whole is then passed, and certified attached consisting simply of flat palms, having accordingly. Any unsatisfactory lengths are conan eye projection, riveted to the inside of the sheer demned, marked, and sent back to the manufac. or top strake of shell plating.

turer. Chains. Chain-making being a distinct trade In his treatise on Chain Cables and Chains, Jr of itself, thoroughly reliable chains can only be T. W. Trail, surveyor-in-chief to the Board of

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84

CHAIN-SHOT

CHALEURS

Trade, says : 'Since the Act of 1871, which came cedony are sometimes found inclosing a little water into operation in the early part of 1873, until the in the interior, which gives them a very beautiful latter part of 1883, a period of about eleven years, appearance; but the water easily escapes, and to nearly 165,000 tons of chain have been certified prevent this, rings or other ornaments made of such to, in accordance with the act of parliament, as stones are kept in distilled water when not worn. having duly withstood the statutory tests, repre. The ancients set a very high value on these ensenting about 3,199,000 fathoms of chain, and for hydrites (Gr. en, ‘in,' and hydor, 'water'). See which it is computed that from about two and a JASPER. quarter million to about two and a half million

Chalced'onyx (or, erroneously, Calcedonya), a pounds sterling have been paid.'

name given to agates formed of cacholong, or a Chain-shot, an obsolete artillery projectile, white opaque chalcedony, alternating with a grayish consisting of two balls connected by a short chain, translucent chalcedony. formerly used to destroy the rigging of ships, &c. Chalchihuitl, the Indian name of a greenAs case-shot and shrapnel shell answer the same coloured stone, taken from a quarry near Santa Fe, purpose, its use has been discontinued.

and by some regarded as a species of turquoise, by Chalaza. The first layer of albumen deposited others identified with Jade (q.v.). It was valued upon the yolk of an egg as it descends the bird's above gold by the ancient Mexicans, who fashioned oviduct, is peculiarly viscous, and thus becomes it into beads and ornaments. twisted into two strands which keep the yolk in Chalcididæ, a small family of short-tongued the middle of the more fluid albumen. These lizards, restricted to America. Chalcides (C. cords are also called chalaza.

flavescens) occurs in tropical America. HeteroChalce'don, a city of ancient Bithynia, at the dactylus is an allied Brazilian genus. The same entrance of the Euxine, opposite to Byzantium. It title is applied to a family of insects. See CHALCIS. was founded 684 B.C. by a colony from Megara, and Chalcis, the capital of the Greek island of soon became a place of considerable trade and im- Eubæa, on the Euripus, a strait separating the portance. Taken by the Persians, it finally merged island from Bæotia, and here only 120 feet wide

. into the Roman empire, under which it was made Chalcis is a place of very great antiquity, and it a free city. Chosroes, the Persian, captured it in soon became a great trade centre, sending out 616 A.D., after which it declined, until it was colonies to Macedonia, where the peninsula of finally demolished by the Turks, who used its Chalcidice commemorated its name, as well as to ruins to build mosques and other edifices at Con- Campania (Cumæ), South Italy, and Sicily. Sucstantinople. Chalcedon was the birthplace of the cessively Athenian, Macedonian, and Roman, itphilosopher Xenocrates.

was a place of great military importance

, nearly The council of Chalcedon was the fourth æcumeni-nine miles in circumference, and had many fine cal council, and was assembled (451 A.D.) by the temples, theatres, and other public buildings

. emperor Marcian for the purpose of drawing up a Aristotle died here. In the middle ages it was form of doctrine in regard to the nature of Christ prosperous under the Venetians, who held it for which should equally avoid the errors of the Nes nearly three centuries, until its conquest by the torians (q.v.) and Monophysites (q.v.). Six hundred Turks in 1470. Pop. (1879) 6877. bishops, almost all of the Eastern Church, were

Chalcis, a typical genus of a large family of present. The doctrine declared to be orthodox Hymenopterous insects, noto unlike small wasps. was, that in Christ there were two natures, which the family (Chalcididæ or Pteromalini) has this could not be intermixed (this clause was directed great importance that the larvæ of its members are against the Monophysites ), and which also were not parasitic in the eggs, larvæ, or pupă of other insects, in entire separation (this was directed against the and as some of the latter are very destructive to Nestorians), but which were so conjoined, that their plants, their parasites are animals to be thankful union destroyed neither the peculiarity of each for. Thus forms so different as the cabbage butternature, nor the oneness of Christ's person.

fly and the destructive Hessian fly have their attendChalcedony (often misspelled Calcedony), a ant Pteromalini. Many of the so-called gall-wasps beautiful mineral of the quartz family, consisting (Cynipidae) which cause many of the commonest of quartz with some admixture of opal.' It derives galls—for instance on the oak, or the curious bunches its name from Chalcedon in Bithynia, near which it on rose and briar bushes-are preyed upon by Chalis found in considerable abundance, and has been cididæ. Some of the hosts of these Chalcide are known by the same name from ancient times. It themselves parasitic, and thus we have parasites never occurs in crystals, but usually in mammillary, within parasites, or double parasitism, there being botryoidal, or stalactitic forms, lining or entirely in this case no honour among thieves. Altogether filling the cavities of rocks, and more particularly over 2000 species of Chalcididæ are known. old igneous rocks, such as the basalt-rocks of Scoť

Chaldæa. See BABYLONIA ; for CHALDEE, see land, the Faroe Isles, Iceland, &c. It constitutes ARAMÆA. the whole or the principal part of many agates. It is generally translucent, sometimes semi-trans

Chalder, an old Scotch dry measure, conparent, has a somewhat waxy lustre, and is in taining 16 bolls. See BOLL and FIARS. colour generally white or bluish white, sometimes Chaldron (Lat. caldarium, a vessel for warm reddish white, sometimes milk white, less frequently water '), an old dry measure used in selling coal, gray, blue, green, yellow, brown, or even black. and containing 36° heaped bushels (= 254 cwt.). Its fracture is even, or very slightly conchoidal. Coal is now sold by weight. Chalcedony is much used in jewelry, for brooches, Chalet is the French-Swiss name for the wooden necklaces, and ornaments of all sorts, the largest hut of the Swiss herdsmen on the mountains ; but pieces being sometimes made into little boxes, cups, is also extended to Swiss dwelling-houses generally, &c. It was much used by the ancients, and many and to picturesque and ornate villas built in imitabeautiful engraved specimens appear in antiquarian tion of them. collections. Chalcedonies with disseminated spots

Chaleurs, BAY OF, an inlet of the Gulf of St of brown and red were once very highly prized, and Lawrence, between Gaspé

, a district of Quebec

, were called Stigmites or St Stephen's stones. fied plants are sometimes found in chalcedony, in from east to west, and a width varying from 12 to which they appear to have been incased whilst it 20.

It is deep and well sheltered, and much was in course of formation.

Specimens of chal- / frequented for its mackerel fisheries.

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