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however, he retired in 1874. Mr Chamberlain had | Marseilles, which dates from the end of the 14th
by this time acquired considerable celebrity as a or commencement of the 15th century. It shared
Radical politician. In 1868 he was appointed a in the municipal jurisdiction and in the admini-
member of the Birmingham Town-council; was stration of justice in mercantile questions. It
Mayor of Birmingham from 1873 to 1876, and chair was several times suppressed and re-established,
man of the Birmingham School-board from 1874 to and it was not till 1650 that it received its ulti-
1876. After unsuccessfully contesting Sheffield mate organisation. The chamber of Dunkirk was
against Mr Roebuck in 1874, he was returned for established in 1700. The same year a council-
Birmingham without opposition in June 1876. He general of commerce was instituted at Paris, which,
soon made his mark in parliament, and on the in addition to six councillors of state, consisted of
return of the Liberals to power in 1880 he was twelve merchants or traders, delegated by the prin-
appointed President of the Board of Trade, with cipal commercial towns of the country, an arrange-
a seat in the cabinet. To Mr Chamberlain's exer ment which led within the next few years to the
tions was due the passing of the Bankruptcy Bill, formation of chambers of commerce everywhere in
but his efforts to amend the Merchant Shipping France. We thus find that the chamber at Lyons
Acts were unsuccessful. Meanwhile his influence was instituted in 1702, those of Rouen and Toulouse
was increasing rapidly outside the House ; he came in 1703, of Montpellier in 1704, of Bordeaux in
to be regarded as the leader of the extreme Radical 1705, &c. These chambers were all suppressed by
party, and enunciated schemes for the regeneration a decree of the National Assembly in 1791, but
of the masses which were based on the doctrines they were re-established by a consular edict in
of the restitution of land and the 'ransom' of 1802. Their organisation was modified in 1832, in
property. During the last hours of Mr Gladstone's 1851, and in 1852. The members of these bodies
government he was understood to be opposed to the are now elected by the chief merchants of each
renewal of the Irish Crimes Act; and during the town chosen for that purpose by the prefect. The
general election of 1886 he was most severe in his number of this elective body cannot be less than
strictures on the moderate Liberals, and produced 9 nor more than 21. They hold office for six years,
an ' unauthorised' programme (in opposition to that one-third of their number being renewed every two
of Mr Gladstone), which included the readjustment years. The functions now assigned to these cham-
of taxation, free schools, and the creation of allot-bers in France are—to give to the government
ments by compulsory purchase. He was returned advice and information on industrial and com-
free of expense by the western division of Birming mercial subjects; to suggest the means of increas-
ham. On February 1, 1886, he became President ing the industry and commerce of their respective
of the Local Government Board, but resigned on districts, or of improving commercial legislation
March 26 because of his strong objections to Mr and taxation ; to suggest the execution of works
Gladstone's Home Rule measures for Ireland ; and requisite for the public service, or which may tend
after the 'Round Table' conference had failed to to the increase of trade or commerce, such as the
reunite the Liberal party he assumed an attitude construction of harbours, the deepening of rivers,
of uncomproinising hostility to his old leader's new the formation of railways, and the like. On these
policy. His visit to Ulster in the autumn of 1887 and similar subjects the advice of the chambers,
did much to strengthen the Unionist cause there. when not volunteered, is demanded by the govern-
Shortly afterwards he went to America, having ment. In most of the other countries of conti-
been appointed by Lord Salisbury one of the British nental Europe there are similar institutions.
High Commissioners to settle the fishery disputes The oldest chamber of commerce in Great Britain
between the United States and Canada. He suc. is believed to be that of Glasgow, which was
ceeded in concluding a provisional arrangement instituted 1st January 1783, and obtained a royal
pending the ratification of rejection of the treaty charter, registered ať Edinburgh on the 31st of
by the American Senate. He has contributed the same month. That of Edinburgh was insti-
several political articles to the Fortnightly Review, tuted in 1785, and incorporated by royal charter
and a selection of his speeches has been published, in 1786. The Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce
with an introduction by Mr H. W. Lucy.

was the first public body which petitioned for Chamber Music is music specially fitted for

the abolition of the Corn Laws, and the adoption performance in a room, as distinguished from con

of free-trade principles ; and it stood almost alone cert or church music or opera. The name applies in the United Kingdom in advocating the Suez

Canal project. more particularly to instrumental music for a

It also originated the movement single instrument or a small combination, up to

which resulted in placing the telegraph service

in connection the septett or octett.

with the Post-office. Between

five and six hundred of the bankers, merchants, Chamber of Commerce, a body of mer and ship-owners of Edinburgh and Leith con. chants, traders, bankers, and others, associated for stitute the chamber. The London Chamber of the purpose of promoting the interests of its own Commerce (1882) may now be regarded as the most members, of the town or district to which the important in the United Kingdom. The main society belongs, and of the community generally, branches of commercial enterprise are dealt with in so far as these have reference to trade and by separate departments of the chamber, while merchandise. Of the means for the accomplish- by public lectures and the frequent publicament of these objects the following may be men tion of detailed

reports it maintains tioned as the most prominent: (1) Representing munication with chambers of commerce throughout and urging on the legislature the views of their the country, and serves when necessary to unite members in mercantile affairs ; (2) aiding in the and concentrate action in the promotion of preparation of legislative measures having refer- reforms in our mercantile system and in the ence to trade, such, for example, as the Bank- development of the commercial resources of the rupt and Limited Liability Acts; (3) collecting empire. The Manchester chamber, so famous statistics bearing upon the staple trade of the for its exertions in the cause of free trade, was not district; (4) acting in some places as a sort of established till 1820, and for many years it concourt of arbitration in mercantile questions ; (5) tinued to be the only institution of the kind in attaining by combination advantages in trade England. Its members number over 900. In Hull which might be beyond the reach of individual there has been a chamber of commerce since 1837, enterprise.

but those of Liverpool, Leeds, and Bradford, notThe oldest chamber of commerce is that of withstanding the great trading and manufacturing

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interests of these towns, were not established till Chambers, WILLIAM, publisher, was born 16th
1850; in which year also a similar institution April 1800 at Peebles, his father being a cotton
was established in South Australia. The Liver- manufacturer there. The boy got a fair elementary
pool Chamber of Commerce numbers 550. The education ; but owing to the father's misfortunes,
annual income of the Manchester chamber is up his schooling terminated with his thirteenth year.
wards of £1400, contributed entirely by the sub Hence his education for life-work was mainly due
scriptions, ranging from £1, ls. for individual to the habit, very early acquired and long main-
members, to £10, 10s. for large firms. There are tained, of miscellaneous and extensive reading.
now similar chambers in all the great mercantile The household migrated to Edinburgh in 1813, and
towns of Great Britain and Ireland, and in 1860 next year William was apprenticed to a bookseller.
there was established an ' Association of Chambers His five years up, he started business in a humble
of Commerce of the United Kingdom,' which meets way for himself (May 1819), to bookselling after-
in annual conference for the promotion of commerce, wards adding printing. Between 1825 and 1830 he
The Chamber of Commerce of New York, organised wrote the Book of Scotland, and in conjunction
in 1768, was incorporated by a royal charter in 1770, with his brother Robert, a Gazetteer of Scotland.
afterwards superseded by charter granted by the His experience gained as a bookseller and printer
state government. Its aims are similar to those in was next utilised in his attempt to take advan-
Britain, and it comprises some 800 members, who | tage of the universal appetite for instruction
have established a court of arbitration for differ which at present exists,' and to “supply that appe-
ences amongst members. Like bodies have been tite with food of the best kind,' which resulted in
formed in other large American cities. In Canada | the founding of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal
the Dominion Board of Trade consists of the on 4th February 1832. This was about six weeks
Chambers of Commerce, or Boards of Trade, as in advance of the Penny Magazine, and it may be
they are indifferently called, of the most important considered the pioneer of that class of cheap and
cities of the Dominion.

popular periodicals of a wholesome kind now so
Chambers are private rooms attached to most generally diffused. At the end of the fourteenth
of the English courts, in which the judges, or more

number he united with his brother Robert in foundfrequently the masters and chief clerks, transact a

ing the business of William & Robert Chambers, large amount of judicial business. In fact nearly in which they were associated in writing, editall business which is begun by what is technically ing, printing, and publishing, W. & R. Chambers called a Summons in England goes to chambers,

issued a series of works designed for popular e.g. all such incidental matters as the recovery of instruction, including besides the Journal, Infordocuments, examination of witnesses about to go

mation abroad, investigation of accounts,

settling of deeds Course " series ; Cyclopedia of English Literature, between parties. A decree of the court which

2 vols. ; Miscellany of Useful and Entertaining directs further procedure is carried out by a

Tracts, 20 vols. ; Papers for the People, 12 vols. ; summons to proceed in chambers. Counsel attend

and the present Encyclopædia, 10 vols. (1859-1868 ; in chambers only in important matters.


new edition, 1888–92). In 1849 William acquired Scotland a good deal of this business takes the form

the estate of Glenormiston, Peeblesshire, and in of a remit to an accountant or other man of business,

1859 founded and endowed an institution in his a judicial reference, a commission to examine

native town for purposes of social improvement. witnesses, but all initiated by a motion in court.

Twice elected Lord Provost of Edinburgh, William Chamber-counsel, a barrister or advocate who occupied that office for four years (1865-69), gives opinions in his own chambers, but does not, during which he promoted several important public or rarely does, plead in court.

acts, including one for the improvement of the

older part of the city, which has resulted in a great Chambers, EPHRAIM, an amiable but frugal diminution of the death-rate. (The death-rate and free-thinking encyclopædist, was born about of the city in 1865–75 was 26-26 per 1000 ; in 1680 at Kendal, and began life as an appren. 1875–85, only 19.94.) He also carried out at his tice to a globe-maker in London, where he con

cost a thorough restoration of St Giles' ceived the idea of a cyclopædia that should surpass Cathedral. He died 20th May 1883, having shortly Harris's Lexicon Technicum (1704). It appeared in before received the offer of å baronetcy. He was 2 folio vols, in 1728, and reached a 6th edition in

made LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1872. A statue has 1750, Chambers having died meanwhile on 15th been erected to his memory in Edinburgh. Besides May 1750. A French translation gave rise to the

many contributions to the Journal, he was author more famous Encyclopedie of Diderot and D'Alem- and editor of various volumes, and wrote The bert; itself expanded into Rees's Encyclopædia, Youths' Companion and Counsellor, History of Dr Johnson told Boswell that he had partly formed Peeblesshire (1864), Ailie Gilroy, Stories of Remarkhis style upon Chambers's Proposal for ‘his Dic

able Persons, Stories of Old Families, and Histori-
tionary. See ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

cal Sketch of St Giles Cathedral (1879).
Chambers, SIR WILLIAM, architect, was born ROBERT CHAMBERS, born in Peebles, 10th July
of a Scotch family at Stockholm in 1726, but was 1802, took to Latin and books at an early age, and
brought up in England. At first a sailor, he soon began business as a bookseller in Edinburgh in
turned to the study of architecture in Italy and at 1818. His leisure hours were devoted to literary
Paris. He rose rapidly, and as early as 1757 was composition, the impulse to which, his brother says,
employed by Augusta, Princess-dowager of Wales, came upon him like an inspiration at nineteen years
to construct the well-known semi-Roman and of age. In 1824 he published the Traditions of
oriental buildings in Kew Gardens. The king of Edinburgh, the writing of which procured him
Sweden made him a knight of the Polar Star. the friendship of Sir Walter Scott, who furnished
Somerset House (1776) was his design, which some memoranda for the work. Between 1822
Fergusson pronounces the greatest architectural and 1834 he wrote in all twenty-five volumes,
work of the reign of George Ill.' His Treatise of many of them of great literary interest and per-
Civil Architecture (1759) was successful, but his manent historical value.

He had already won
absurdly pretentious and ignorant Dissertation reputation as an author when he joined his Brother
on Oriental Gardening (1772) justly covered him after the success of the Journal in 1832; and this
with ridicule. Chambers enjoyed the friendship success was materially promoted by his essays, and
of Johnson, Reynolds, and Garrick, and died in by his versatility and elegance as a writer, his
London, March 8, 1796.

diligence in collecting and working up stray


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by rail.

material, and his perception of what was suited to bought from his widow in 1821 for 1,542,000 francs,
the popular taste in history, poetry, science and and presented to the future Comte de Chambord,
arts. In 1844 he published anonymously the who spent large sums on its restoration. He left
remarkable work, Vestiges of Creation, which pre- it to his wife, and, after her, to her nephews, by a
pared the way for Darwin's great work, The Origin will which was more than once disputed, but recog.
of Species. The authorship, positively ascribed to nised by the state as valid. See La Question de
him in the Athenceum of 20 December 1854, was Chambord, by J. B. C. Arnauld (1887).
first acknowledged in Mr Ireland's introduction to

Chambord, HENRI CHARLES DIEUDONNÉ, the 12th ed. (1884). He received the degree of COMTE DE, was born in Paris, 29th September 1820, LL.D. from St Andrews in 1863. The labour in

seven months after the assassination of his father, preparing the Book of Days (2 vols. 1863) broke his the Duc de Berri (q.v.). On the day of his baptism health, and he died at St Andrews, 17th March with water brought by Châteaubriand from the 1871. "Other works by Robert are Popular Rhymes Jordan, the Child of Miracle' was presented by of Scotland, a valuable contribution to folklore the Legitimists with the château of Chambord"; (1847), History of the Rebellions in Scotland, Life hence in 1844 he dropped the title of Duc de Borof James I., Scottish Ballads and Songs (3 vols.

deaux for that by which he was most usually 1829), Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen, Ancient Sea known. When Charles X. abdicated at the Margins (1838), The Life and Works of Robert July revolution of 1830, he did so in favour of Burns (4 vols. 1851), Domestic Annals of Scotland his little grandson ; but the people insisted on (3 vols. 1859-61), and Songs of Scotland prior to the citizen king,' and the elder Bourbons were Burns (1862). His Select Writings (7 vols.) were driven into exile. They fixed their court succespublished in 1847.—His son ROBERT CHAMBERS, sively at Holyrood, Prague, and Görz, where the born in 1832, became head of the firm in 1883, and

old king died in 1836, and the young count was conducted the Journal till his death, March 23,

trained in clerical and absolutist ideas by his aunt, 1888.-See W. Chambers's Memoir of William and

the Duchesse d'Angoulême, and his tutor, the Duc Robert Chambers (1872; 13th ed., with supple- de Damas. A good, dull, timid soul, whom D'Orsay mentary chapter, 1884).

likened to 'a palace with no room furnished but Chambersburg, capital of Franklin county, the chapel,’ ‘Henry V.' had three times a chance Pennsylvania, in a pleasant valley 52 miles WSW. of regaining the crown of his ancestors—in 1848, of Harrisburg by rail, has several manufactories, 1870, and 1873, on which last occasion, three breweries, foundries, and machine-shops. A large months after Thiers's overthrow, he paid an incogpart of the borough was burned by the Confederates nito visit to Versailles. Each time he fooled away in 1864. Pop. (1880) 6877 ; (1890) 8006.

his opportunities, always vanishing just when his Chambertin, a famous red Burgundy, obtained presence was indispensable, and ever protesting from a vineyard' (62 acres) of that name in the that he would never abandon the white flag of French department of Côte-d'Or, 7 miles S. of Dijon Joan of Arc.' A fall from his horse (1841) had

lamed him for life; his marriage (1846) with the Chambéry, capital of the former duchy and Princess of Modena (1817-86) brought him no sucpresent French department of Savoy, beautifully cessor ; and in keeping up a stately mimic court, situated between two ridges of hills, amid gardens in stag-hunting from a phaeton, in issuing maniand country seats, 370 miles SE. of Paris by rail. festoes, in visiting innumerable churches, and in The scenery around, with the river Laisse flowing much travelling, he passed forty years of blameless through the valley, is exceedingly fine. The town inertia. His death, after long suffering, at his castle itself, however, is dull and uninteresting, with

of Frohsdorf, in Lower Austria, 24th August 1883, narrow and gloomy streets winding between high

was a relief at once to himself and to his adherents. well-built houses. Notable edifices are the small

The Comte de Paris inherited his claims. See cathedral, the palace of justice, and the old castle BOURBON ; and the Comte de Falloux' Mémoires of the Dukes of Savoy, restored early in the present d'un Royaliste (2 vols. Paris, 1888). century. Chambéry has manufactures of clocks, Chambre Ardente (“the fiery chamber'), a silk-gauze, soap, hats, paper, and a trade in silk,

name given at different times in France to an extrawine, coal, &c. Pop. (1886) 19,664. From 1525 to ordinary court of justice, probably on account of 1713 Chambéry was under the dominion of France, the severity of the punishments which it awarded, and again from the Revolution to 1815, when it was the most common being that of death by fire. In restored to the House of Savoy.; but in 1860, by the the year 1535, Francis I. established an Inquisitorial cession of Savoy, it came again under the rule of Tribunal and a Chambre Ardente. Both were inFrance.

tended for the extirpation of heresy. The former Chambeze, the farthest head-stream of_the searched out cases of heresy, and instructed the Congo, rises in the highlands south of Tan- processes ; while the latter both pronounced and ganyika, about 9° 40' s. lat., and 33° 15' E. long. executed the final judgment. Under Henri II., Its tributaries are large, and form a considerable the activity of the Chambre Ardente received a stream, which flows south-west to Lake Bangweolo new impulse. In 1679 Louis XIV. employed a (q.v.).

Chambre Ardente to investigate the numerous Chambord, a celebrated château in the French reports of poisoning cases which the trial of the department of Loir-et-Cher, stands 12 miles E. of Marchioness Brinvilliers (9.v.) caused to be circuBlois, in the midst of a walled, sandy park of 13,000 !ated. Many persons of the first rank were exam. Commenced by Francis I. in 1526, it is a

ined on suspicion, but no one was executed except huge Renaissance pile, with numberless' turrets, the pretended sorcerer, Voisin (1680). chimneys, gables, and cupolas, and with four round Chambre Introuvable (Fr., 'the chamber towers, each 63 feet in diameter.

There are no the like of which is not to be found again ') was the fewer than 440 rooms, Chambord, the - Versailles

name given to that Chamber of Deputies in France of Touraine,' was a residence of the French kings which met after the second return of Louis XVIII. down to Louis XV., who conferred it on Marshal (July 1815), and which, by its fanatical royalty, Saxe; and here in_1670 Molière gave the first re- began to throw the country and society anew into presentation of his Bourgeois Gentilhomme. Among commotion. The name was given to it by the king its various occupants were Diane de Poitiers, Stanis in his gratitude (though some think even he spoke laus of Poland, and Marshal Berthier, upon whom ironically); but it soon came to be used sarcastiit was bestowed by Napoleon in 1809.

It was

cally for any ultra-royalist assembly.

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Chameleon. See CHAMÆLEON.

history, but his fame rests partly on his poetical Chamfer. In Architecture, an angle which is productions, still more on his quaint and humorous slightly pared off is said to be chamfered ; a large fiction called Peter Schlemihl (1813), the story of the chamfer, as in a wall at the window opening, is man who lost his shadow, which has been translated called a splay. The chamfer is sometimes made into almost all the languages of Europe. The charslightly concave, in which case it is called a hollow acter of his poetry is wild and gloomy, and he is chamfer. Chamfers, in Gothic architecture, have fond of rugged and horrible subjects. In his politifrequently ornamental terininations of various cal songs he succeeds well in 'humour and irony; kinds. The terin chamfer is applied to wood nor is he deficient in deep and genuine feeling. work as well as stone.

Indeed, several of his ballads and romances are

His collected works Chamfort, NICOLAS, a famous writer of maxims masterpieces in their way. and anecdotes, was born in Auvergne in 1741. He

have been edited by Hitzig (6th ed. 4 vols. 1874). was of illegitimate birth, and was educated at one

See his Life by Fulda (Leip. 1881). of the Paris colleges, where he obtained a scholar Chamois (Antilope or Rupicapra, Ger. Gemse), ship. Having distinguished himself in the prize a goat-like species or genus of Antelope (q.v.). competitions of the Academy, he gained an entrance

It inhabits the Alps and other high mountains of into the highest literary circles in Paris, and for Central and Southern Europe, such as the Pyrenees, some years lived literally by his wit, if not by his wits. At one time Madame Helvétius gave him free lodgings at Sèvres, and he was afterwards made independent by a pension bestowed on him by a now forgotten man of letters named Chabanon. At the Revolution he espoused the popular side, and was hailed in the clubs as · La RochefoucauldChamfort.' After a time, however, certain incisive witticisms--such as, ‘Be my brother or I will kill you,'-—drew down on him the anger of the Jacobin leaders. Threatened with arrest, he tried to commit suicide, wounded himself horribly, and died after several days' suffering, 13th April 1794. His writings include tales, dramas, and éloges on Molière and La Fontaine-all of little or no worth-a brilliant collection of maxims, and an even more admirable collection of anecdotes. Many of his sayings are among the sharpest and bitterest ever pennedthe utterances of a reluctant but sincere cynic,

Chamois. whose insight into human weakness was unusually keen. He has never been excelled as a writer of

the Carpathians, and the mountains of Greece ; it is anecdotes; his work under this head contains a

also found on some of the Mediterranean islands, series of portraits in miniature, drawn with the

and on the Caucasus, Taurus, and other mountains hand of a master, of the Parisian society of his

of the west of Asia. In Europe it is now most day. Augnis edited his works (5 vols. 1824–25).

numerous on the Bavarian and Styrian Alps. The Chamier, FREDERIC, an English novelist, born chamois is about the size of a large goat, but the in 1796, entered the navy in 1809, and retiring in neck is longer in proportion, and the body shorter ; 1833, was promoted to be captain in 1856. He the horns on both sexes are seldom more than six had settled near Waltham Abbey, and turned his or seven inches long, black, rising nearly straight up attention to literary pursuits. Marryat's success from the forehead, and so bent back at the tip as to in depicting sea-life led Chamier to try the same form a hook. A peculiar gland opens at the base field, in which he was not without success, though of each horn. The summer colour is reddish brown, in invention and humour he falls short of his model.

with a darker dorsal band, and a yellowish ventral His best romances, now almost forgotten, are Life surface; the winter colour is a darker brown, but of a Sailor (1832), Ben Brace (1836), The Arethusa white below. A dark brown band runs from the (1837), Jack Adams (1838), and Tom Bowline eye along each cheek. The rest of the head is pale (1841)

. He also wrote a continuation of James's yellow. The short tail is black. Naval History (1837), and a somewhat prejudiced The usual summer-resort of the chamois is in the Review of the French Revolution of 1848 (1849). higher regions of the mountains, not far from the He died ist November 1870.

snow-line, and it is often to be seen lying on the Chamisso, ADELBERT VON, one of the most In winter it descends to the higher forests. celebrated of German lyric poets, was born in 1781, | The aromatic and bitter plants of the mountainat the château of Boncourt, in Champagne. The pastures are its favourite food. Young twigs of French Revolution driving his parents to settle in rhododendron, willow, juniper, &c. are greedily Prussia in 1790, he became in 1796 a page of the devoured,

It is like the ruminants generallyqueen, and two years later entered the Prussian very fond of salt, and often licks stones for the service. But when the campaign of 1806 broke out saltpetre which forms on them. The chamois is he returned to France, for though no admirer of gregarious : flocks of one hundred used sometimes Napoleon, he would not fight against his native to be seen ; but in the Swiss Alps, where the numland. At this time he was thrown into the circle bers have been much reduced by hunting, the flocks of Madame de Staël at Coppet, and there began generally consist only of a few (4 to 20) individuals. that study of natural science which he afterwards | Old males often live solitarily. The female bears pursued at Berlin. In 1815-18 he accompanied a one or rarely two young at a birth, in the month of Russian exploring expedition round the world as March or April. The general cry of the chamois naturalist (see CORAL); and on his return was

is a goat-like bleat. appointed custodian of the Botanical Garden of It is an animal of extraordinary agility, and flocks Berlin. In 1835 he was elected to the Academy of may often be observed sporting in a remarkable Science; and, after a happy domestic life, he died manner among the rocky heights. It can leap over at Berlin, 21st August 1838, universally loved and ravines 16 to 18 feet broad; a wall 14 feet high honoured. He wrote several works on natural presents no hindrance to it; and it passes readily



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up or down precipices which almost no other quad Champagne, a district and ancient province
ruped could attempt. The hunting of the chamois of France, surrounded by Luxemburg, Lorraine,
is attended with great hardship and much danger. Burgundy, Ile de France, and Orléanais; now
The hunter sometimes goes out on the adventurous forming the departments of Marne, Haute-Marne,
chase alone; but more frequently several go out Aube, and Ardennes, and parts of Yonne, Aisne
together, dividing into parties, of which one drives Seine-et-Marne, and Meuse.

It was popularly
and the other shoots. The scent, sight, and hearing divided into Upper and Lower Champagne and
of the chamois are extremely keen. When a flock Brie Champenoise, and was fertile in its western,
is feeding, one is always on the watch, and by a barren in its eastern part. Its chief towns were
sort of whistle, announces apprehended danger. Troyes, Bar-sur-Aube, Leon, and Rheims. The
The flesh is highly esteemed. The skin is made province was about 180 miles long by 150 broad,
into leather, and from it the original shammoy or its surface presenting extensive plains with ranges
shammy leather (wash-leather), so much prized for of hills, especially in the north and east.
softness and warmth, was obtained, although the In ancient times Champagne was known as a
name has now become common also to leather pre- part of Gallia Lugdunensis, was subjugated by
pared from the skins of other animals (see LEATHER Cæsar, and afterwards was annexed to the kingdom
and BUFF LEATHER). The horns are often used established by the Franks. After the 11th century
to adorn alpenstocks. Hairy balls or Concretions it had its own dukes, who were vassals of the
(q.v.) found in the stomach used to have a medic French kings. By the marriage of Philip IV. with
inal reputation. When taken young the chamois Joanna, heiress to the kingdom of Navarre, Cham-
is easily tamed, and its general disposition is gentle pagne, and Brie, Champagne in 1284 came to the
and peaceable. See Keller, Die Gemse ( Klagenfurt, French crown, and was incorporated in 1328.

Champagne Wine is the produce of vine-
Chamomile. See CAMOMILE.

yards in the above-mentioned province of Cham

pagne. There are white and red champagnes ; Chamouni, or CHAMONIX (Lat. Campus muni

the white is either sparkling or still. Sparkling or tus, from the shelter of the mountains), a cele

effervescent (mousseux) champagne is the result brated valley and village among the French Alps, of

a peculiar treatment during fermentation.
in the department of Upper Savoy, lying 53 miles

In December the wine is racked off, and fined
ESE. of Geneva, at an elevation of about 3400
feet above the level of the sea. The valley, bounded tightly

with isinglass, and in March it is bottled and

To clear the wine of sediment, the
on the E. by the Col de Balme, is about 13 miles

bottles are placed in a sloping position with the long and 2 broad, and is traversed by the Arve.

necks downward, so that the sediment may be On the north side lies Mont Brévent and the chain deposited in the necks of the bottles. When this of the Aiguilles Rouges, and on the south, the

sediment has been poured off, some portion of a giant group of Mont Blanc, from which enormous

liqueur (a solution of sugar-candy in cognac with glaciers glide down, even in summer, almost to

flavouring essences) is added to the wine, and every the bottom of the valley. The chief of these are

bottle is filled up with bright clarified wine, and the Glacier des Bossons, des Bois, de l'Argentière, securely re-corked. The fermentation being incom, and du Tour ; the Glacier des Bois expands in its plete when the wine is bottled, the carbonic

acid upper course into a great mountain-lake of ice

gas generated in a confined space exerts pressure called the Mer de Glace. The village of Chamouni

on itself, and it thus remains as a liquid in the owes its origin and its alternative name, Le Prieuré,

wine. When this pressure is removed it expands to the Benedictine convent founded here before

into gas, and thus communicates the sparkling
1099. Until 1741, however, the valley was little property to champagne. The effervescence of the
sought; the region was known, from the savageness

wine thus prepared bursts many bottles, in some
of its inhabitants, by the name of Les Montagnes
Maudites, or "accursed mountains.' In that year sudden heat, as many as 20 and 25 per cent. have

cases 10 per cent. ; and in seasons of early and
it was visited by two Englishmen, Pococke and

been burst. Still or non-effervescent champagne is
Wyndham, who described it in the Transactions of

first racked off in the March after the vintage.
the Royal Society, but it was only in 1787 that the Creaming or slightly effervescent champagne (demi,
attention of travellers was effectually called to it by mousseux) has more alcohol, but less carbonic acid
the Genevese naturalist, De Saussure, and others.
Since then the number of visitors has gradually gas than sparkling champagne.

The best varieties of this wine are produced at
increased ; now over 15,000 tourists are accommo-
dated annually in the large hotels that have sprung soil. Among white champagnes of the first class,

Rheims and Epernay, and generally on a chalky
up in the village, where an English chapel was

the best are those of Sillery, which are of a fine
opened in 1860. Grazing and such farming as the amber hue, dry, spirituous, and possessing a superior
elevation allows are carried on, but most of the bouquet ; those of Ay and Mareuil are less spiritu-
people are in some fashion dependent on the

ous, but are sparkling, with a pleasant bouquet,
strangers for their income. Here the best guides Other white wines of first class are those of Haut-
are to be found for the neighbouring Alps, and from villiers, Dizy, and Pierry.
this point Mont Blanc is usually ascended. At
the article Alps there is a view of Chamouni, cut out of the calcareous rock.

The cellars in which the vintages are stored are
whose beauties have been celebrated by Byron, sale of champagne is very extensive and lucrative,

The fact that the
Coleridge, Shelley, Wordsworth, Lamartine, and has naturally given rise to adulterations. Spurious
Ruskin Notes and Queries, July 23, 1887, p. 67). champagne is readily manufactured by simply
Pop. of village (1886) 576; of commune, 2450.

charging other light wines with carbonic acid gas.
Champac, or CHUMPAKA (Michelia Champaca }, The popular notions about gooseberry champagne
an Indian tree (order Magnoliacere) possessing great have but small foundation, if any. Gooseberry-
beauty both of foliage and flowers, and venerated juice is far more costly than grape-juice, wherever
both by Brahmanists and Buddhists. Images of the grape flourishes, and in this country there are
Buddha are made of its wood. Its yellow flowers no such great gooseberry plantations as would be
and their sweet oppressive perfume are much cele required for a tourishing champagne industry,
brated in the poetry of the Hindus. The timber which would demand a few hundred tons of fruit
of this and other species is useful and fragrant, per annum. Recently, the German purveyors
and the bark and root are employed in native have succeeded in preparing light wines--such as

Rhenish, Main, Neckar, Meissner, and Naumburg

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