« PrécédentContinuer »
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
however, he retired in 1874. Mr Chamberlain had | Marseilles, which dates from the end of the 14th
was the first public body which petitioned for Chamber Music is music specially fitted for
the abolition of the Corn Laws, and the adoption performance in a room, as distinguished from con
of free-trade principles ; and it stood almost alone cert or church music or opera. The name applies in the United Kingdom in advocating the Suez
Canal project. more particularly to instrumental music for a
It also originated the movement single instrument or a small combination, up to
which resulted in placing the telegraph service
in connection the septett or octett.
with the Post-office. Between
five and six hundred of the bankers, merchants, Chamber of Commerce, a body of mer and ship-owners of Edinburgh and Leith con. chants, traders, bankers, and others, associated for stitute the chamber. The London Chamber of the purpose of promoting the interests of its own Commerce (1882) may now be regarded as the most members, of the town or district to which the important in the United Kingdom. The main society belongs, and of the community generally, branches of commercial enterprise are dealt with in so far as these have reference to trade and by separate departments of the chamber, while merchandise. Of the means for the accomplish- by public lectures and the frequent publicament of these objects the following may be men tion of detailed
reports it maintains tioned as the most prominent: (1) Representing munication with chambers of commerce throughout and urging on the legislature the views of their the country, and serves when necessary to unite members in mercantile affairs ; (2) aiding in the and concentrate action in the promotion of preparation of legislative measures having refer- reforms in our mercantile system and in the ence to trade, such, for example, as the Bank- development of the commercial resources of the rupt and Limited Liability Acts; (3) collecting empire. The Manchester chamber, so famous statistics bearing upon the staple trade of the for its exertions in the cause of free trade, was not district; (4) acting in some places as a sort of established till 1820, and for many years it concourt of arbitration in mercantile questions ; (5) tinued to be the only institution of the kind in attaining by combination advantages in trade England. Its members number over 900. In Hull which might be beyond the reach of individual there has been a chamber of commerce since 1837, enterprise.
but those of Liverpool, Leeds, and Bradford, notThe oldest chamber of commerce is that of withstanding the great trading and manufacturing
interests of these towns, were not established till Chambers, WILLIAM, publisher, was born 16th
popular periodicals of a wholesome kind now so
number he united with his brother Robert in foundfrequently the masters and chief clerks, transact a
ing the business of William & Robert Chambers, large amount of judicial business. In fact nearly in which they were associated in writing, editall business which is begun by what is technically ing, printing, and publishing, W. & R. Chambers called a Summons in England goes to chambers,
issued a series of works designed for popular e.g. all such incidental matters as the recovery of instruction, including besides the Journal, Infordocuments, examination of witnesses about to go
mation abroad, investigation of accounts,
settling of deeds Course " series ; Cyclopedia of English Literature, between parties. A decree of the court which
2 vols. ; Miscellany of Useful and Entertaining directs further procedure is carried out by a
Tracts, 20 vols. ; Papers for the People, 12 vols. ; summons to proceed in chambers. Counsel attend
and the present Encyclopædia, 10 vols. (1859-1868 ; in chambers only in important matters.
new edition, 1888–92). In 1849 William acquired Scotland a good deal of this business takes the form
the estate of Glenormiston, Peeblesshire, and in of a remit to an accountant or other man of business,
1859 founded and endowed an institution in his a judicial reference, a commission to examine
native town for purposes of social improvement. witnesses, but all initiated by a motion in court.
Twice elected Lord Provost of Edinburgh, William Chamber-counsel, a barrister or advocate who occupied that office for four years (1865-69), gives opinions in his own chambers, but does not, during which he promoted several important public or rarely does, plead in court.
acts, including one for the improvement of the
older part of the city, which has resulted in a great Chambers, EPHRAIM, an amiable but frugal diminution of the death-rate. (The death-rate and free-thinking encyclopædist, was born about of the city in 1865–75 was 26-26 per 1000 ; in 1680 at Kendal, and began life as an appren. 1875–85, only 19.94.) He also carried out at his tice to a globe-maker in London, where he con
cost a thorough restoration of St Giles' ceived the idea of a cyclopædia that should surpass Cathedral. He died 20th May 1883, having shortly Harris's Lexicon Technicum (1704). It appeared in before received the offer of å baronetcy. He was 2 folio vols, in 1728, and reached a 6th edition in
made LL.D. of Edinburgh in 1872. A statue has 1750, Chambers having died meanwhile on 15th been erected to his memory in Edinburgh. Besides May 1750. A French translation gave rise to the
many contributions to the Journal, he was author more famous Encyclopedie of Diderot and D'Alem- and editor of various volumes, and wrote The bert; itself expanded into Rees's Encyclopædia, Youths' Companion and Counsellor, History of Dr Johnson told Boswell that he had partly formed Peeblesshire (1864), Ailie Gilroy, Stories of Remarkhis style upon Chambers's Proposal for ‘his Dic
able Persons, Stories of Old Families, and Histori-
cal Sketch of St Giles Cathedral (1879).
He had already won
diligence in collecting and working up stray
material, and his perception of what was suited to bought from his widow in 1821 for 1,542,000 francs,
Chambord, HENRI CHARLES DIEUDONNÉ, the 12th ed. (1884). He received the degree of COMTE DE, was born in Paris, 29th September 1820, LL.D. from St Andrews in 1863. The labour in
seven months after the assassination of his father, preparing the Book of Days (2 vols. 1863) broke his the Duc de Berri (q.v.). On the day of his baptism health, and he died at St Andrews, 17th March with water brought by Châteaubriand from the 1871. "Other works by Robert are Popular Rhymes Jordan, the Child of Miracle' was presented by of Scotland, a valuable contribution to folklore the Legitimists with the château of Chambord"; (1847), History of the Rebellions in Scotland, Life hence in 1844 he dropped the title of Duc de Borof James I., Scottish Ballads and Songs (3 vols.
deaux for that by which he was most usually 1829), Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen, Ancient Sea known. When Charles X. abdicated at the Margins (1838), The Life and Works of Robert July revolution of 1830, he did so in favour of Burns (4 vols. 1851), Domestic Annals of Scotland his little grandson ; but the people insisted on (3 vols. 1859-61), and Songs of Scotland prior to the citizen king,' and the elder Bourbons were Burns (1862). His Select Writings (7 vols.) were driven into exile. They fixed their court succespublished in 1847.—His son ROBERT CHAMBERS, sively at Holyrood, Prague, and Görz, where the born in 1832, became head of the firm in 1883, and
old king died in 1836, and the young count was conducted the Journal till his death, March 23,
trained in clerical and absolutist ideas by his aunt, 1888.-See W. Chambers's Memoir of William and
the Duchesse d'Angoulême, and his tutor, the Duc Robert Chambers (1872; 13th ed., with supple- de Damas. A good, dull, timid soul, whom D'Orsay mentary chapter, 1884).
likened to 'a palace with no room furnished but Chambersburg, capital of Franklin county, the chapel,’ ‘Henry V.' had three times a chance Pennsylvania, in a pleasant valley 52 miles WSW. of regaining the crown of his ancestors—in 1848, of Harrisburg by rail, has several manufactories, 1870, and 1873, on which last occasion, three breweries, foundries, and machine-shops. A large months after Thiers's overthrow, he paid an incogpart of the borough was burned by the Confederates nito visit to Versailles. Each time he fooled away in 1864. Pop. (1880) 6877 ; (1890) 8006.
his opportunities, always vanishing just when his Chambertin, a famous red Burgundy, obtained presence was indispensable, and ever protesting from a vineyard' (62 acres) of that name in the that he would never abandon the white flag of French department of Côte-d'Or, 7 miles S. of Dijon Joan of Arc.' A fall from his horse (1841) had
lamed him for life; his marriage (1846) with the Chambéry, capital of the former duchy and Princess of Modena (1817-86) brought him no sucpresent French department of Savoy, beautifully cessor ; and in keeping up a stately mimic court, situated between two ridges of hills, amid gardens in stag-hunting from a phaeton, in issuing maniand country seats, 370 miles SE. of Paris by rail. festoes, in visiting innumerable churches, and in The scenery around, with the river Laisse flowing much travelling, he passed forty years of blameless through the valley, is exceedingly fine. The town inertia. His death, after long suffering, at his castle itself, however, is dull and uninteresting, with
of Frohsdorf, in Lower Austria, 24th August 1883, narrow and gloomy streets winding between high
was a relief at once to himself and to his adherents. well-built houses. Notable edifices are the small
The Comte de Paris inherited his claims. See cathedral, the palace of justice, and the old castle BOURBON ; and the Comte de Falloux' Mémoires of the Dukes of Savoy, restored early in the present d'un Royaliste (2 vols. Paris, 1888). century. Chambéry has manufactures of clocks, Chambre Ardente (“the fiery chamber'), a silk-gauze, soap, hats, paper, and a trade in silk,
name given at different times in France to an extrawine, coal, &c. Pop. (1886) 19,664. From 1525 to ordinary court of justice, probably on account of 1713 Chambéry was under the dominion of France, the severity of the punishments which it awarded, and again from the Revolution to 1815, when it was the most common being that of death by fire. In restored to the House of Savoy.; but in 1860, by the the year 1535, Francis I. established an Inquisitorial cession of Savoy, it came again under the rule of Tribunal and a Chambre Ardente. Both were inFrance.
tended for the extirpation of heresy. The former Chambeze, the farthest head-stream of_the searched out cases of heresy, and instructed the Congo, rises in the highlands south of Tan- processes ; while the latter both pronounced and ganyika, about 9° 40' s. lat., and 33° 15' E. long. executed the final judgment. Under Henri II., Its tributaries are large, and form a considerable the activity of the Chambre Ardente received a stream, which flows south-west to Lake Bangweolo new impulse. In 1679 Louis XIV. employed a (q.v.).
Chambre Ardente to investigate the numerous Chambord, a celebrated château in the French reports of poisoning cases which the trial of the department of Loir-et-Cher, stands 12 miles E. of Marchioness Brinvilliers (9.v.) caused to be circuBlois, in the midst of a walled, sandy park of 13,000 !ated. Many persons of the first rank were exam. Commenced by Francis I. in 1526, it is a
ined on suspicion, but no one was executed except huge Renaissance pile, with numberless' turrets, the pretended sorcerer, Voisin (1680). chimneys, gables, and cupolas, and with four round Chambre Introuvable (Fr., 'the chamber towers, each 63 feet in diameter.
There are no the like of which is not to be found again ') was the fewer than 440 rooms, Chambord, the - Versailles
name given to that Chamber of Deputies in France of Touraine,' was a residence of the French kings which met after the second return of Louis XVIII. down to Louis XV., who conferred it on Marshal (July 1815), and which, by its fanatical royalty, Saxe; and here in_1670 Molière gave the first re- began to throw the country and society anew into presentation of his Bourgeois Gentilhomme. Among commotion. The name was given to it by the king its various occupants were Diane de Poitiers, Stanis in his gratitude (though some think even he spoke laus of Poland, and Marshal Berthier, upon whom ironically); but it soon came to be used sarcastiit was bestowed by Napoleon in 1809.
cally for any ultra-royalist assembly.
Chameleon. See CHAMÆLEON.
history, but his fame rests partly on his poetical Chamfer. In Architecture, an angle which is productions, still more on his quaint and humorous slightly pared off is said to be chamfered ; a large fiction called Peter Schlemihl (1813), the story of the chamfer, as in a wall at the window opening, is man who lost his shadow, which has been translated called a splay. The chamfer is sometimes made into almost all the languages of Europe. The charslightly concave, in which case it is called a hollow acter of his poetry is wild and gloomy, and he is chamfer. Chamfers, in Gothic architecture, have fond of rugged and horrible subjects. In his politifrequently ornamental terininations of various cal songs he succeeds well in 'humour and irony; kinds. The terin chamfer is applied to wood nor is he deficient in deep and genuine feeling. work as well as stone.
Indeed, several of his ballads and romances are
His collected works Chamfort, NICOLAS, a famous writer of maxims masterpieces in their way. and anecdotes, was born in Auvergne in 1741. He
have been edited by Hitzig (6th ed. 4 vols. 1874). was of illegitimate birth, and was educated at one
See his Life by Fulda (Leip. 1881). of the Paris colleges, where he obtained a scholar Chamois (Antilope or Rupicapra, Ger. Gemse), ship. Having distinguished himself in the prize a goat-like species or genus of Antelope (q.v.). competitions of the Academy, he gained an entrance
It inhabits the Alps and other high mountains of into the highest literary circles in Paris, and for Central and Southern Europe, such as the Pyrenees, some years lived literally by his wit, if not by his wits. At one time Madame Helvétius gave him free lodgings at Sèvres, and he was afterwards made independent by a pension bestowed on him by a now forgotten man of letters named Chabanon. At the Revolution he espoused the popular side, and was hailed in the clubs as · La RochefoucauldChamfort.' After a time, however, certain incisive witticisms--such as, ‘Be my brother or I will kill you,'-—drew down on him the anger of the Jacobin leaders. Threatened with arrest, he tried to commit suicide, wounded himself horribly, and died after several days' suffering, 13th April 1794. His writings include tales, dramas, and éloges on Molière and La Fontaine-all of little or no worth-a brilliant collection of maxims, and an even more admirable collection of anecdotes. Many of his sayings are among the sharpest and bitterest ever pennedthe utterances of a reluctant but sincere cynic,
Chamois. whose insight into human weakness was unusually keen. He has never been excelled as a writer of
the Carpathians, and the mountains of Greece ; it is anecdotes; his work under this head contains a
also found on some of the Mediterranean islands, series of portraits in miniature, drawn with the
and on the Caucasus, Taurus, and other mountains hand of a master, of the Parisian society of his
of the west of Asia. In Europe it is now most day. Augnis edited his works (5 vols. 1824–25).
numerous on the Bavarian and Styrian Alps. The Chamier, FREDERIC, an English novelist, born chamois is about the size of a large goat, but the in 1796, entered the navy in 1809, and retiring in neck is longer in proportion, and the body shorter ; 1833, was promoted to be captain in 1856. He the horns on both sexes are seldom more than six had settled near Waltham Abbey, and turned his or seven inches long, black, rising nearly straight up attention to literary pursuits. Marryat's success from the forehead, and so bent back at the tip as to in depicting sea-life led Chamier to try the same form a hook. A peculiar gland opens at the base field, in which he was not without success, though of each horn. The summer colour is reddish brown, in invention and humour he falls short of his model.
with a darker dorsal band, and a yellowish ventral His best romances, now almost forgotten, are Life surface; the winter colour is a darker brown, but of a Sailor (1832), Ben Brace (1836), The Arethusa white below. A dark brown band runs from the (1837), Jack Adams (1838), and Tom Bowline eye along each cheek. The rest of the head is pale (1841)
. He also wrote a continuation of James's yellow. The short tail is black. Naval History (1837), and a somewhat prejudiced The usual summer-resort of the chamois is in the Review of the French Revolution of 1848 (1849). higher regions of the mountains, not far from the He died ist November 1870.
snow-line, and it is often to be seen lying on the Chamisso, ADELBERT VON, one of the most In winter it descends to the higher forests. celebrated of German lyric poets, was born in 1781, | The aromatic and bitter plants of the mountainat the château of Boncourt, in Champagne. The pastures are its favourite food. Young twigs of French Revolution driving his parents to settle in rhododendron, willow, juniper, &c. are greedily Prussia in 1790, he became in 1796 a page of the devoured,
It is like the ruminants generallyqueen, and two years later entered the Prussian very fond of salt, and often licks stones for the service. But when the campaign of 1806 broke out saltpetre which forms on them. The chamois is he returned to France, for though no admirer of gregarious : flocks of one hundred used sometimes Napoleon, he would not fight against his native to be seen ; but in the Swiss Alps, where the numland. At this time he was thrown into the circle bers have been much reduced by hunting, the flocks of Madame de Staël at Coppet, and there began generally consist only of a few (4 to 20) individuals. that study of natural science which he afterwards | Old males often live solitarily. The female bears pursued at Berlin. In 1815-18 he accompanied a one or rarely two young at a birth, in the month of Russian exploring expedition round the world as March or April. The general cry of the chamois naturalist (see CORAL); and on his return was
is a goat-like bleat. appointed custodian of the Botanical Garden of It is an animal of extraordinary agility, and flocks Berlin. In 1835 he was elected to the Academy of may often be observed sporting in a remarkable Science; and, after a happy domestic life, he died manner among the rocky heights. It can leap over at Berlin, 21st August 1838, universally loved and ravines 16 to 18 feet broad; a wall 14 feet high honoured. He wrote several works on natural presents no hindrance to it; and it passes readily
up or down precipices which almost no other quad Champagne, a district and ancient province
It was popularly
Champagne Wine is the produce of vine-
yards in the above-mentioned province of Cham
pagne. There are white and red champagnes ; Chamouni, or CHAMONIX (Lat. Campus muni
the white is either sparkling or still. Sparkling or tus, from the shelter of the mountains), a cele
effervescent (mousseux) champagne is the result brated valley and village among the French Alps, of
a peculiar treatment during fermentation.
In December the wine is racked off, and fined
To clear the wine of sediment, the
bottles are placed in a sloping position with the long and 2 broad, and is traversed by the Arve.
necks downward, so that the sediment may be On the north side lies Mont Brévent and the chain deposited in the necks of the bottles. When this of the Aiguilles Rouges, and on the south, the
sediment has been poured off, some portion of a giant group of Mont Blanc, from which enormous
liqueur (a solution of sugar-candy in cognac with glaciers glide down, even in summer, almost to
flavouring essences) is added to the wine, and every the bottom of the valley. The chief of these are
bottle is filled up with bright clarified wine, and the Glacier des Bossons, des Bois, de l'Argentière, securely re-corked. The fermentation being incom, and du Tour ; the Glacier des Bois expands in its plete when the wine is bottled, the carbonic
acid upper course into a great mountain-lake of ice
gas generated in a confined space exerts pressure called the Mer de Glace. The village of Chamouni
on itself, and it thus remains as a liquid in the owes its origin and its alternative name, Le Prieuré,
wine. When this pressure is removed it expands to the Benedictine convent founded here before
into gas, and thus communicates the sparkling
wine thus prepared bursts many bottles, in some
cases 10 per cent. ; and in seasons of early and
been burst. Still or non-effervescent champagne is
first racked off in the March after the vintage.
The best varieties of this wine are produced at
Rheims and Epernay, and generally on a chalky
the best are those of Sillery, which are of a fine
ous, but are sparkling, with a pleasant bouquet,
The cellars in which the vintages are stored are
The fact that the
charging other light wines with carbonic acid gas.
Rhenish, Main, Neckar, Meissner, and Naumburg