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DIOMEDES

DION CHRYSOSTOMUS

Diome'des, the bravest, after Achilles, of all historian, was born at Nicæa, in Bithynia, 155 A.D. the Greeks who took part in the Trojan war, The About 180 he went to Rome, held successively all son of Tydeus, he is constantly called by his the high offices of state, was twice consul, and enpatronymic, Tydides. He vanquished in fight joyed the intimate friendship of Alexander Severus, Hector and Æneas, the most valiant of the Tro- who sent him as legate to Dalmatia and Pannonia. jans; and even Ares and Aphrodite, when they About 229 he retired to his native city, where he took the field on the Trojan side, were attacked passed the remainder of his life. He is best known and wounded by him. In the games instituted by by his History of Rome, from the landing of Æneas Achilles in honour of Patroclus, he gained the in Italy down to 229 A.D., in eighty books, of which prize in the chariot-race, and worsted the mighty but nineteen, from the thirty-sixth to the fiftyAjax in single combat. Along with Ulysses, le fourth, have reached us complete. These embrace carried off the Palladium, on which the fate of the history from the wars of Lucullus and Pompey Troy depended. On returning to Argos, to the against Mithridates, down to the death of Agrippa, crown of which he had succeeded after the death of 10 A.D. The first twenty-four books exist only in Adrastus, he found that his wife had proved un the merest fragments ; of the last twenty we have faithful in his absence, whereupon he sailed away only the 11th-century epitome of Xiphilinus. The to Italy, there married the daughter of King Annals of Zonaras followed Dion Cassius so closely, Daunus, and lived to a good old age. The town that we may almost consider that work as an of Beneventum, Venusia, Canusium, and Brun epitome. The position of Dion Cassius gave him disium claimed to have been founded by him. free access to the national archives, and his work Dion, a Syracusan, whose sister became the

has considerable value for the imperial epoch of second wife of the elder Dionysius the Tyrant, he need not be abused because he did not equal his

Roman history. His model was Thucydides, and while he himself was married to a daughter of original. The best editions of his History are those Dionysius, his own niece. with the tyrant brought him great wealth, but his

of Sturz (1824), Bekker (1849), and L. Dindorf austere manners and devotion to philosophy made (5 vols. 1863–65). him hateful to Dionysius the Younger, who under Dion Chryso'stomus (“the golden-mouthed'), the guidance of Philistus and his party disregarded an eminent Greek rhetorician, surnamed Cocceianus the advice of Plato, and banished Dion. There from his intimate friendship with the Emperor upon he retired to Athens to devote himself to the Cocceius Nerva, was born at Prusa, in Bithynia, study of philosophy under the guidance of Plato. about 50 A.D. His father, Pasicrates, paid great His expedition to Syracuse resulted in his making attention to his education, which was perfected by himself master of the city (356 B.C.), but his severity travel. He came to Rome under Vespasian, but had made him unpopular among its luxurious citizens, afterwards to leave the city, having had the misand a plot was formed against him through which fortune to excite the suspicion of Domitian. He he was murdered in his own house three years next visited—in the disguise of a beggar, and on later. His life was written by both Plutarch and advice of the Delphic oracle-Thrace, Mysia, and Cornelius Nepos, and he is the subject of a noble Scythia. On the accession of Nerva (96° A.D.) he poem by Wordsworth.

returned to Rome, and lived in great honour under Dionæ'a, a very curious and interesting genus death, about 117 A.D.

that ruler and his successor Trajan till his own of Droseraceae.

As many as eighty of his Only one species is known, D.

orations are still extant, with fraginents of fifteen muscipula, sometimes called Venus's Fly-trap and the Carolina Catchfly Plant. It grows in marshy orations proper, discussing questions in politics,

others. They are, however, treatises rather than places in North and South Carolina. The remark; morals, and philosophy. These are well reasoned, able insect-catching and digestive powers exhibited clear, and eloquent, and are written in pure Attic by the leaves are described under INSECTIVOROUS Greek. Dion Chrysostomus was the first writer PLANTS.

after Tiberius,' says Niebuhr, that greatly conDion Cassius, surnamed Cocceianus, from the tributed towards the revival of Greek literature.' orator Dion Chrysostomus Cocceianus, most likely Good editions of his orations are those of Reiske his maternal grandfather, a celebrated Greek (Leip. 1784), Emper (1844), and L. Dindorf (1857).

END OF VOL. IIL.

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