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Reformation and defence of Religion, the bonour and happiness of the King, and the peace and fafety of the three kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland: agreed upon by Commissioners from the Parliament and Affembly of Divines in England, with Commiffioners of the Con-ention of Eftates, and General Affembly in Scotiand; approved by the General Affembly of the Church of Scotland, and by both Houses of Parliament and Aembly of Divines in England, and taken and fubfcribed by them, anno 1643; and thereafter by the faid authority, taken and fubfcribed by all ranks in Scotland and England the fame year; and ratified by act of the Parliament of Scotland, anno 1644: And again renewed in Scotland, with an Acknowledgment of Sins, and engagement to Duties, by all ranks anno 1648, and by Parliament 1649; and taken and fubfcribed by King Charles II. at Spey, June 23. 1650; and at Scoon, January 1. 1651.

W JE Noblemen, Barons, Knights, Gentlemen, Citizens, Burgeffes, Minifters of the Gofpel, and Commons of all forts, in the kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland, by the providence of GOD, living under one King, and being of one reformed religion, having before our eyes the glory of GOD, and the advancement of the Kingdom of our Lord and Saviour JESUS CHRIST, the honour and happiness of the King's Majesty and his pofterity, and the true public liberty, fafety, and peace of the kingdoms, wherein every one's private condition is included: And calling to mind the treach erous and bloody plots, confpiracies, attempts, and practices of the enemies of GOD, against the true religion and profeflors thereof in all places, efpecially in these three kingdoms, ever fince the reformation of religion; and how much their rage, power, and prefumption are of late, and at this time, increafed and exercifed, whereof the deplorable ftate of the Church and kingdom of Ireland, the dif treffed eftate of the Church and kingdom of England, and the dangerous eftate of the Church and kingdom of Scotland, are prefent and public teftimonies: We have now at last (after other means of


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fupplication, remonftrance, proteftation, and fufferings) for the prefervation of ourselves and our religion from utter ruin and deftruction, according to the commendable practice of these kingdoms in former times, and the example of GOD's people in other nations; after mature deliberation, refolved and determined to enter into a mutual and Solemn League and Covenant, wherein we all fubfcribe, and each one of us for himself, with our hands lifted up to the Moft High GOD, do fwear,

I. THAT we shall fincerely, really, and conftantly, through the 1 grace of GOD, endeavour, in our feveral places and callings, the prefervation of the reformed religion in the Church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, difcipline, and government, against our common enemies; the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, difcipline, and government, according to the word of GOD, and the example of the beft reformed Churches: And fhall endeavour to bring the Churches of GOD in the three kingdoms, to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in religion, confeftion of Faith, form of Church-government, directory for worship and catechifing; that we, and our pofterity after us, may, ás brethren, live in faith and love, and the Lord may delight to dwell in the midst of us.

II. That we shall in like manner, without refpect of perfons, endeavour the extirpation of Popery, Prelacy, (that is, Church-government by Archbishops, Bishops, their Chancellors, and Commiflaries, Deans, Deans and Chapters, Archdeacons, and all other Ecclefiaftical Officers depending on that hierarchy), fuperftition, herefy, fchifm profaneness, and whatsoever fhall be found to be contrary to found doctrine and the power of godliness; left we partake in other mens fins, and thereby be in danger to receive of their plagues: And that the Lord may be one, and his name one in the three kingdoms.

III. We fhall, with the fame fincerity, reality, and conftancy, in our several vocations, endeavour, with our eftates and lives, mutually to preserve the rights and privileges of the Parliaments, and the liberties of the kingdoms; and to preferve and defend the King's Majesty's perfon and authority, in the preservation and defence of the true religion, and liberties of the kingdoms; that the world may bear witnefs with our confciences of our loyalty, and that we have no thoughts nor intentions to diminish his Majefty's juft power and greatness.

IV. We shall alfo, with all faithfulness, endeavour the discovery of all fuch as have been or fhall be incendiaries, malignants, or evil inftruments, by hindering the reformation of religion, dividing the King from his people, or one of the kingdoms from another, or ma king any faction or parties amongst the people, contrary to this League and Covenant; that they may be brought to public trial, and


receive condign punishment, as the degree of their offences shall re puire or deferve, or the fupreme judicatories of both kingdoms respectively, or others having power from them for that effect, fhall judge convenient.

V. And whereas the happiness of a bleffed peace between these kingdoms, denied in former times to our progenitors, is by the good providence of GOD, granted unto us, and hath been lately concluded and fettled by both parliaments; we shall each one of us, according to our place and intereft, endeavour that they may remain conjoined in a firm peace and union to all pofterity; and that justice may be done upon the wilful oppofers thereof, in manner expreffed in the precedent article.

VI. We fhall alfo, according to our places and callings, in this common cause of religion, liberty, and peace of the kingdoms, affist and defend all thofe that enter into this League and Covenant, in the maintaining and pursuing thereof; and fhall not fuffer ourselves, directly or indirectly, by whatsoever combination, perfuafion, or terror, to be divided and withdrawn from this bleffed union and conjunction, whether to make defection to the contrary part, or to give ourselves to a detestable indifferency or neutrality in this caufe which fo much concerneth the glory of GOD, the good of the kingdom, and honour of the King; but fhall all the days of our lives zealously and conftantly continue therein againft all oppofition, and promote the fame according to our power, against all lets and impediments whatsoever; and, what we are not able ourselves to fupprefs or overcome, we shall reveal and make known, that it may be timely prevented or removed: All which we fhall do as in the fight of GOD.

And, because these kingdoms are guilty of many fins and provocations against GOD, and his Son JESUS CHRIST, as is too manifest by our prefent diftreffes and dangers, the fruits thereof; we profefs and declare, before GOD and the world, our unfeigned defire to be humbled for our own fins, and for the fins of thefe kingdoms;, efpecially, that we have not as we ought valued the inestimable benefit of the gospel, that we have not laboured for the purity and power thereof, and that we have not endeavoured to receive CHRIST in our hearts, nor to walk worthy of him in our lives; which are the caufes of other fins and tranfgreffions fo much abounding amongst us: And our true and unfeigned purpose, defire, and endeavour for ourselves, and all others under our power and charge, both in public and in private, in all duties we owe to GOD and man, to amend our lives, and each one to go before another in the example of a real reformation; that the Lord may turn away his wrath and heavy indignation, and establish thefe Churches and kingdoms in truth and peace. And this Covenant we make in the prefence of ALMIGHTY GOD, the Searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to perform the fame, as we fhall anfwer at that great day, when the


fecrets of all hearts fhall be difclofed; moft humbly befeeching the LORD to strengthen us by his HOLY SPIRIT for this end, and to bless our defires and proceedings with fuch fuccefs, as may be deliverance and fafety to his people, and encouragement to other Chriftian Churches, groaning under, or in danger of the yoke of antichriftian tyranny, to join in the fame, or like affociation and covenant, to the glory of GOD, the enlargement of the kingdom of JESUS CHRIST, and the peace and tranquillity of Chriftian kingdoms and common.



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Those which do in a more fpecial Way relate unto the DANGERS of

thofe Times.

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The Act of the Commiffion of the General Affembly 1648, and Act of Parliament 1649, for renewing the League and Covenant.

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