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with anecdotes and legends, so as to keep the reader constantly interested. There are a few errors to be corrected in the next edition-the calumny, for instance, that Moslems believe women to be "soulless " (p. 140), repeated by the author in evident good faith. But the wonder is that there are not more. Whence has Mr. Ainslie got that exasperating last vowel, by the way, in "Ya Mohammeda (p. 216)?-C.


9. Les Mémoires Historiques de Se-ma Ts'ien, translated and annotated by ÉDOUARD CHAVANNES, Professor at the College of France. It is now ten years since the unwearying French Professor brought out his first volume of China's earliest real history, and now at last, after a long interval, we are at the fifth volume, the dates of the others being 1895, 1897, 1898-1899 (two parts), and 1901. Volume v. brings us up to the end of chapter 47, out of a total of 115 chapters; so that there still remains plenty of heavy work to do. The previous volumes have each from time to time been duly noticed in the Asiatic Quarterly Review; the twelve chapters last reviewed, forming volume iv., treated of the history of the feudal States during the "Spring and Autumn" or hegemony period (722-481 B.C.)—that is, during the stretch of time covered by Confucius' Annals known by that peculiar name. The present volume of 550 pages treats of the nominally feudal States, which from being influential began to be really independent of the waning imperial power, subsequent to the "Spring and Autumn"; but during the "Fighting States " period--i.e., when the non-Chinese or mixed States of Ts'in in the west and Ch'u in the south began to contest the political supremacy which had been long held by the purely Chinese States of Ts'in (Shan Si) and Ts'i (Shan Tung), and to prepare the way for the revolutionary conquest by Ts'in. Finally comes the biographical sketch of Confucius himself, who is thus ranked amongst the "Kings" of the world. M. Chavannes

has thus already completed the translation of the more important half of this great historical work; and there now remains little more than the list of personal biographies and the supremely interesting accounts of the Hiung-nu (Turks) and other "barbarous" States. If, as we may devoutly hope, M. Chavannes continues to enjoy health and strength sufficient for the accomplishment of this great task, we shall possess a magnificent annotated work of at least 5,000 octavo pages, in many respects even a vaster achievement than the original monumental Shi-ki of Ez-ma Ts'ien himself.

One of the most remarkable results of our indefatigable author's latest researches is a fairly clear proof that the celebrated romance (third century B.C.) of the two voyages of the "Emperor" Muh to the land of the "Queen of the West" (tenth century B.C.) is really nothing more than a traditional account of the journeys of a Turko-Chinese feudatory, the Duke Muh (seventh century B.C.), to the regions of Kuché and Harashar. That is, in this as in many other cases during their early career of expansion and intellectual conquest, the invading central Chinese quietly appropriated such of the noble and martial traditions of conquered feudatories (or sub-States, or foreign States) as suited their purpose, and deliberately brazed them on to the framework of their own imperial history; just as, for instance, Julius Cæsar "appropriated” the Gaulish divinities, and rechristened them with such Roman names as Mars and Minerva.

In these pleasure-loving and idle times, those persons who wish for a short respite from self-indulgence, pomp, and vanity, could not do better than settle down to a little medicinal change, and refresh themselves mentally with the study of M. Chavannes' marvellous volumes.— E. H. PARKER.

10. Le Shinn-toïsme, by MICHEL REVON, formerly Professor of French Law at the Imperial University, Tōkyō. This book, a careful study of over 200 pages, has for its object to

show that the Japanese had a genuine primitive religion, developed on the usual lines of Nature-worship, Animism, Hero-worship, Fetichism, etc., long before the arrival of Buddhism and Confucianism from China, viâ Corea, forced them to invent a special name for it. The name they then chose for their old religion was Shên-tao, or, in pure Japanese, Kami-no-michi, "the spirits' (or gods') road." This purely Chinese word first appears in Japanese history in 586, at the accession of the Emperor Yō-mei (Yungming), when it is stated that the said Emperor or Tennō (Tien-hwang) "revered Shên-tao (Shin-to) and believed in the Buddhist law." But it must be remembered that, at that date the very word Yō-mei did not exist (if at all) in any historical work-Japanese, Corean, or Chinese—and that it was not until the year 712 that any Japanese "history" was composed at all, and even then only from the memory of one single aged retainer, who had (twentyfive years before) been orally told of it all by a former Emperor. All this, and a great deal more bearing on the worthlessness of ancient Japanese "history," has been explained ad nauseam by Messrs. Chamberlain, Aston, and Satow in various papers, and also succinctly by the present critic in vol. xxiii. of the China Review of 1898, pp. 59-74; moreover, it is all admitted by the Japanese themselves. M. Revon now wishes us to believe that the Japanese only applied the Chinese word Shin-to to their already existing and matured national religion after the arrival in Japan of Buddhism (sixth century), and in order to distinguish it from Buddhism: he thinks it absurd to call Shin-to a Chinese religion, simply because a ready-made and ancient Chinese name was thus given to it. He thinks that, if the ancient Chinese and the ancient Japanese religious ideas correspond, it is not because one was derived from the other, but because each developed on its own independent lines. Moreover, he considers that Japanese Shin-to (previous to the reform and reconstructions of two centuries ago) does contain a moral code and is really a religion, though perhaps not in

our Western sense-i.e., complicated by abstract metaphysics. In this view he is, to a certain extent, supported by that premier des japonistes, Sir E. Satow, and, indeed, no one need deny to any race, which has survived the 2,000 years' struggle for independent existence, the original capacity to think out a primitive Nature-worship for itself.

M. Revon is, perhaps, a little too positive in laying down when the celebrated triumvirate of japonistes just named are à tort in what they say. His own plan is to take the texts of the Kojiki and Nihongi "histories," with all their faults, and to endeavour, by comparing their statements. with the ancient norito, or "prayers," and with modern village life and superstition, to arrive at a clear notion of the anthropomorphism, magic, fear of death, desire for spontaneous adoration, development of fetichism, etc., which characterized the evolution of early Shin-to. It will be for each reader to form his own opinion upon the value of M. Revon's special pleadings. The writer of the present notice finds the author's knowledge of Chinese much too slender. He adduces, as established Japanese ideas, notions manifestly Chinese. For instance, Shin-koku, "Japan," is manifestly a variant of Shên-chou, “China,” just as tei-koku, "empire" (an expression unknown in China) has been evolved out of Chinese words. As a study in religious evolution M. Revon's work is excellent, but as an attempt to deprive China of the honour of having created Japanese abstract thought it is of doubtful value.-E. H. PARKER.


11. A History of Ottoman Poetry, by the late E. J. W. GIBB; edited by EDWARD G. BROWNE, M.A., M.B., Sir Thomas Adams Professor of Arabic and Fellow of Pembroke College in the University of Cambridge. In the number of this Review for April, 1905, we had a notice of the previous volume of the present work. The contri

bution now before us is volume iv., and to all that was then said respecting the enterprise we have not much to add. As regards the distinguishing peculiarities of the present volume, they may best be stated in Dr. Browne's own words: "The character of what remains of my task," says he, "undergoes in this the fourth volume a material change. Up to this point I have had before me a manuscript which, however much the author might, if he had lived, have modified or enlarged, was essentially complete, needing only trifling alterations and occasional notes. For the period which remains the period, that is to say, of the New School, which deserted Persian for French models, and almost recreated the Turkish language (so greatly did they alter its structure and the literary ideals of their countrymen) only three chapters were to be discovered. among my friend's papers." It thus appears that, as far as regards authorship and subject-matter, the work now enters upon a new stage. As Dr. Browne's description thus suggests, the present volume deals with the modern Romanticists-Shinási Efendi, Ziyá Páshá, and the rest. To what was said in our former notice there is not much that needs to be added. The name of Dr. Browne has for many years been before the world of Orientalists, and needs no recommendation. The Turkisk original is composed in the "Gazal" form-a form that readily lends itself to erotic poetry-and the translation is done into English couplets corresponding thereto. The poems being of an amatory nature, there is much in them of a highly diverting character. There is an aroma about them which is redolent of the glowing Orient; and the work, apart altogether from its scholarly character, will form seductive and amusing reading, as well in the original as in this the English translation. In the printing and other mechanical parts of the work, the present volume maintains to the full the singularly high level alluded to in our notice above referred to. The enterprise has not yet reached the "index" stage; the great extent of the work, however,

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