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and the abundance of learned information contained in the foot-notes, will be found to render such an appendage highly important and most useful.-B.
12. Hebrew Humour, and other Essays, by J. CHOTZNER, PH.D., late Hebrew Tutor at Harrow. This volume (180 pp.) consists of a series of papers that have already appeared in several periodicals; it treats of Hebrew subjects-Biblical and extra-Biblical-as well of modern times as of ancient. The essays are sixteen in number, and they are written in the sketchy style which readers of periodical literature find acceptable; it is, therefore, a work for the general reader rather than for the scholar. The author includes in his treatises not only the older Hebrew writings, but also the writings of Hebraists down through the centuries to our own time, embracing even "modern Hebrew journalism."
Every reader of the Bible must have perceived that the humour displayed by the writers of our Sacred Literature presents a subject well worthy of careful notice. This same quality may be found no less in the Greek Scriptures than in the Hebrew. Greek, however, does not come within the scope of the author's scheme. But the reader should not be too much influenced by the word "humour" in this connection. As found in the Scriptures, a good deal of it is what in these days would oftener be described as "banter," "irony," "ridicule," "sarcasm "-all, however, perfectly natural, and never strained, far-fetched, or out of place, as witness the incitement of the prophet to call more loudly in the invocation of the Sun-god in the Carmel incident (1 Kings xviii. 27). It is the sarcastic banter of one who was fully assured that he was himself on the winning side. In the order of "humorousness" Dr. Chotzner grades the prophets thus: Isaiah, Kohalath, Hosea, Amos; giving Elijah, however, a very high place, "alone by himself"-a kind of inspired Diogenes.
As the Scripture passages alluded to are numerous, a list of them should have been given at the end of the work,
as also, and in a separate count, of the Hebrew words which come in for notice. Such an arrangement would have rendered the work more interesting to the intelligent reader, and would have been a saving of time. But there is, even so, a good deal of information in the volume which will make it charming reading to all who would obtain an insight into the subject of Hebrew literature, ancient or modern.-B.
MADRAS; PRINTED FOR THE SUPERINTENDent of Records, GOVERNMENT SECRETARIAT AND GOVERNMENT PRESS, 1904.
13. The Private Diary of Ananda Ranga Pillai, Dubâsh to Joseph Francois Dupleix, translated from the Tamil, by order of the Government of Madras, by SIR E. FREDERICK PRICE, K.C.S.I., assisted by K. RANGACHARI, B.A. Vol. I. Records of native life in French India in the time of Dupleix are none too common, and for this reason especially do we hail the appearance of this important and excellently edited book. It is the diary of Avanda Ranga Pillai, an inhabitant of Madras, who at an early age was taken by his father to Pondicherry in 1716, where he had influential connections, and there he spent the remainder of his life under the rule of the French. His relative Guruva Pillai embraced Christianity in France, whither he had gone on a mission to the Duke of Orleans for help to redress the unjust charges against his family, was made a chevalier of St. Michael and appointed Courtier," or chief native inhabitant of Pondicherry, and though he died when the diarist was young, he doubtless made his influence felt. The diarist himself was employed in 1726 by the Governor, M. Lenoir, and soon made head of the chief factory of Porto Novo, and in this capacity came under the notice. of M. Dupleix, the new Governor, who, in 1747, raised him to the post of "Courtier," or "Chief Dubâsh," which he held, even after his patron's downfall, until 1756, when he was removed. He died a few years after, in 1761, just
four days before Pondicherry surrendered to the English and the vision of French supremacy in India was over. Much that is interesting is chronicled in this diary, as well as the most trivial incidents. The writer had considerable influence over Dupleix, and throughout the book we have many notices of him, of Mme. Dupleix, her daughters, and her unseen power also. The religious liberality of both the Governor and his wife is shown by the account of their visit to the school at Bommaiya Pâlaiyam in December, 1744. In this voluminous book we might find many things to note had we space. In 1739 there is the hearsay report of Tahmasp Quli Khan's victories. In 1745 we notice that the Christian service was first held at Pondicherry without distinction of caste-the priest of Karikal being the reformer -and that sumptuary laws were laid down for female converts which were not kindly received. In the last pages we find the account of a fracas in 1746, when a certain M. Coquet was ejected (with beating) from a Tamil house, and the wise Governor congratulated the ejectors, saying, "They have done well in making a thorough example of him.” The diarist does not neglect to draw some sharp pen portraits of his confrères also, one of which we will quote, as it is instructive as to his estimate of a certain Bâlu Chetty and human nature. The passage runs: "His ideas are not of a high class; and not having moved in the society of gentlemen, he is not well mannered. The low nature of his character is to be imputed to the fact that he was not born rich."-A. F. S.
METHUEN AND Co.; 36, ESSEX STREET, LONDON, W.C.
14. Historical and Modern Atlas of the British Empire, specially prepared for students by C. GRANT RObertson, M.A., Oxon, Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, and J. G. BARTHOLOMEW, F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S. This is a handy and wellgot-up Atlas. It contains coloured maps showing comparative views of the countries of the British Empire,
British Isles and Europe, Asia, Africa, America (including Canada and the West Indies), and Oceania. There is also an admirable introduction on the relation geography has to history, a short gazetteer of the British Empire and possessions up to date. For example, under the Commonwealth of Australia there is the following description: "A Federation of the six Colonies-New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, and Tasmania— created by 63 and 64 Vict., c. 12, January 1, 1901, responsible federal self-government." Under British India there is the following description: "That port of the Indian Peninsula which is under British rule and influence, and includes districts under direct administration and the native States. It is divided into nine provinces and certain minor charges. 1600-1858 administered by the East India Company. In 1858 the Crown, by 21 and 22 Vict., c. 106, resumed its sovereign rights. The supreme executive and legislative power in India is vested in the Governor-General in Council, subject to the Secretary of State for India in Council, who is responsible to the Crown in Parliament. In 1876 the Crown of Great Britain took the title of
Emperor of India." We give only another example: "Orkney and Shetland Islands, a group of islands to the north of Scotland; capital, Kirkwall; under Norwegian jores, 872-1231; nominally under the King of Norway, 1231-1471; annexed to Scotland since 1471."
To show that it is up to date, we give the following quotations: "Political Changes in 1905.-Dominion of Canada : The organization of ports of the North-Western Territories of Canada into two new provinces, as shown on Map No. 51, was inaugurated (September, 1905): Alberta (comprising the former Alberta and one-half of Athabasca), capital, Edmonton; Saskatchewan (Assimboia, Saskatchewan, and one-half of Athabasca), capital, Regina." "Empire of India.—The provinces of Bengal, Central Provinces, and Assam have been rearranged and reconstructed, as shown on Map Nos. 34-35. The boundary between Bengal and the
Central Provinces has been readjusted, whilst Assam and the eastern portion of Bengal now form the new province of 'Eastern Bengal and Assam.'" There are also interesting tables and lists giving the statistics of the British Empire and of possessions not now under the British Crown, as well as a bibliography of the British Empire, historical and modern. We strongly recommend this Atlas to our readers.
JOHN MURRAY; ALBEMARLE STREET, LONDON, W., 1905.
15. China and Religion, by E. H. PARKER, Professor of Chinese at the Victoria University of Manchester. This book seems to have for its leading note the suggestion that all religions are purely human institutions, the main double object of which has always been and is to account for the unknown, and to regulate the order of human life. The author nowhere states this formidable view as his own opinion, but the general trend of his arguments, as marshalled in facts cold and merciless, indicates that this must really be his view. For the rest, the twelve chapters are simply each in turn a historical retrospect of the twelve religions which have from time to time presented themselves for consideration to the Chinese mind; and, of course, it is for specialists in each department to decide for themselves how far this work has been faithfully and conscientiously performed by the author.
We are all more or less familiar with what has been said upon the subject of Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism -the san-kiao, or "three religions," of ancient and modern Chinese parlance-but Nestorianism, Manicheism, Mussulmanism, Judaism, the Russian Church, and Shintōism, have not yet been described in popular language in such a way as to make their influence in China clear to the man in the street. The overpowering influence of Taoism upon many, if not upon all, of these later teachings is described in detail, and the whole of the Taoist classic is translated