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word for word in an appendix, with check numbers added, enabling the reader to refer to all sentences of parallel meaning. A good deal has been written lately upon the subject of Japanese shinto and bushido, which latter "religion" is really of so modern a conception that no Japanese dictionaries even mention it by name, nor is there any trace of its existence under that name in any Chinese work, ancient or modern. In spite of the somewhat strained arguments of Baron Suyematsu, it is, in fact, as Mr. Aston has clearly shown it to be, a purely modern catchword, exploited for all it is worth, and turned (like our words "efficiency," "free trade," " open door," "retaliation," etc.)

to purely political uses.

A special point in Mr. Parker's work which may be viewed with some satisfaction is the copious index. This enables the reader to control facts and dates by back and counter references. It cannot be too often impressed upon authors that a good index is as essential to a "learned " book as a good railway guide is essential to commodious travelling. The dozen or so of photographs are in some cases quite interesting for instance, the picture of the Nestorian stone and the portrait of the Chinese priest, Father Hoang. As to the letterpress, Mr. Murray may be fairly congratulated upon his care and prudence. Throughout the whole book there is but one serious misprint, and that is the word legis for leges upon p. 67. Moreover, the paper is light, and the book may be easily held up to a lamp in one hand.

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While Mr. Parker's study may be fairly described as interesting to all, and even absorbing to specialists, it can hardly be recommended to the lazy man for light reading ; indeed, all but specialists will, perhaps, have a difficulty in mastering more than one chapter at a sitting. On the other hand, the unmistakable facts are there, and the places whence the facts are derived are all given in a preliminary "Foreword," so that anyone can "verify his references" for himself, and the book is secure of a long life. The author


seems to make a special point of the necessity for "objectiveness" in taking a fair and uncoloured view of the religions of mankind. To many of us this demand may savour too much of agnosticism, but, after all, why should we not all frankly admit the possibility of our being in error? Every man is at liberty to believe in the absolute virtue and sanctity of his own wife's-in other words, to make a religion of it--but who so foolish as to deny the physical possibility of that wife-or, at all events, any other wife's going wrong under sudden temptation or overpowering moral pressure? So with religion. There is no reason under the sun why the most devout orthodoxy should not be coupled with the intellectual admission that "everything may be a mistake." Unless, in fact, we make this admission, in what way do we differ from those who claim "infallibility" for Papal decisions? Do we not inferentially declare ourselves infallible when we presume to deride the possibility that we may be wrong? The fact is, it is only within the past generation that men as a body have begun to "think straight" at all. Mr. Parker would have been burnt at the stake 300 years ago. In past times such men as Locke, Bacon, Newton, or Johnson, may have exceeded in reasoning power anything that we can show at the present "degenerate" day; but even they were on occasions unable to shake off the "infallible" beliefs they had sucked in with their mothers' milk. This was especially so in Johnson's case. The position now suggested, if not established, by Mr. Parker, that a man may be an absolute and convinced believer without abandoning one single point of vantage secured by modern science, is thus a simple though a far-reaching one; nor is it in any way inconsistent with reason or common-sense: it is that the individual mind must be-as in fact the individual body isperfectly detached. In this way we can all hope to see clearly, and yet we are all left quite free to believe what we choose, however inconsistent with "undetached" thought. JULIANUS.

16. From the Cape to the Zambesi, by G. T. HUTCHINSON, with an Introduction by COLONEL F. RHODES, C.B., D.S.O., with many illustrations from photographs by Colonel Rhodes and the author. The author, with a facile pen, describes the various scenes recorded in the book. He begins with South Africa, and says: "It is only now that Englishmen are beginning to realize how vast are the resources of South Africa. Practically the whole of it, from Cape Town to the Zambesi, may be described as a white man's country-in the sense that there are no climatic conditions to prevent white men from making it their home." "It is rich in mineral wealth." "Diamonds have been found in Cape Colony, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony, a fact that goes to prove that the deposits are spread over an immense tract of country; at the present the chief difficulty is to regulate the supply so that it shall not be in excess of the demand. The gold-mines of the Rand have much of the character of a permanent industry." "South Africa has great agricultural possibilities. For more than a century it has had a purely agricultural population, which has steadily spread northwards, and has now reached the Zambesi."

The author then gives his impressions of the Cape Colony; Kimberley; Rhodesia, its gold-mines, its farming operations, its prospects in the future; the Victoria Falls; the veld; the Native Question; the land settlement in the Orange River Colony; Johannesburg; and a copious index. The numerous illustrations are beautifully executed, and the author concludes: "These chapters [of the volume] will have entirely failed in their purpose if they indicate that all seems to be plain sailing in South Africa; everywhere there are difficulties to be met, and in many cases help is required from home. But they will have failed even more completely if they give the impression that things are beyond repair. The tone of quiet confidence. that is universal in South Africa is an eloquent testimony to the contrary; the country may be said to be 'marking



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time,' but nearly ready for the word advance.' We believe this opinion is honestly and sincerely given.



17. Muhammad and the Rise of Islám, by D. S. MARGOLIOUTH. There are some subjects which in their very nature are so contentious that it seems impossible to treat of them without more or less revealing one's own predilections. The most serious indictment of Ignatius Loyola that has ever yet come to our notice was written by one who was himself a Jesuit, and whose object in writing was to put forth an apologia for Jesuitism and its founder! Dr. Margoliouth, while desirous of steering clear of the confessedly Christian bias" of Sir William Muir, does undesignedly, and by sheer suggestion, produce respecting Muhammad a most unfavourable impression. We say this not with any desire to derogate from the literary importance of his book, but merely as showing the unavoidably contentious nature of the materials, even when they fall into hands the most unprejudiced. The case proves that the more ingenuous and unbiassed the compilation of the life of the Prophet and the development of Islám, the more fatal is the verdict.

So rapidly have events unfolded themselves in regard to the history of the original founding of Islám within the last fifty years that it is now at length becoming clear that, masterly as were the compilations of Muir and Sprengerworks which will be classics for all time-several publications have appeared which supply details respecting the subject that in the days of those two writers were as yet undiscovered. They, to be sure, obtained their materials from original sources," but the subsequent publication of the works of other Arabian writers has led, not to the undermining of their works (which, indeed, were an impossibility, seeing that they obtained their information from sources


the most primitive and authentic), but to the filling in of certain lacuna and the addition of certain modifying details which lead to greater completeness in the narrative.

the raison d'être of this new contribution.


But high as the reputation of Dr. Margoliouth stands as an Orientalist, we know not on what information he was led to affirm (see Preface, p. vii) that Muḥammad "solved the political problem of the construction of an empire out of the Arab tribes." He did, to be sure, upset the longdominant oligarchy of Mekka and the Hijáz, and he brought into subjection many tribes; but he never so subdued the whole of them, nor did he weld them into an "Empire"; and that his demise was the signal for general defection is matter of common knowledge. The conquests of Islám after his decease were abroad (in Egypt, Palestine, Spain, etc.) rather than among the Arabian tribes. Indeed, as Burckhardt showed a century ago, some of the tribes continue to this day not only unsubjected and unsubdued, but unconciliated, and even openly and actively hostile to the Islámic faith and practice. Some of the tribes of Arabia have from the very first remained coldly aloof and unaffected, while others of them have proved utterly unamenable and irreconcilable. If proof of this were needed, it night be seen in the agelong opposition of the tribes of the interior to the Hajj caravans. The heavy tribute they enforce, on pain of robbery and murder, is clear proof that they have no belief in the religion which renders passage through their howling wastes a matter of necessity. Their organized onslaughts on these followers of the Prophet are a standing evidence that in any empire" he may have "constructed" they have no part or lot. From time immemorial the hostility of the tribes has been bought off at a very high price. They do not go on the pilgrimage themselves, and those who do so they relentlessly punish. And yet is this duty absolutely binding on every follower of his! The fact is, that with the removal of the personality of the Prophet all prospect of the subjection of the

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