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of India amounts to a paltry 3 per cent. of their outgoings. This can scarcely be considered adequate. Free education in municipal towns may be a counsel of perfection. But there can be no doubt that a much larger amount than is actually spent would be required to meet the existing demand for education, and that that demand is growing every year. It has always been the settled policy of Government to encourage municipal boards in making liberal grants towards elementary education, but it is remarkable that the response from the boards has not been as hearty as might have been desired. In the towns the demand is all for English education in Anglo-vernacular schools. These come rather under the description of secondary than of primary education. Now while primary education has received most attention, the opinion has frequently been held that secondary education—especially in English-should be paid for by those who desire it. Every town has one or two secondary schools, but they are generally overcrowded, and as the English course is of most material benefit to the pupils, it is the most popular branch of study. It is also the least organized. The names of many distinguished statesmen-none more than that of Sir Alfred Lyall-are associated with an attempt to encourage secondary and English education, and there are signs that the Education Departments are realizing the importance of English in the early education of the children of India. But the municipalities would do well-while not starving elementary education to lay out judiciously sufficient funds for meeting the demand that has vigorously set in for secondary and English education.

I think I have said enough to show the opportunities and the shortcomings, the possibilities and the pitfalls of civic life in India. It is true that the qualification for voters, though low enough, still keeps a large number of the population outside the vortex of municipal life. In Calcutta, for instance, the qualification is threefold—viz., either the payment of rates and taxes to the amount of

Rs. 24; or the possession of a license to practice certain. trades and professions; or the occupation or ownership of land of a certain value. Under the last head a man may have as many votes as there are units of property. In any of these three forms property bulks largely (for India) in the makings of a civic elector, and the number of names on the Voters' Register bears a very small proportion to the total population. But, on the other hand, the interest shown by electors in contested elections is very keen; indeed, in some cases it might with advantage be moderated with some of that tolerance for opponents which introduces chivalry into the civic code. In 1895, as many as 75 per cent. of the electorate voted in the contested wards of Calcutta.* This makes a very favourable show when compared with the London County Council election of 1901, in which only 20'6 per cent. voted in the City of London and 568 in Stepney. The fact is that in spite of many failures and many gaps to be filled up in the future, a fair amount of progress has been made in building up a civic conscience in India. So acute an observer as Lord Curzon (then Mr. Curzon), in piloting the India Councils Bill through the House of Commons in 1892,† used words which are truer to-day than they were fourteen years ago words full of generous sympathy and penetrating insight. He defined the objects of that measure to be:

"To widen the basis and to expand the functions of Government in India; to give further opportunities than at present exist to the non-official and native elements in Indian society to take part in the work of government, and in this way to lend official recognition to that remarkable development both of political interest and political capacity which has been visible among the higher classes of Indian society since the Government of India was taken over by the Crown."

* P. 83 of the "Moral and Material Progress of India for 1901-1902" (Blue-book of 1903).

† Hansard, fourth series, vol. iii., p. 53, March 28, 1892.

The German philosopher Haeckel uses a felicitous phrase, "Communal Soul," in discussing the habits of the most primitive of Protozoan forms. Whether this communal soul exists in the unicellular radiolaria must be left to

biologists to determine. But it certainly forms an important factor in the capacities of mankind. It is the centripetal force which binds families, races, and nations together. It is the element which lends pathos, dignity, and sublimity to epic poetry. It gathers the threads of isolated thoughts, floating dreams and visions, and unconnected deeds of gallantry and heroism, and weaves with them a tangible and splendid fabric, whose composite glory of sparkle, softness, and strength forms the outer robe of aspiring humanity in its stately march through the centuries.




THE generation in India that is fast passing away from the scene of its earthly labours is regarding the younger generation with mingled hope and fear. The hope gives rise to the fear, because it is felt that the future of the land rests entirely on what the younger generation is. To find out, therefore, the tendencies of "young India," to know something of the sentiments that actuate it, to discover the directions in which the prospects are promising as well as those in which the outlook is gloomy, and to calculate the chances of progress in the country when affairs finally pass into hands now preparing for them, must be a subject of absorbing interest to everyone interested in India. But it is not the unique fascination of the subject that is its chief recommendation to attention, but to my mind it deserves a serious consideration at our hands as a factor in the solution of many of the social and political problems with which modern India bristles, and which will be difficult to handle unless those trying to solve them have a clear idea of the present conditions of the country and understand the men they have to deal with.

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Young India" can be classed into several divisions. There is, for instance, the division of the sexes, the male world consisting of young men in active walks of life, and the young female world inside the homes, possessed of no small influence and capable of moulding the destinies of the country, no less active for being hidden from the eye of the ordinary observer. There is another great division of young India-that of the educated and the uneducated, or, to be more comprehensive, of the literate and the illiterate. Let us begin with this latter classification of young Indians. I


For discussion on this paper see report of the Proceedings of the East India Association elsewhere in this Review.

need hardly state that, unfortunately, the illiterate form a large majority. I do not propose to enter here into the causes of this prevailing want of education, and to decide whether the Government or the people are more to blame for it, though at first sight it appears that a civilized Government like that of Britain must have been sleeping pretty soundly over its duties to neglect the elementary education. of the people so much. But the truth is that the people, too, have been apathetic to this primary duty of all civilized nations, and the Government is not exclusively open to blame, and in fairness to both it may be added that there are signs of an awakening in both the quarters to a sense of their duty to the masses to provide for a general elementary education. For our present purpose, however, it has to be admitted that the bulk of the population even in "young India" is unlettered. Now we have to see what this mass of humanity is about. Outwardly it is not much different to its prototypes of a past or a passing generation. The young peasant tills the soil as diligently as his fathers before him, uses the same implements of agriculture, and has, more or less, the same simple mode of life and the same philosophic faith in Providence. The workman has the same quiet way of going to work, the same long hours of labour, and the same struggle to make both ends meet. The artisan, with the exception of a few fortunate members of his class, who in some modern factories have learnt the use of improved tools and machinery, goes on pretty much in his old way. The professional beggar, a drain as he is on the national earnings of India, still goes his daily rounds, and the acrobatic dancer and the juggler still amuse the crowd with their feats and tricks. To all appearances the current of life runs quite smoothly, but a little below the surface. there is commotion, for the man in the street in India and the labourer in the field is no longer as ignorant as he looks. The literate minority is not so much cut off from the illiterate majority as is commonly supposed, and the influences that are modifying the trend of thought of the upper and educated

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