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Jehad was causing trouble not only to the Abyssinians but to the British Protectorate, and associated with his forces were 5,000 Abyssinians provided by the Emperor Menelik under the command of Fituarari Gabri, along with Colonel A. N. Rochfort. Though these made some headway they were not able to bring the redoubtable Mullah to terms, and larger operations were planned in 1903-1904 under Lieutenant-General Sir C. C. Egerton. Colonel Rochfort was now provided with a small staff, and two British medical officers, of whom Major Jennings was one, were sent out at the request of the Emperor Menelik. This well-illustrated book, which was obviously written on the march, and has been arranged for publication by Dr. Addison, deals with Major Jennings's experiences, and is a pleasant narrative of travel from Aden into Somaliland with the Abyssinian force. There is a description of Djibouti, the European part of which is "a clean smart little town," and thence the expedition proceeded inland, meeting Ras Mukunnan at Harrar, a town of which it is said "inside the walls it is a rookery," with streets like "Scotch burns run dry," which was conquered with the Galla country by Abyssinia in 1887. There is an interesting account of the country round Harrar and the fauna it contained, amongst which are the notable, if objectionable, "stink ants." Mr. Wakeman joined the party at Jigjiga, and the writer expresses deep indebtedness to him for much information about the Abyssinians, gleaned through his knowledge of Amharic and Arabic. The Somalis, the author thinks, contrast in many respects favourably with the Abyssinians; they are cleaner, and, as Mohammedans, teetotallers. We are given interesting chapters upon the Abyssinian customs. The soldiers are praised for their endurance, and there is a curious account of their lébashai, or thief-catcher.

Though the Abyssinians profess Christianity, the marriagetie is said to be slight, ceremonial or sacramental marriage is rare, and can be dissolved only by the Abouna, while

concubinage is prevalent. Circumcision precedes baptism, which shows an interesting relic of the pre-Christian religion. We do not know what to make of the author's remarks, "Attendance at church is very regular; but most persons appear to go either as a matter of course, or because it is the fashion. There can hardly be said, however, to be much worship," as the custom for similar reasons is sometimes, perhaps, known nearer home. More interesting is his account of the Abyssinia fasts, feasts, and medical practices, and his remarks on the Somalis and the outcast tribe of the Midgans. Accounts of Shikar, illustrated by photographs, also occur in the narrative, and these will, with the notes of flora and fauna throughout the book, be of great interest to sportsmen and naturalists.-A. F. S.

LONGMAN AND Co.; 39, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C., 1905. 7.-Shinto the Way of the Gods, by W. G. Aston, C.M.G., D.LIT. This is a concise and thorough treatise on the oldest religious system of Japan. It would be hard to mention any item in reference to Shintoism that has been overlooked. The 377 pages are devoted to minute investigation of the subject, while the clear and careful method in which the information is imparted stamps this, like all Mr. Aston's preceding works, with a value that is indisputable.

"The Way of the Gods" is an analytical glossary of the Kami cult, with its hierarchy of gods and goddesses, whose origin is wonderfully diversified, from the hero who has influenced national events to the animal life that plagues humanity; from the storm-god to the deity who presides over purity of wells, or the safety of gate-posts. This Kami cult existed before the oldest available book was written in Japan. It swayed the hearts of the people from time immemorial, and drew them with a force gentle but resistless. Its dogmas have been received throughout the length of the Empire. One generation after another has

led lives of discipline and self-renunciation by means of its slender tenure. Events of history, particularly since the last conflict, have brought to our notice this dreamy, shadowy creed, with its ceremonials full of strange impressiveness, so diverse in their fulfilment to any other ritual. The author describes weird rites that are participated in, both during the lifetime of mortals as well as at their burial, and explains the progressive theory by means of which men attain the rank of deified ancestors, to be remembered before the family shrine or the wayside cemetery. "Pure" Shinto may remain for a time, but there is a tendency for it to wane before the more florid faith of Buddhism, or the unrest of the soul seeking comfort from new and untried sources altogether.

Mr. Aston's work will be found sufficiently satisfying to the student bent on investigating the subject from a strictly scientific standpoint, while the dogmas are too startling to be entirely passed over by the novice should curiosity lead to a chance acquaintance. This book provides a mine of knowledge and a fund of explanatory research conscientiously entered upon and discussed.-S.


8. Part I. of the Tadhkiratu 'L-Awliyá (“Memoirs of the Saints") of Muhammad ibn Ibráhím Farídu' DDin 'Attár, edited in the original Persian, with preface, indices, and variants, by REYNOLD A. NICHOLSON, M.A., Lecturer in Persian in the University of Cambridge; with a critical introduction by MÍRZÁ MUHAMMAD B. 'ABDU 'L-WAHHAB-I QAZWÍNÍ. This well-printed volume forms a part of vol. iii. of the Persian Historical Texts. It is the oldest work of the kind in Persian, and that, although deficient in dates and biographical details of any sort, it contains a large amount of material which is not to be found in the later biographies, or, so far as I know (says the editor). anywhere else. Its value as a source for the history of

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Sufiism can hardly be over-estimated. Compared with Jámí's Nafahátu 'L-Uns' it has this immense advantage, that its articles, being much fewer in number, are far more exhaustive; where Jámí gives only a rapid sketch 'Attâr draws a full-length picture." The work is "an excellent example of early Persian prose, plain, terse, and dignified." Six manuscripts have been used in preparing this volume. These manuscripts are described in detail, and very valuable variants are noted. There is also a short, but very interesting notice of the author, and the motives which led him to compile his "Memoirs of the Saints."


9. Colonial Administration, by PAUL S. REINSCH, Professor of Political Science in the University of Wisconsin. This volume forms part of "The Citizen's Library of Economics, Politics, and Sociology," edited by R. T. ELY, PH.D., LL.D., Professor of Political Economy in the same University. It contains a comparative study of the methods of colonial administration by the Government of various countries, with the view of solving problems which Colonial Governments have to face, in alien countries. A part of the first chapter was read by the author at the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at St. Louis, and a part of the second chapter was published in the American Journal of Sciology. There is a valuable and discriminating introduction on general principles by which Colonial Governments ought to be guided in the numerous diversities of native populations, their habits and customs. The chief topics discussed are-education and general social improvements, finance, currency, banking and credit, commerce, communication, agriculture and other industries; questions arising from land and labour, and defence and police. Each chapter on all these important subjects contains references to official publications, treaties, and articles. There is an excellent index. The author concludes that

"it will be wise for the Colonial legislator not to attempt too much, not to have too ambitious a programme. But if rightly planned, the economic reforms which it is in his power to effect with success may, like the massive architecture of a cathedral crypt, in time upbear an edifice which will answer larger purposes than those of mere economic welfare and progress."

10. The Reshaping of the Far East, by B. L. PUTNAM WEALE, 2 vols. In two sumptuous volumes, profusely illustrated, the author of "Manchu and Muscovite" proceeds to give us his somewhat dogmatic opinion of the political position in the Far East before June, 1905. After a historical prologue upon the march of recent events in China and Japan, he describes in very graphic language his travels up the Yangtze to Hankow, and then to Peking. His observations of the country he saw are always trenchant, and his descriptions of the scenery and geography happy. A good chapter on " Trunk Railways as Political Weapons" shows the haste, jobbery, and inefficiency of the railway syndicates. The writer is particularly severe upon the Belgians controlling the Hankow-Peking line, who are themselves, owing to their constitution, entirely in the hands of the natives. Yet, nevertheless, he prophesies a great future for railways in a populous country like China. Peking "under the foreign heel". is next considered, and we are shown how the Chinese have cause to detest the garrisons and fortifications of the Legations, which have been held to be necessary since 1900. "The Legations," says the author, "watch the Chinese Government, and so does Dr. Morrison watch the Legations, which is the finest thing of all." And it is stated that his word is still more powerful than that of the British Minister. It is insisted, however, that China, in spite of the Manchu rule, is arming to, and for, some purpose. The Customs Service is well described, and the career of Sir Robert Hart, which has included great financial and diplomatic successes during the fifty-one. years which it has occupied,

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