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missioner-in-Chief. At that time trade goods consisted principally of cloth, beads, and wire, the only medium of exchange with the natives. Stern justice and speedy retribution were of necessity the ruling features of any effective policy; thus our administration rose and progressed, and when the Company's flag went down, the Protectorate found a sort of basis upon which to work.

In 1895 there was very little communication between the different tribes except raids and counter-raids; hence our first main efforts were to keep the various districts quiet and bring them to a state of order. There was a state of slavery which we had to meet, and for this purpose, in July, 1895, police posts were established. These posts. were attacked in considerable force by the natives, and destroyed the greater part of the garrison. We had then to make a punitive expedition, which succeeded in punishing the offenders. About May, 1896, Soudanese troops under Colonel Harrison arrived from the coast, and proceeded at once to the unsettled areas. No punitive measures were, however, undertaken, as all the elders came in, submitted, and paid a fine, and the women who had escaped from their captors to our camp were handed over to their own people. After a time the troops withdrew, and the vacated temporary buildings were almost at once let to the Africa Inland Mission, and the locality has since ceased to cause any trouble. As the result of our endeavours to prevent and stop raiding, three other military and police expeditions were necessary in the Ulu district, the last of which was in 1897; since then the natives have caused, generally, no further trouble, and are now assisting in making roads. European settlers began, in 1903, to come into the country in appreciable numbers.

The Ukamba province, as originally constituted, contained, as estimated, thirty-eight square miles. This area included Teita and Taveta, Kikumbului, Ulu, Kitui, Mumoni, Kikuyu and Kenya, and Southern Masailand. In 1902 Teita and Taveta were placed under the Seyidie

(Mombasa) province, while the Kikuyu country north of the Chania River-and including Mount Kenya-was constituted a new province called "Kenya." The area of the province as it is now is about 21,500 square miles. The boundaries in relation to that of the German boundary is as follows: On the south the Tsavo-from its source-and Sabaki Rivers to a point on the latter near Loga Hill; thence the boundary proceeds on the east to Dokhat, keeping at an equal distance from the Tana, which river it joins east of the Mumoni range; taking in Mumoni, it strikes the Thika, and follows that river to the point where the Chania River enters it. The Chania to its source. forms the northern boundary; the western boundary is a line drawn from the source of the Chania along the Mianzini to Kijabi, and then in a south-westerly line to the Gwazo Nyiro River, thence along the course of that river to the Anglo-German boundary. The population of this province, as estimated, is 214,000, composed of the following tribes Wakamba, Wakikuyu, and Masai. In addition, the resident populations, including officials, number about 5,700. The province forms one of the administrative divisions of the Protectorate, and is divided for administrative purposes into districts, whose officers are responsible for law and order. They collect the revenue, and are the general advisers to the natives in abnormal matters. For generations in the past the different tribes resident in the province were hostile to one another. The Wakamba and Wakikuyu, who are a part of the Bantu race, are agricultural tribes; while the Masai, who are of Hamitic descent, are purely pastoral. Amongst the Bantu tribes of the province there is no record of a paramount chief; they have no form of government other than that of a patriarchal one. Amongst the Masai, however, there exists, and has always existed, a system of chieftainship. The chief in the old days, when the Masai were all-powerful, held practically absolute power. The Masai were, during their day, the lords of the interior of East Africa. All

natiye tribes lived in fear of them, and contributed, through the medium of forced raids, a regular tribute to this once powerful tribe. For years raids and counter-raids kept the country in a state of unrest. By our persistent efforts from 1895 these raids in 1900 ceased. Organized tribal

raids are now unknown.

The ordinary law of the province is that applied to the whole of the Protectorate, which consists in that laid down. in the Indian Criminal and Civil Codes, supplemented by a number of ordinances under the Orders in Council. The natives are becoming to realize the advantages of bringing their cases before these courts for settlement, and they appreciate a civilized mode of dealing with their claims. In this circumstance alone we have a very striking illustration of the advance made by the natives. From a state of raiding and killing for any little personal difference that may have existed formerly between people, we have now an application for a summons and an appearance in court. The progress in this connection is not confined to localities. just round stations: it extends amongst tens of thousands of the people. In 1890 slavery was declared illegal, and included dealing with slaves in any form. The several regulations and ordinances from 1897 to 1903 have all tended to simplify the administration of justice, and to make it more easily understood amongst the natives. All the Provincial Courts are subordinate to the High Court of East Africa. The police of the Protectorate is divided into three classes: (1) The District; (2) The Nairobi Township; and (3) Watchmen and Guards.

The introduction of the Uganda Railway has had a most wonderful and civilizing effect on the country through which it passes, and to it the province owes a great deal of its present progressive condition. The number of passengers during the year 1903 was: First class, 468; second class, 660; third class, 16,325; the total being 17,453. In the year 1904 First class, 844; second class, 1,382; and third class, 24, 303; making in all 26,529. The produce

carried by the railway during those years has much increased; for instance, beans, more than 222 tons, while in 1904 it was increased to more than 535 tons; potatoes, in 1903, 937 tons; in 1904, 1, 162 tons. There was no timber carried in 1903, but in 1904 it amounted to more than 479 tons. It is satisfactory to find that the railway is generally paying its own way. The construction of it has been not only justified from a financial point of view, but also a blessing to the country by opening it up to civilization, and proving to the Empire at large that East Africa is a land of fruitful promise. A comparison of travelling by the old caravan method and that of the railway from Bombasa is: one hour by railway, one day by caravan. By the old system there were no proper roads, but by degrees great improvemnt has been made in this respect. Post and telegraphs are being rapidly erected. There is also much progress in the surveying of land. In 1892 shops or business houses of any description were unknown, but now all this has changed. Hotels are being erected and banks established. The climate of the highlands is good, the soil is fertile, but the question has yet to be settled, "What will the soil produce that will pay a white man to cultivate it?" Coffee and fibres will grow, but these require time and money to produce. The question of native labour and that of the settlers require organization, and the Chief Commissioner for this purpose is forming "a Labour Commission." The revenue in 1897-1898 was Rs. 13,637, while in 1904-1905 it rose to Rs. 2,03.310. The expenditure for the latter year is estimated at Rs. 1,25,704. The natives of the province are pagans, but the introduction of missionary and educational efforts is being gradually established by various societies and churches.

QUARTERLY REPORT ON SEMITIC STUDIES AND ORIENTALISM.

BY PROF. DR. EDWARD MONTET.

GENERAL WORKS.

THE first portion of which we shall speak is devoted to the Proceedings of the Second International Congress of the History of Religions, which took place at Bâle from August 30 to September 2, 1904.* We have given before an account of this Congress, † and will therefore treat the Proceedings now published very briefly. This interesting volume is divided into three parts: (1) A daily report of the Congress and of its arrangements with respect to committees and members; (2) papers read at the general sittings; (3) proceedings of the sections. Several works presented to the Congress are printed in extenso, but only a very few. The majority are given in summaries, and are often very short-half or a third of a page-the volume itself only containing 382 pages. This system of publishing the Proceedings is much to be deplored, and should be absolutely condemned. Who is judge of the works which ought to be published in extenso? Some very important papers are given abridged, which detracts much from their value, hence the publication of the Proceedings loses much of its usefulness, especially to those members of the Congress who could not be present. The sad experience, then, as regards the summarized Proceedings of the Congress of Orientalists in Hamburg, should have been a lesson to the Bâle committee. It would have been far better to have published nothing than to have prepared a volume of summaries both dry and inadequate. This

* "Verhandlungen des II. internationalen Kongresses für allgemeine Religionsgeschichte in Basel." Basel: Helbing und Lichtenhahn, 1905. † Asiatic Quarterly Review, October, 1904 (" Proceedings of the Second International Congress of the History of Religions," a short daily report).

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