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was recognised at the last Congress of Orientalists at Algiers, which decided to publish all its proceedings in full. At the Algiers Congress, of which we gave an abridged account in these pages,* the Professors of the École Supérieure des Lettres d'Alger et des Médersas d'Algérie presented a very interesting collection of essays and texts.† As Mr. R. Basset says in the preface to this volume, "with their apparent diversity, the essays forming this volume. have a common utility-viz., the scientific exploration of Northern Africa." This work deserves a short analysis. It contains:

1. "Bibliographical Researches on the Origin of the Salouat-al-Anfas of Muhammad bin Jafar, bin Idris alKettani"; this is a modern work, valuable on account of its acquaintance with the Maghreb, and is lithographed at Fez. This first work is by Mr. R. Basset.

"Certain Rites for obtaining Rain at the Time of Drought amongst the Musulmans of the Maghreb," by A. Bel. The author points out that the intercessions for obtaining rain in the Maghreb belong to the popular harvest festivals, which have preserved the ancient rites which existed anterior to Islam. It is known how reluctantly the Berbers adopted the religion of Muhammad.

3. "On the Transmission of the Traditions of Bokhari to the Inhabitants of Algiers," by Muhammad bin Sheneb. 4. "The Capitals of Barbary," by A. Bernard.

5. "The Qanun of Adni," by Sayyid Boulifa. Adni is a conglomeration of five Kabyle villages. This Qanun, which forms the law and local customs, was communicated to the author of the article by "the village elders.'

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6. "The Son and Daughter of the King: A Story in the Berber dialect of Kef" (Beni-Snous), text and translation, by E. Doutté.

* Asiatic Quarterly Review, July, 1905 ("The Congress of Orientalists at Algiers").

+ "Recueil de mémoires et de textes du XIV. Congrès des Orientalistes." Alger: P. Fontana, 1905.

7. "The Khotba (burlesque of the Feast of Tolbasstudents) in Marocco," a very curious article, by E. Doutté. 8. "An Arabic-Malgash Text in the Dialect of SouthEastern Madagascar," text and translation by G. Ferrand. 9. "The Character of Micipsa, King of Numidia,” in Sallust, by A. Fournier.

10. "A Record of Religion and Philosophy"; treatise by Ibn Rashid (Averroe's), translated by L. Gauthier. II. "Saharan Oases," by E. F. Gauthier.

12. "Extent of the Carthaginian Rule in Africa," by S. Gsell. An An essay of the greatest interest.

13. Apparently Semitic or Indigenous Names in the Egyptian Pantheon," by E. Lefébure.

14. "Some Observations on the Practical Arabic-French Dictionary of Beaussier," by W. Marçais; an important lexicographic study.

15. "L'Aqida of the Abadhites," by A. de. C. Motylinski. The author of this very interesting work gives the text and translation of the 'Aqida, or symbol of faith, summarizing the doctrine followed in Mzâb and Jerba. Abadhite heresy has, in reality, survived to this day in the midst of the Musulman orthodoxy of North Africa; in Mzâb, and in the Island of Jerba and mountains of Nefusa, three Berber groups.

16. "The African Commission" (July 7-December 12, 1833), by G. Yver.

This rapid survey will show the richness of the large volume (612 pages) published by the Algerian professors.

The third collection of Oriental texts and studies, of which we will now say something, is the magnificent volume published in honour of D. Francisco Codera, on the occasion of the jubilee of his professorship. We have already drawn attention to the advance proofs of this work in our Report of April, 1905: Several reprints of "The Memoirs of R. Basset and M. Asin," of which we have pointed out the merits. One can say that all the works of this vast collection (xxxviii and 656 pages, 8vo.) deserve to be read. We

cannot here give even a simple analysis, the contents being so numerous. But it is well and useful to enumerate the richness of the volume, not according to its alphabetical index, but leaf by leaf.

The collection, which contains as a frontispiece a fine portrait of Codera, begins with an introduction, by Edward Saavedra, on the life, career, and the eminent merits of Codera, and the author of this notice applies rightly to the learned professor and distinguished citizen the maxim of Algazel: "He who knows, and works well and instructs, merits the title of great." A catalogue of the publications of Codera follows.

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The essays which compose the collection are as follows: (1) "Origin of the Nizami College of Baghdad," by J. Ribera; (2) "Who was King Esmar of the Battle of Ourique?" by D. Lopes; (3) "Surrender of the Chateau de Chivert to the Templars," by M. Ferrandis; (4) “The Account of Almicdad and Almayesa," by M. de Pano; (5) "The Parallel between the Defective Arabic Verbs and their Hebrew, Chaldean, Syrian, and Ethiopian Correspondents," by M. Viscasillas y Urriza; (6) "On Al Kitâb al Bayân of the Jurist Ibn Rashid," by Nallino; (7) "Christians and Moors, Arragon and Navarre Documents, by E. Ibarra; (8) "Some Observations on Greek Fire," by De Goeje; (9) "African Numismatics (the Fatimites at Fez)," by A. Prieto y Vives; (10) " The Malekiten Tabaqat," by E. Fagnan; (11) “Otobesa = Abîxa = Oropesa y Anixa= El Puig of Cebolla - Onusa (?)," by C. F. Seybold; (12) "Protest by the Inhabitants of Kano against the Attacks of Sultan Muhammad-Bello, King of Sokoto," by O. Houdas ; (13) "Christian Soldiers in the Service of the Sultans of the Maghreb," by J. Alemany; (14) "Arabic Documents of the Archives of Ntra. Sra. del Pilar' of Saragossa," by R. Garcia de Linares; (15) "The Letter of Franchises granted by the Comte de Barcelone to the Jews of Tortosa," by J. Miret y Sans; (16) " Relations of the Viscounts of Barcelona with the Arabs," by F. Carreras y Candi; (17) " Cordovan

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Musulmans in Alexandria and Crete," by M. Gaspar; (18) "Opinion of Avicenna on Astrology and on the Relation of Human Responsibility with Destiny," by A. F. Mehren; (19) "The Benimajlad of Cordova, a Family of Lawyers, by R. de Ureña y Smenjaud; (20) "Christian Art among the Moors of Grenada," by M. Gomez-Moreno; (21) “The Theological Averroism of St. Thomas d'Aquin," by M. Asin; (22) "Origin of the Cities of Garnata É Illiberri and of the Alhambra," by L. Eguilaz Yanguas; (23) "The Syriac MS., No. 196, in the Vatican," by I. Guidi; (24)

Note on some Musulmans of Madrid," by L. Gonzalvo; (25) "A Note on the Historic Doctrine of Abenjaldun (Ibn Khaldun)," by R. Altamira; (26) "Ibn Al-'Assal's Arabic Version of the Gospels," by Duncan B. Macdonald; (27) "On Aluacaxi and the Arabic Elegy of Valence," by R. Menendez Pidal; (28) "Moshehid bin Yusuf and Ali bin Moshehid," by R. Chabás; (29) "The Arabic Root

and its Derivatives," by L. Gauthier; (30) "Relations of Egypt with Spain during the Musulman Occupations," by Ahmad Zaki; (31) "Doncella Teodor" (a story of "The 1,001 Nights," a book by Cordel and a comedy of Lope de Vega), by M. Menendez y Pelayo; (32) "Indication of their Value on the Arabo-Spanish Coins," by A. Vives; (33) "Mezquinos y Exaricos" (for the story of slavery in Navarre and Arragon), by E. de Hinojosa; (34) "Questions of Prosody," by E. Saavedra; (35) "The MSS. ' Aljamiados' from my Collection," by P. Gil y Gil; (36) “Contribution to the Criticism of Conde," by L. Barrau-Dihigo; (37)

Our Criticism on the Arabic MSS. of the National Library of Madrid," by H. Derenbourg; (38) "Extract from the Description of Spain," taken from the work of the anonymous geographer of Almeria, by R. Basset.

Since our last Report, "Three Fascicules of the Talmud of Babylon," published by Lazarus Goldschmidt, have appeared. They include the treatises, Baba Qamma" (Part II.) and "Baba Meçiâ" (Parts I. and II.).*

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*Berlin Calvary und Co., 1905.

Volume V. of the Polyglot Bible, published by the Abbé Vigouroux, has appeared.* It includes: The Ecclesiasticus, or Σopia Zapax (Greek, Hebrew, Latin, French), Esau, Jeremiah, the Lamentations, and Baruch. Interesting illustrations taken of the monuments accompany the text.

OLD-TESTAMENT HISTORY OF ISRAEL, SAMARIA, AND
ASSYRIA.

Amongst the commentaries which have appeared on the Old Testament, we have to point out that of Strack on Genesis.† In the preface the author declares to have revised with much care his first edition (1896), without omitting the different discoveries, especially in the domain of Assyriology. The following interesting statement characterizes the point of view of his work : "I am satisfied that many of the results deduced from the information of the analysis by critics are false. They assert that, in many biblical passages, there are contradictions, whilst there are none. On the contrary, biblical accounts gain, in an unanticipated spirit, credibility, because they declare that two or three narrators of the same event in the Bible, in relating it, essentially agree.' The translation, printed in different characters, according to the several sources of which Genesis is composed, has been made with much care. As to the sources of the Pentateuch, the author distinguishes, like Dillmann, P (Priesterschrift, the sacerdotal writing), H (Heiligkeitsgesetz, the Sacred Law), J (Jahvist), E (Elohist), and D (Deuteronomy). The commentary, of 178 pages, with translation and notes, is moderate and clear. We must particularly draw attention, as being extremely interesting, to the notes on Bibel and Babel; the first ten kings (Urkönige) of Babylonia; Ur (Kasdim), which the author places north of Kharran; the kings of chap

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Paris: Roger et Chernoviz, 1904.

"Die Genesis" (2te neu durchgearbeitete Auflage). Munich C. H. Beck, 1905.

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