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I am moreover willing to allow that the disciples of St Dominic, and which those scenes of blood were performed have been so often exhibited for the by atheistical zealots. The Revolution edification of the faithful in different itself was in a great degree brought parts of Europe. about, (though other causes combined) But to return to John Huss, and our by atheistical, or at least infidel, French Catholic correspondent." In fact," writers, calling themselves philoso- says this astute casuist, “the Council phers. But let me ask in my turn, of Constance no more violated the safewhat was it that gave rise to these per- conduct or passport granted to Huss nicions publications ? They derived by the Emperor Sigismond, by depritheir origin from no other source than ving him of his ecclesiastical functions, the absurd superstition and intolera- declaring his propositions to be hereble tyranny of the Church of Rome. tical, and leaving him to the judgment Folly had placed power in the hands of the state, than any court of law of the priesthood. Hence it was that could be said to do, which had tried Galileo in Italy was compelled to re- and condemned a man on charges pronounce, as a damnable heresy, those ved against him, to refute which he discoveries which are now admitted by had voluntarily agreed to submit himthe wbole civilized world ; happy in self to its tribunal, on condition of rehaving his books only consigned to ceiving proper protection against any the flames, from which his submission supposed violation of the law in his with difficulty saved the astronomer person previous to trial, and after, if himself. Hence it was, that in France duly acquitted." the innocent Calas was broken on the The opinion of Usher is quoted to wheel for the alleged murder of his prove that Huss had no canse of comCatholic son, who committed suicide; plaint against the Emperor or the Holy reason and truth contending in vain Synod; and the former, we are told by for the acquittal of a Protestant against the Catholic Layman, condescended the rancorous bigotry of Roman Ca- expressly to explain to the heretic that tbolic judges. This horrible despotism his safe conduct had not been violated. of ignorance excited the acute minds I have not at hand the works of the of Voltaire, Rousseau, and others, to Primate of Ireland, and therefore I vindicate the cause of humanity, and neither contradict nor allow the accuof the freedom of the human under- racy of this statement. Such an opistanding. The same causes which set nion appears a little extraordinary from the more sober spirit of Wycliffe in an opponent of Popish doctrines, so England, and Luther in Germany, pa- strenuous as to be averse even to their tiently to investigate truth, and to toleration. Il Usher really defends prune away the noxious shoots sprout- the Emperor and the Council, it would ing from the vine of Christianity, ur- be difficult to find another Protestant ged the volatile genius of Frenchmen of the same sentiments, from the days to endeavour to destroy both root and of Huss to the present hour. Let us branch of that excellent tree, which, try the question by the simple rules from bad cultivation, had produced of common sense. Huss being accused such abominable fruit. For a time of heretical opinions, and summoned this design seemed almost effected in to a general Council to give an account France, but the horrors of this dread- of them, sends for answer, that he has ful explosion were at least of a milder no objection to declare his doctrines kind than the infliction of mistaken freely, and to profit by the assembled religious ardour. The votaries of the wisdom of Christendom, in order to Goddess of Reason, of Mammon, or of correct any errors he may have imbiPower, all of whom had their share in bed; but that he will not appear, unexciting this awful commotion, were less he obtains a promise of safety uncontent to pillage and to murder. They der the word of the Emperor himself. kept indeed the guillotine in constant His request is granted, and be prerequisition-they swept away multi- sents himself before the Council, by tudes with their grape-shot-theycho- whose command he is immediately ked their rivers with their noyades ;- committed to prison, is subjected to but all their work of slaughter fell what they call a trial, and is condemnshort of those refinements of torture, ed and executed. Can anything be of that studied protraction of human more idle than to suppose that he askagony, which have been the pride of ed for this protection merely during

his journey to the court, and for his bishops, or laymen, who labour to desafe return in case of an acquittal ? fend his barbarous persecutors! To With all the artlessness of his charac- excite still greater abhorrence against ter, he could not be ignorant of the the Council of Constance, I might have fierce malevolence of his enemies, whom added the similar fate which Jerome he had grievously offended by expo- of Prague received from this execrable sing their scandalous vices. This, in consistory. Jerome, however, in some fact, appears to be the great cause of degree made himself a voluntary sahis persecution, for his deviation from crifice; and though his death equally the Catholic creed seems to have been displays the cruelty of the tribunal, very slight. He had even stepped over his condemnation was not accompanied that great stumbling-block, the mys- by that detestable and despicable treaterious doctrine of transubstantiation, chery wbich attaches to the case of which our correspondent tells us with Huss. some surprise, many Protestants are To demonstrate the inpocent and so ignorant as to be unable to explain. gentle character of these Synods, and But John Huss well knew the foes of the Church by wbich they were apwith whom he had to deal, and there- pointed, that pare snow,

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canfore secured, as he thought, his per- not escape calumny," the Layman sonal safety, by the sacred tie of an proceeds.

“But you say, sir, that imperial promise. The insidious snare, Huss was burned by desire of the and the nominal trial, were conducted Council. This I positively deny, and with one and the same spirit. Con- I prove my assertion by referring to demnation to the flames followed as a the Acts of the Council. “It having matter of course ; and however clear been manifestly proved,' says the dethe emperor's exposition of the case cree, that John Huss did publicly might be, the explanation appears not preach and teach many scandalous, seto have been entirely satisfactory to the ditious, and dangerous heresies, and poor victim. He bore his fate never- as it is apparent from all that the Countheless with the resignation and forti- cil has seen, heard, and known, that tude worthy of a primitive Christian. John Huss is stubborn and incorrigiThis opinion of Sigismond's conduct ble, and that he will not return into will appear from one of his letters the pale of the Holy Mother the written a little before his death, and Church, by abjuring the errors and hewhich was conveyed to his friends by resies which he had publicly maintainsome Bohemian noblemen who visited ed and preached, this sacred Council him in his prison. “My dear friends," of Constance declares and decrees, that says he, “let me take this opportuni. the said John Huss ought to be depoty of exhorting you to trust in nothing sed and degraded from the order of here, but to give yourselves up entire the priesthood,' &c. The deposition ly to the service of God. Well am I and degradation having accordingly authorised to warn you not to trust in taken place, the Council afterwards de. princes, or in any child of man, for clared that John Huss ought to be dethere is no help in them. God only livered over to the secular arm, and remaineth steadfast; what he promises does actually deliver him over to it, he will undoubtedly perform. For considering that the Church of God has myself, in this gracious promise I rest. nothing more to do with him. Now, sir, Having endeavoured to be his faithful can any thing be more plain than this, servant, I fear not being deserted by that the Council passed no sentence of him. “Where I am,' says the gracious death upon Huss, and that there was Promiser, there shall my servant be.' no Ecclesiastical law inflicting such May the God of heaven preserve you! punishment, when it is admitted by This is probably the last letter I shall the decree itself, that the church could be enabled to write. I have reason to do nothing further than by deposing, believe I shall be called upon to-mor- and degrading him?"-Compassionate row to answer with my life. Sigismond souls !- honest, simple, Catholic Layhath in all things acted deceitfully. I man; what a worthy subject is he for pray God forgive him.” Who would the tuition of his infallible guides ! not give implicit credence to the words He believes, without doubt, that these of this pious and patient martyr, when soft-hearted Ecclesiastics were not at on the verge of eternity, rather than all aware that the secular arm to whose listen to the glosses of emperors, or care the degraded wretch was committed, with whom the church had nothing sheep. In his usual method, he brings more to do, stood ready to bind him to an objector to start an argument, viz. the stake, and that the faggots and the that Št Paul, in his second Epistle to torch were ready prepared for his ex- Timothy, says, “And the servant of termination! If the Layman can hope the Lord must not strive, but be genthus to impose on the understanding tle unto all men, apt to teach, patient. of others, he must have made an ex- In meekness instructing those that traordinary estimate of their intellect, oppose themselves, if God peradvenor his own head must be as well fur- ture will give these repentance to the nished as that of his wooden name- acknowledging of the truth. And that sake, who supports the drapery at the they may recover themselves out of side of a painter's easel! -Let us, how- the snare of the devil, who are taken ever, beware of mistakes. Has the captive by him at his will. But if," Roman Catholic Church verily and says this shrewd avocat du diable, heindeed an aversion to punish heresy resies are not to be tolerated, but dewith death? I read this merciful dis- livered to death, the power of repentposition asserted in books of modern ance is taken away from them, which date ; I hear it advanced by the learn- therefore seems against the word of the ed teachers of that religion ;-and the Apostle.” To this specious reasoning Catholic Layman of Edinburgh holds the Angel of the Schools decisively up both his hands against the calum- answers—“The sin of these persons niator who charges her with this pro- not only deserves excommunication pensity, and with the detestable doc- from the church, but exclusion from trine of absolving the subjects of here- the world by death. For falsifying the tical sovereigns from their allegiance. faith is a much greater offence than

Let us carefully consult grave au- counterfeiting the coin, which secular thority, which can plainly inform us princes justly punish with death ; 80 touching these matters, without the may they punish those convicted of trouble of sending to Salamanca, Val- heresy. But such is the mercy of the ladolid, or even Paris, for a solution. church to the conversion of those who Who can decide better than the angelic stray, that it does not immediately Doctor, so much praised by the learn- condemn them, till after a first and ed Layman? He will doubiless impart second admonition, as the Apostle dito ns the pure upsophisticated doc- rects in his Epistle to Titus. If he is trives of the Catholic Church. Hasty then obstinate, the church, despairing writers may quote authorities par of his conversion, provides for the hazard, as may suit their purpose; but safety of others, by separating him let us, eschewing such random asser- from others by a sentence of excomtions, brush off the dust and cobwebs munication; and then leaves him to from the huge folio of St Thomas's the judgment of the secular power, to lacubrations, and report what is ac- be exterminated from the world (per tually found in that sacred oracle of modum is the Saint's phrase, which scholastic wisdom. I naturally turn probably means) in the usual manner." to the 2d part of the 2d division of To enforce his argument lie quotes this great divine's principal work, Jerome“ Resecandæ sunt putridæ Summa totius Theologia, as being that carnes, et scabiosa ovis e caulis repelwberein be particularly considers the lenda, ne tota domus, massa, corpus, subject of heresy. Here I find the et pecora ardeant, corrumpantur, puidentity of heresy and infidelity fully trescant, intergant.” This is a tolerascertained, and infidelity denounced ably clear exposition of St Thomas's as the greatest of sins.

promises to inferior heretics, which he As your readers, Mr North, might was probably well disposed to fulfil be fatigued with too prolix a display with all the sincerity which the Caof the subtile disquisitions of the volu- tholic Layman ascribes to his characminous Saint, my extracts shall be as ter. Let us now see how he treats the brief as possible. Having given some shepherds of the people, (I use the latitude to Jews and Gentiles, who term in the Homeric, and not in the bave never embraced the faith, he ecclesiastical sense,) who may unforrecommends that wanderers who have tunately be affected by this contagious strayed from the orthodox flock should stain by which their flocks are contabe reclaimed by wholesome compul- minated. sion :-if they continue obstinate, he The 2d division of the 12th Question prescribes how to dispose of these stray expressly treats of this matter. He inquires, Whether, on account of clear. The denunciations of the church apostacy, subjects are absolved from were not levelled against tyrants in the domivion of their governors, being general, but against those only who apostates?” On this point he lays down apostatised from the Catholic faith ; the following axiom—"That apostacy and even in that case it was not neces(Illa apostasis) by which the faith sary that her power should give the once undertaken is rejected, is a spe- word to let slip the dogs of vengeance. cies of infidelity. The apostate him- Jean Petit dared to go a step farther, self, whilst he is denounced as excom- and to “cry havock !" without any municated, loses at the same time all sentence or command whatsoever ; for right and dominion over his subjects." which reason his doctrine is pronounThis opinion is fortified by the autho- ced to be heretical, scandalous, derity of Pope Gregory, who asserts this ceitful, and damnable. law as an ancient decree of his holy And now, having studied the Anpredecessors. “Nos sanctorum præ- gelic Doctor, --having there observed decessorum statuta tenentes, eos qui with what facility his Holiness the excommunicatis fidelitate aut jura. Pope disposes of the obligation of an menti sacramento sunt constricti, apos- oath,-having seen the bloody tale of tolica auctoritate a sacramento absol- Roman Catholic persecution staining vimus, et ne sibi fidelitatem observent so many pages of history,-having omnibus modis prohibemus quousque heard of the disposition recently evinad satisfactionem veniunt.” The holy ced in France and Italy,—and having map then sums up the essence of the read and marked the sentiments of doctrine in the following conclusion, the enlightened Layman of the good “When any one is denounced by sen- town of Edinburgh, who not only tence as excommunicated on account defends Sigismond and the Council of apostacy, by the very fact bis sub- of Constance, but believes that the jects are set free from his dominion, great error of James the Second was and from their oath of allegiance.- his too great toleration, - I can lay my Quum quis per sententiam denuntia- hand on my heart, and say, with the tur propter apostasiam excommunica- truest sincerity, I believe, if opportutus, ipso facto, ejus subditi a dominio nities should offer, that the Roman et juramento fidelitatis ejus liberati Catholic Church would exterminate sunt."

heretics as she has heretofore done; A logician like the Catholic Layman and that her priests, kings, and emmay perhaps argue that this sentence perors, would keep their promises proceeds no farther than deposition, much as they did in days long past; and does not prescribe murder. But and that, if she were admitted to the let it not be forgotten that apostacy possession of power, she would not has been already declared worthy of bear her faculties one jot more meekly. death, without respect of persons. In I have, however, no fears for the no case does the church pronounce the result of the question now pending fatal sentence, She has no more to do before the great British Council. I with them ; whilst inferior heretics are venerate the representatives of the consigned to the secular power, the people, and abhor the calumnies which degraded sovereign is left to the mercy faction is continually throwing out of his bigotted subjects.

against that truly honourable House, Now, Mr North, I think I have at which is the temple of British liberty. least demonstrated that I have actually The utility of the House of Peers, in turned over the erudite pages of St the composition of our unrivalled conThomas Acquinas, although I own he stitution, is nevertheless apparentis not the author, of all others, most. Their sedate wisdom will now, as they to my taste. I shall now leave him' have done on other occasions, take to the more attentive perusal of my care that the state receives no injury. Catholic monitor, who may also, if he I here bid a final adieu to the subpleases, pursue the same sage doctrine ject, and to our Catholic Lay correthrough the Scholia and Commentaries spondent, who has been pleased to mix conflated for the benefit of mankind a certain degree of courtesy with his by the host of Cordeliers and Jesuits harsh imputations. In bidding him who have toiled in the same labora- farewell, let me thank him according tory. The reason why Jean Petit to the extent of the obligation, whilst incurred the censure of the reverend I assure him that his attaek leaves no Council of Constance is sufficiently sting. It is troublesome, but harmless

like the flies of the season :-should mits, the world is wide enough for both he continue to buzz, I shall merely thee and me! I remain, Mr North, say, with the placid Uucle Toby, Go,

Yours very faithfully, poor devil, whilst the Roman Catholic

A PROTESTANT LAYMAN. Church is kept within her present li- 15th June, 1822.

P. S.-Since this letter was written, the House of Lords bas fulfilled the hopes and wishes therein contained. May I be permitted to express my satisfaction at the result, and to join in the thankful sentiments which will be generally felt towards that august assembly, which has so vigilantly watched over the best interests of the country.

THE NOCTURNAL SEPARATION. ONE summer, while at Baltimore on a bruptly ; “I suppose your birth is pleasure excursion, peculiar circum- ready below." But instead of taking stances suddenly rendered it necessary his hint and going down to the cabin, that I should set sail for St Thomas's. I remained upon deck until we clearI immediately proceeded to make in- ed the mouth of the harbour, which quiry about a vessel to convey me we at last accomplished with much there, and found that there were none difficulty, for the wind was as directly bound for that quarter, except a small ahead as it could blow. schooner, which had very inferior ac- I felt at a loss to conceive the cause commodations, and was commanded of our putting to sea in such unfaby a person of rude manners and a vourable weather; but judged, from disobliging temper. However, as my the specimen of the captain's manner business admitted of no delay, I en- which I had already had, that it would gaged a passage in her, and put my be useless to address to him any inlaggage on board, and desired the cap- quiries upon the subject. I therefore tain to send me notice whenever he went to bed, and did not get up next was ready to sail, that I might imme- morning till called to breakfast. diately join him.

On entering the cabin, I was astoI passed two days in that anxious nished to find a lady and a gentleman and unsettled state of mind which the there, whom I had not previously prospect of going to sea generally in- known to be on board. They were duces, and went despondingly to bed introduced to me as fellow-passengers; the second night, after having ascer- and after expressing my gratification tained that the wind was unfavoura- at the prospect of enjoying their so. ble to the prosecution of my intended ciety during the voyage, I began to voyage. A loud knocking at my cham- converse with them, and soon found ber door awakened me from a pro- that their presence would in a great found sleep, about an hour before measure counterbalance the disagreedawn. I was on the point of demand ables arising from Captain Burder's ing who occasioned the disturbance, surly and untractable temper. They when a voice called out, “The schoon- were named Mr and Mrs Monti, and er is ready to sail—they are heaving were both young, and had recently up the anchor-Captain Burder sent been married. She was a pretty, liveme to warn you to come on board ly, interesting creature ; and having without a moment's delay."

fortunately been at sea before, she did I started from bed, and having not suffer from sickness, or feel at all dressed myself as quickly as possible, incommoded or depressed by the comaccompanied the messenger to the parative uncomforts of her situation ; wharf, and embarked in a boat which and therefore the sociality of our little waited there for us, and soon reached circle was never interrupted by her the schooner. Her captain was so bu- absence, or her incapacity to join it. síly engaged in giving orders to the But the charm of her manners seemed seamen that be seemed scarcely to no- to exert no influence upon the stubtice my arrival. However, I address- born nature of Captain Burder, who ed him, and made some remark about always maintained a cold reserve, and the suddenness of his departare. “That rarely took any part in our conversadoesn't concern you," replied he a- tion.

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