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inquires, " Whether, on account of clear. The denunciations of the church apostacy, subjects are absolved from were not levelled against tyrants in the dominion of their governors, being general, but against those only who apostates?" On this point he lays down apostatised from the Catholic faith ; the following axiom—“That apostacy and even in that case it was not neces(Illa apostasis) by which the faith sary that her power should give the once undertaken is rejected, is a spe- word to let slip the dogs of vengeance. cies of infidelity. The apostate him- Jean Petit dared to go a step farther, self, whilst he is denounced as excom- and to “cry havock !” without any municated, loses at the same time all sentence or command whatsoever ; for right and dominion over his subjects.” which reason his doctrine is pronounThis opinion is fortified by the autho- ced to be heretical, scandalous, derity of Pope Gregory, who asserts this ceitful, and damnable. law as an ancient decree of his holy And now, having studied the Anpredecessors. “ Nos sanctorum præ- gelic Doctor,—baving there observed decessorum statuta tenentes, eos qui with what facility his Holiness the excommunicatis fidelitate aut jura. Pope disposes of the obligation of an mentisacramento sunt constricti, apos- oath,-having seen the bloody tale of tolica auctoritate a sacramento absol- Roman Catholic persecution staining vimus, et ne sibi fidelitatem observent so many pages of history, -having omnibus modis prohibemus quousque heard of the disposition recently evinad satisfactionem veniunt." The holy ced in France and Italy,—and having man then sums up the essence of the read and marked the sentiments of doctrine in the following conclusion, the enlightened Layman of the good “When any one is denounced by sen- town of Edinburgh, who not only tence as excommunicated on account defends Sigismond and the Council of apostacy, by the very fact his sub- of Constance, but believes that the jects are set free from his dominion, great error of James the Second was and from their oath of allegiance.- his too great toleration,–I can lay my Quum quis per sententiam denuntia- hand on my heart, and say, with the tur propter apostasiam excommunica- truest sincerity, I believe, if opportutus, ipso facto, ejus subditi a dominio nities should offer, that the Roman et juramento fidelitatis ejus liberati Catholic Church would exterminate sunt."

heretics as she has heretofore done ; A logician like the Catholic Layman and that her priests, kings, and emmay perhaps argue that this sentence perors, would keep their promises proceeds no farther than deposition, much as they did in days long past; and does not prescribe murder. But and that, if she were admitted to the let it not be forgotten that apostacy possession of power, she would not has been already declared worthy of bear her faculties one jot more meekly. death, without respect of persons. In I have, however, no fears for the no case does the church pronounce the result of the question now pending fatal sentence, She has no more to do before the great British Council. I with them ; whilst inferior heretics are venerate the representatives of the consigned to the secular power, the people, and abhor the calumnies which degraded sovereign is left to the mercy faction is continually throwing out of his bigotted subjects.

against that truly honourable House, Now, Mr North, I think I have at which is the temple of British liberty. least demonstrated that I have actually The utility of the House of Peers, in turned over the erudite pages of St the composition of our unrivalled conThomas Acquinas, although I own he stitution, is nevertheless apparentis not the author, of all others, most Their sedate wisdom will now, as they to my taste. I shall now leave him 'bave done on other occasions, take to the more attentive perusal of my care that the state receives no injury. Catholic monitor, who may also, if he I here bid a final adieu to the subpleases, pursue the same sage doctrine ject, and to our Catholic Lay correthrough the Scholia and Commentaries spondent, who has been pleased to mix conflated for the benefit of mankind a certain degree of courtesy with his by the host of Cordeliers and Jesuits harsh imputations. In bidding him who have toiled in the same labora- farewell, let me thank him according tory. The reason why Jean Petit to the extent of the obligation, whilst incurred the censure of the reverend I assure him that his attack leaves no Council of Constance is sufficiently sting. It is troublesome, but harmless

like the flies of the season :-should mits, the world is wide enough for both be continue to buzz, I shall merely thee and me! I remain, Mr North, say, with the placid Uucle Toby, Gó,

Yours very faithfully, poor devil, wbilst the Roman Catholic

A PROTESTANT LAYMAN. Charch is kept within her present li- 15th June, 1822.

P. S.-Since this letter was written, the House of Lords has fulfilled the hopes and wishes therein contained. May I be permitted to express my satisfaction at the result, and to join in the thankful sentiments which will be generally felt towards that august assembly, which has so vigilantly watched over the best interests of the country.

THE NOCTURNAL SEPARATION. ONE summer, while at Baltimore on a bruptly ; “I suppose your birth is pleasure excursion, peculiar circum- ready below.” But instead of taking stances suddenly rendered it necessary his hint//and going down to the cabin, that I should set sail for St Thomas's. I remained upon deck until we clearI immediately proceeded to make in- ed the mouth of the barbour, which quiry about a vessel to convey me we at last accomplished with much there, and found that there were none difficulty, for the wind was as directly bound for that quarter, except a small ahead as it could blow. schooner, wbich had very inferior ac- I felt at a loss to conceive the cause commodations, and was commanded of our putting to sea in such unfaby a person of rude manners and a vourable weather ; but judged, from disobliging temper. However, as my the specimen of the captain's manner business admitted of no delay, I en- which I had already had, that it would gaged a passage in her, and put my be useless to address to him any inluggage on board, and desired the cap- quiries upon the subject. I therefore tain to send me notice whenever he went to bed, and did not get up next was ready to sail, that I might imme- morning till called to breakfast. diately join him.

On entering the cabin, I was astoI passed two days in that anxious nished to find a lady and a gentleman and ansettled state of mind which the there, whom I had not previously prospect of going to sea generally in- known to be on board. They were duces, and went despondingly to bed introduced to me as fellow-passengers ; the second night, after having ascer- and after expressing my gratification tained that the wind was unfavoura- at the prospect of enjoying their soble to the prosecution of my intended ciety during the voyage, I began to voyage. A loud knocking at my cham- converse with them, and soon found ber door awakened me from a pro- that their presence would in a great found sleep, about an hour before measure counterbalance the disagreedawn. I was on the point of demand- ables arising from Captain Burder's ing who occasioned the disturbance, surly and untractable temper. They wben a voice called out, “The schoon- were named Mr and Mrs Monti, and er is ready to sail—they are beaving were both young, and had recently op the anchor-Captain Burder sent been married. She was a pretty, liveme to warn you to come on board ly, interesting creature ; and having without a moment's delay.”

fortunately been at sea before, she did I started from bed, and having not suffer from sickness, or feel at all dressed myself as quickly as possible, incommoded or depressed by the comaccompanied the messenger to the parative uncomforts of her situation ; wbarf, and embarked in a boat which and therefore the sociality of our little waited there for us, and soon reached circle was never interrupted by her the schooner. Her captain was so bu- absence, or her incapacity to join it. sily engaged in giving orders to the But the charm of her manners seemed seamen that he seemed scarcely to no- to exert no influence upon the stubtice my arrival. However, I address- born nature of Captain Burder, who ed him, and made some remark about always maintained a cold reserve, and the suddenness of his departure." That rarely took any part in our conversadoesn't concern you," replied he a- tion.

His appearance and deportment were Delightful weather attended us dusingularly unprepossessing. A short ring the first week of the voyage, and muscular figure, a stern countenance, we usually spent the evenings upon burnt almost to a copper colour by an deck, under an awning. While thus exposure e'to tropical climates, black seated, one calm and beautiful moonbushy hair, and small scintillating light night, Mrs Monti said, “ If the eyes, formed the exterior of our com- weather and ocean were ever in this mander; and his actions and external placid state, I believe I would prefer behaviour proved that the traits of his a sea-life to any other. The most susmind were as revolting as those of his ceptible mind could not discover any person.

cause for terror or anxiety in the He treated his crew in a capricious scene around us, I would rather meet and tyrannical manner ; but, at the aspeedy death among these little billows same time, behaved towards them with than linger life away upon a sick-bed, an air of familiarity very unusual for racked with pain, and surrounded with ship-masters to assume when among weeping friends.”—“I have less obcommon seamen. But a negro man, jections, Harriet,” said her husband, who attended the cabin, daily expe- “ to your mode of dying than to your rienced the most inhuman usage from mode of living. I should not care to his hands, and afforded such a specta- spend much time at sea, for I am sure cle of degradation and misery as was it would pass very heavily. I love vapainful to look upon. Almost every riety, and nothing of that is to be met night after dark Captain Burder had with on board a ship."-" I agree a long conversation with his mate, du- with you," said Mrs Monti; " but ring which both seemed particularly variety is not necessary to happinessanxious to avoid being overheard ; and a regular, well-planned, uninterruptI once or twice observed them study- ed routine, would suit my dispositions ing charts of parts of the ocean that exactly, and would be more easily atlay quite out of our due and proper tainable at sea than any where else. course. Their whole conduct was A life of change entails many miseries. equally suspicious and inexplicable, It makes us the slaves of accidents of and I often felt uneasy and apprehen- every kind, and when we are happy sive, though there was no defined evil we never can feel secure that our hapto fear, nor any danger to anticipate. piness will continue. Now, were I

Our personal confort was but little mistress of a large ship, and had the attended to on board the schooner; power of sailing continually upon a and our table, which had never been calm and safe ocean, I would collect a well furnished one, soon became so my dearest friends on board of her, mean and uninviting, that Mr Monti and get out of sight of land as fast as complained to Captain Burder about possible, carrying with me of course it; however, without avail, for the lat- various means of amusement and reter told him that he must just take creation. We would regulate our time things as he found them. On compa- and our pleasures as we chose-no ring the quantity of stores we had re- disagreeable person could intrude upspectively broughton board, wethought on us—no spectacles of misery would we could manage to live independent meet our eyes, and no lamentations of our commander; and Mrs Monti's assail our ears; and we would enjoy woman servant was, therefore, desired' each other's society without the fear to prepare our meals, and spread a of ever being separated or disunited, table for us every day. Captain Bur- except by death; and when any one der grew furious with passion when was removed, the remaining persons he learned this arrangement, and mut- would console themselves with the retered some threats which we did not flection, that a link had been withunderstand. However, next day, his drawn from the chain which bound rage against us was father increased, their hearts to this delusive and transiin consequence of Mr Monti having tory world; and that, in proportion as taxed him with cruelty and injustice their friends dropped away, they would while in the act of beating the negro feel more ready and willing to die than man already mentioned. This offence they had done while the former were was not to be forgiven, and he accord- in existence."_" This seems a very ingly broke off all intercourse with plausible scheme of yours, my love," the individuals of our party.

replied Mr Monti; however, I am

glad you cannot put it in execution. his master and the scamen, I returned I don't know any part of the ocean that to my friends. As the tale I had just is exempted from tempests, which I heard completely explained Captain see you are resolved entirely to avoid, Burder's mysterious behaviour, and and with reason, for I suspect that a unveiled the cause of his sudden degood gale of wind would discompose parture from Baltimore, I did not at you and your select party, even more all doubt tbe negro's veracity, and bethan Captain Burder himself, were began to consider how the infernal mato find means of admittance into your chinations of our commander might projected floating Elysium."

best be counteracted. When Mrs While we were engaged in conver- Monti retired to her state-room, I insation of this kind, I several times ob- formed her husband of the plot that served Samno, the negro man, beckon- was in agitation. We conferred togeing to me, and then putting his finger ther a long time upon the subject, and, upon bis lips. At length I went to at last, resolved to do nothing openly, the bows of the vessel where he stood, until matters came nearer a crisis. and asked if he had anything to com- Captain Burder's villanous scheme municate. “Yes, yes, master,” said occupied my mind incessantly, and he, in a whisper, “ something very Mr Monti daily made it a subject of strange, and of great consequence conversation ; but still we could not but will no one overhear us ?"-"Do determine what course to pursue, and not fear that," answered I ; " Captain passed our hours in that state of irreBurder is asleep in his birth, and the solute anxiety, during which, the watch are all near the stern."_"Then mind seeks an excuse for its own inI will speak," answered Samno. “You activity and want of decision, by enand that other gentleman have been deavouring to convince itself that the kind to me, and have often tried to proper time for exertion has not yet save me from the rage of my wicked arrived. We cautiously concealed the master-I mean now to serve you in affair from Mrs Monti and her atmy turn. Your lives are in danger. tendant, and took care that everything The captain intends to cast away the connected with ourlittle establishment vessel." -" What do you mean?" should go on in its usual routine, lest cried I; “ I am at a loss io understand any alteration might have excited susyou"-"Oh, I'll soon explain it all," picion among those who were leagued replied he. “Last night, I listened to against us. my master and the mate while they Four or five evenings after Samno were talking together, and found out had made the above-mentioned comthat they had formed a plan to wreck munication to me, we were seated this schooner, that they might get the upou deck according to custom. It insurance, which would buy her and blew pretty fresh, and we went through all she contains twenty times over the water at such a rapid rate that These bales, casks, and boxes, that lie Mrs Monti remarked it, and asked in the hold, have no goods in them. me, in a whisper, if vessels usually They are full of sand and stones. Cap- carried so much sail at night as we tain Burder has cheated the insurers then did. At this moment, Captain in this way, and now he wants to run Burder, who had been pacing the deck the vessel aground somewhere on the in an agitated manner for some time Bahama Banks, and leave her to be before, seized the lead, and hove it beat to pieces by the waves. He and hurriedly, and continued to do so withbis crew, who are all leagued with out mentioning the soundings to any him, will go off in the boat, and land one, or making any reply to the mate, upon the nearest coast, and give out who came forward, and offered to rethat they have been shipwrecked. This lieve him of his charge. There was a story, if it is not found out to be false, dead silence among the crew, all of will entitle him to claim the insurance, whom stood near the bows of the veswhich is all he wants. Here is a scheme sel, observing their commander with for you!"

expressive looks. An indistinct sensaI was too much startled and agita- tion of dread, in which I participated, ted by this intelligence to think of appeared to steal over the individuals holding any farther conversation with of our party. Mrs Monti trembled Samno; and, afterwarning him to con- and seized her husband's arm, and coul his knowledge of the affair from looked anxiously in his face; but he Vol. XII.

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turned from her gaze without saying often cast looks of fury and defiance at any thing. Samno leant against the Mr Monti and me. We easily perceibulwarks, and twice stepped forward, ved that any sort of resistance on our apparently with the intention of ad- part would be vain, and perhaps dandressing some one, but each time, af- gerous, and therefore patiently awaitter a few moments’ hesitation, he quiet- ed the catastrophe. While he employly resumed his former position. ed himself in soothing and encoura

The moon was nearly full, and we ging his lady, I went down to the caenjoyed all her light, except when a bin, and collected all my valuables of thin fleecy cloud occasionally happen- small bulk, and concealed them about ed to intervene, and to throw a fleet- my person ; and likewise privately deing and shadowy dimness upon the sired Mr Monti's servant to occupy surface of the ocean. The wind, though herself in the same way. strong, appeared unsteady, and at in. In a few minutes I distinctly felt tervals its sighing was changed into the keel of the schooner rub upon the wild and melancholy moans, which bottom. Every one started when this seemed to hover around the vessel for took place, and then appeared to await an instant, and then to be borne far the next shock in breathless alarm. over the deep. At one time we glided The vessel, as was expected, soon besilently and smoothly through the gan a second time to grind against the billows; and at another, they burst and sand and rocks underneath, and quickgrumbled fiercely around the bows of ly got hard and fast a-ground. Capthe schooner, and then collapsed into tain Burder immediately ordered the comparative quietness and repose ;- sails to be backed, but this did not every thing wore an ominous and move her in the least degree. The dreary character, and the scene appear shifting of the ballast, which was next ed to exert a depressing influence upon resorted to, proved ineffectual, as he the minds of all on board.

probably intended it should. The silence was suddenly interrupt- Our situation now became truly ed by Samno, who cried, “ We are alarming. There was no land in sight; now on the Seal-bank! I see the black but from the fore-top we could discern heads! The schooner will be a-ground shoals stretching on every side to the immediately!"_"Rascal! What do horizon—those of sand being indicayou say?" returned Captain Burder, ted by the bright green colours of the running furiously up to him : "you sea—and those of rock by irregular are a lying vagabond! Utter another patches of blackness upon its surface. word, and I will let you feel the weight However, these beacons of danger did of the lead upon your body !”– not long continue distinguishable, for “What can all this mean?" exclaim- the moon sunk below the horizon, and ed Mrs Monti, in a tone of alarm ; clouds gradually overcast the sky. The “ are we really in danger?”—“Cap- wind and sea increased at the same tain Burder," cried her husband, "I time, and we soon began to drift along, command you to put about ship ip- being one moment elevated on the top stantly! Weknow all your plans! You of a billow, and the next dashed furiare a deceitful villain !--Seamen,"con- ously against the bottom of the ocean. tinued he, addressing himself to the It was evident that the schooner would crew, “ obey this man at your perill quickly go to pieces, and Captain Barhe intends to cast away the vessel for der ordered his men to let down the the insurance ; if we do not resist we boat. While they were engaged in shall lose our lives." — "Mutinous this, a temporary dispersion of some wretch!” returned the Captain, "you of the clouds afforded us light enough speak falsely! I deny the charge! You to discern a rocky island at a little disshall repent of this yet. Yes, yes, I'll tance; and the boat bad bardly been find a time.-Fellows, stand by me; dropped when our vessel struck viorecollect I am your commander. May lently-the waves breaking over her at I depend upon you all ? ”—“Ay, ay, the same time in rapid succession. sir, to the last," answered the sailors, We all rushed to the side of the though some of them spoke rather schooner on which the boat lay, and faintly and irresolutely.

leaped into her, one after another, with Silence now ensued; and Captain the exception of Mr Monti, who, when Burder having thrown aside the lead, he had assisted his wife and servant in began to pace the deck hurriedly, and getting on board, returned to the cabin

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