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the highest perfonal merit. If, without it, wifdom is not kind; without it, folly nuft be brutal. Let it, therefore, be once more repeated, "The quality most "effential to conjugal felicity, is GOOD NATURE." And, furely, whatever accidental difference there may happen to be in the conceptions or judgment of a huf band and wife, if neither can give pain or pleasure without feeling it themselves, it is eafy to perceive which fenfation they will concur to produce.
It may now be expected, that I fhould give fome general rules, by which the ladies may discover the difpofition of thofe, by whom they are addressed: but it is extremely difficult to detect malevolence amidst the affiduities of courtship, and to diftinguish the man under that almoft infcrutable disguise the lover. Good NaTURE, however, is not indicated by the fulfome fawning of a perpetual grin, the loud laughter which almost anticipates the jeft, or the conflant echo of every sentiment; neither is it fafe to trust the appearance of profufe liberality, or bufy officiousness. Let it rather be remarked, how the lover is affected by incidents, in which the lady is not concerned; what is his behaviour to his immediate dependants, and whether they approach him with a flavish timidity, or with chearful reverence of voluntary fervitude. Is he ever merry at the expence of another; or does he ever attempt thus to excite mirth in his miftrefs? Does he mention the abfent with candór, and behave to thofe who are prefent with a manly complacency? By a diligent attendance to thefe circumftances, perhaps a probable judgment may be formed of his character.
To conclude with a general remark, GOOD NATURE is not of lefs importance to ourfelves than to others. The morofe and petulant firft feel the anguish that they give: reproach, revilings, and invective, are but the overflowings of their own infelicity, and are conftantly again forced back upon their fource. Sweetness of temper is not, indeed, an acquired but a natural excellence; and, therefore, to recommend it to those who have it not, may be deemed rather an infult than advice. But let that which in happier natures is instinct,
in these be reafon; let them pursue the fame conduct, impelled by a nobler motive. As the fournefs of the crab inhances the value of the graft, so that which on its parent plant is GOOD NATURE, will on a lefs kindly flock be improved into VIRTUE. No action by which others receive pleasure or pain, is indifferent: the facred rule, "Do that to others which ye would "that others should do to you," extends to every deed; and every word fhall be brought into judgment."
Benevolence urged from the Mifery of Solitude.
ARAZAN, the merchant of Bagdat, was eminent throughout all the Eaft for his avarice and his wealth: his origin was obfcure, as that of the spark which by the collifion of fteel and adamant is ftruck out of darkness; and the patient labour of perfevering diligence alone had made him rich. It was remembered, that when he was indigent he was thought to be generous; and he was ftill acknowledged to be inexorably juft. But whether, in his dealings with men, he difcovered a perfidy which tempted him to put his truft in* gold, or whether in proportion as he accumulated wealth he discovered his own importance to increafe, Carazan prized it more as he ufed it lefs: he gradually loft the inclination to do good, as he acquired the power; and as the hand of time fcattered fnow upon his head, the freezing influence extended to his bofom.
But though the door of Carazan was never opened by hofpitality, nor his hand by compaffion, yet fear led him conftantly to the mofque at the ftated hours of prayer; he performed all the rites of devotion with the moft fcrupulous punctuality, and had thrice paid his vows at the temple of the PROPHET. That devotion which arifes from THE LOVE OF GOD, and neceffarily includes THE LOVE OF MAN, as it connects gratitude with beneficence, and exalts that which was moral to divine, confers new dignity upon good.
nefs, and is the object not only of affection but_reverence. On the contrary, the devotion of the felfish, whether it be thought to avert the punishment which every one wishes to be inflicted, or to infure it by the complication of hypocrify with guilt, never fails to excite indignation and abhorrence. Carazan, therefore, when he had locked his door, and turning round with a look of circumfpective fufpicion, proceeded to the mofque, was followed by every eye with filent malignity; the poor fufpended their fupplication when he paffed by; and though he was known by every man, yet no man faluted him.
Such had long been the life of Carazan, and fuch was the character which he had acquired, when notice was given by proclamation, that he was removed to a magnificent building in the center of the city, that his table fhould be spread for the public, and that the stranger fhould be welcome to his bed. The multitude foon rushed like a torrent to his door, where they beheld him diftributing bread to the hungry and apparel to the naked, his eye foftened with compaffion, and his cheek glowing with delight. Every one gazed with astonishment at the prodigy; and the murmur of innumerable voices increafing like the found of approaching thunder, Carazan beckoned with his hand; attention fufpended the tumult in a moment, and he thus gratified the curiofity which had procured him audience.
TO HIM who touches the mountains and they smoke, THE ALMIGHTY and THE MOST MERCIFUL, be everlasting honour! He has ordained fleep to be the minister of inftruction, and his vifions have reproved me in the night. As I was fitting alone in my Harum, with my lamp burning before me, computing the product of my merchandize, and exulting in the increafe of my wealth, I fell into a deep fleep, and the hand of HIM who dwells in the third heaven was upon me. I beheld the angel of death coming forward like a whirlwind, and he fmote me before I could deprecate the blow. At the fame moment I felt myself lifted from the ground, and tranfported with astonishing rapidity through the regions of the air. The earth was con
tracted to an atom beneath; and the ftars glowed round
"CARAZAN, thy worship has not been accepted, "because it was not prompted by Love of GOD; neither can thy righteoufnefs be rewarded, because it "was not produced by LovE of MAN; for thy own "fake only, haft thou rendered to every man his due; "and thou haft approached the ALMIGHTY only for "thyfelf. Thou haft not looked up with gratitude, 66 nor round thee with kindness. Around thee, thou
haft, indeed, beheld vice and folly; but if vice and folly could juftify thy parfimony, would they not condemn the bounty of HEAVEN? If not upon the "foolish and the vicious, where fhall the fun diffuse its light, or the clouds diftil their dew? where shall the lips of the fpring breathe fragrance, or the handof autumn diffufe plenty? Remember, Carazan, that "thou haft fhut compaffion from thine heart, and grafped thy treasures with a hand of iron; thou haft lived for thy felf; and therefore, henceforth, for ever "thou shalt fubfift alone. From the light of heaven,
and from the fociety of all beings, fhalt thou be "driven, folitude fhall protract the lingering hours of eternity, and darkness aggravate the horrors of de"fpair." At this moment I was driven by some secret and irrefiftible power through the glowing fyftem of creation, and paffed innumerable worlds in a moment.. As I approached the verge of nature, I perceived the fhadows of total and boundlefs vacuity deepen before me, a dreadful region of eternal filence, foli
tude and darknefs! Unutterable horror feized me at the profpect, and this exclamation burft from me with all the vehemence of defire: "O that I had been doomed " for ever to the common receptacle of impenitence and guilt! there fociety would have alleviated the tor"ment of defpair, and the rage of fire could not have "excluded the comfort of light. Or if I had been con"demned to refide on a comet, that would return but once in a thousand years to the regions of light and "life; the hope of thefe periods, however diftant, "would chear me in the dreary interval of cold and “darkness, and the viciffitude would divide eternity " into time." While this thought paffed over my mind, I loft fight of the remoteft ftar, and the last. glimmering of light was quenched in utter darkness. The agonies of despair every moment increased, as every moment augmented my diftance from the last habitable world. I reflected with intolerable anguish, that when ten thousand thousand years had carried me beyond the reach of all but that POWER, who fills infinitude, I should still look forward into an immense abyfs of darkness, thro which I should still drive without fuccour and without fociety, farther and farther ftill, for ever and for ever. I then ftretched out my hands towards the regions of existence, with an emotion that awaked me. Thus have I been taught to eftimate fociety like every other bleffing, by its lofs. My heart is warmed to liberality; and I am zealous to communicate the happiness which I feel, to those from whom it is derived; for the fociety of one wretch, whom in the pride of profperity I would have fpurned from my door, would, in the dreadful folitude to which I was condemned, have been more highly prized, than the gold of Afric, or the gems of Golconda.
At this reflection upon his dream, Carazan became fuddenly filent, and looked upward in an extacy of gratitude and devotion. The multitude were struck at once with the precept and example; and the Caliph, to whom the event was related, that he might be liberal beyond the power of gold, commanded it to be recorded for the benefit of posterity.t