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and there is no alternative but to yield to its resistless force. A good man can concede nothing against his conscience; but he may rightly re-consider with himself whether he has risen to the full measure of his judgment. No person, for example, can say that it is a matter of conscience to retain pluralities, if a right and suitable measure should be proposed for abolishing them; and so of several other points, respecting which we sincerely believe that many, who a few months since could scarcely be called church reformers, are rapidly converging to a union of sentiment. And this, we will add, is one of our best hopes for the Church.
His Grace, after congratulating his clergy upon their excellent state of "order and discipline," and paying a tribute of respect to the memory of his predecessor, particularly in regard to his anxiety for the ecclesiastical regularity of his diocese, and his zeal to promote the building of churches and the establishment of schools and other charities, proceeds to enumerate the claims of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, the National Education Society, the Church-building Society, the Clergy Orphan Society, and King's College, London. This, we suppose, is requisite; but enumeration occurs so constantly in visitation charges, that it would save all parties much trouble if a prescribed formula were kept stereotyped for the purpose. A society stands in danger of being ostracised by being too diligently lauded. In the present case, however, the mention was very appropriate, in connexion with the zealous exertions of the late Metropolitan *; and we only regret that any valuable institution should require to have its claims thus incessantly urged upon those who should be foremost in supporting them. With regard, however, to one of these societies, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, it is scarcely fair to blame either the clergy or the laity for not becoming members of it, when they are precluded by its bye-laws from so doing. Many clergymen and pious and munificent laymen, upon inquiring if they could become members, have been informed that they could not, but that they might contribute their money, if they saw fit. Can we wonder that a society which has assumed this repulsive attitude has become unpopular; more especially when we consider also its conduct in regard to its estates in Barbadoes, and its fondly paternal embrace and identification with the abominations of West-Indian slavery? And what will inevitably be the result? Why, that when, in the forthcoming plans of financial retrenchment, Government withdraws, if not suddenly, yet by rapid instalments, its aid, in the strength of which the Society has defied public opinion-we mean the opinion of the moral and religious part of the public-it will sink a wreck, and no man will stretch forth his hand to rescue it. It must, whether it chooses or not, let go its
Speaking of King's College, London, the Archbishop says, that his predecessor's anxiety, while the plan was in preparation, "had something more of impatience than I ever observed in him on any other occasion." We would not detract from Dr. Sutton's rightly directed zeal in this matter; but there were extraneous causes of excitement at the moment, which might account for a mixture of "impatience." The college, however, thanks be to God, flourishes it is admirably conducted, and is likely to be a great public blessing. But times change: and what had been the late Archbishop's "impatience "had he been told that all the anxious care which he took to place the college under the guarantee of "public officers of state" would, in the revolution of a few months, open its walls to some of the very individuals whose influence his Grace was most anxious to counteract; and more especially would call forth the "guarantee" of the founder of the London University, whose system it was expressly designed to oppose? Such, alas! is the ignorance of men in legislating for futurity! It is, however, an admirable institution; and there is not the slightest reason to anticipate any deviation from its intended designs, as Lord Winchelsea predicted when "the Duke turned Catholic," or as others might fear when Lord Brougham expelled Lord Eldon from the woolsack. G
CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 373.
slaves in a very short time-we speak advisedly—but no thanks to its conductors: emancipation, full, complete emancipation-why conceal it? it ought to be proclaimed aloud-is already determined on; is as fixed as any thing human can be: the Orders in Council of last year have been calmly revoked, and no more of such profitless measures will be attempted: and then, when all the slaves in the West Indies are free, the slaves of this Christian corporation will be free also. Its pro-slavery friends will then drop off, and the time will have gone by to perform a great act of justice and mercy to conciliate others.-But we are wandering from our theme, by the incidental mention of this, we believe, the worst conducted of all the religious societies in or out of the church-this close corporation, which refuses to allow itself to be warmed, lighted, and ventilated by the wholesome air and sunshine from without which gladden other institutions. It is not properly a missionary society to "the heathen;" being restricted, both by its charter and in its actual operations, to the British colonies: its chief labours are in North America, and these are among our own countrymen; so that those clergymen and laymen who do not see fit to join the Society in Salisbury Square are members of no missionary institution whatever and as some of the clergy of the diocese of Canterbury may be thus circumstanced, it seems to us that his Grace's congratulations upon their pious zeal "for the conversion of the heathen " may be thought illplaced. Most justly does his Grace remark, "The conversion of the heathen, and the general diffusion of religious knowledge, are objects of the greatest importance; and lukewarm indeed must be the devotion of that man, who does not rejoice to participate in the work of thus promoting the glory of God and the eternal happiness of mankind;" but he adds, "But the more immediate care of the minister is due to that portion of the Christian church which is placed under his own superintendence." This last remark is as true as the first; but, by its juxta-position, we fear it will be construed apologetically, as a reason for not uniting in missionary efforts for "the conversion of the heathen." Indeed, it is constantly reiterated, by those who wish to be excused in this matter, that our own people have the first claim; as if any man ever shut his heart against the wants of those at home, because he felt for the religious necessities of the heathen abroad. Such an insinuation is wholly contradicted by fact: those who are most constrained by the love of Christ to pray and labour for the conversion of the heathen, are never the least anxious to promote the best interests of the poor and needy and ignorant around their own dwellings; and no contribution to a missionary box ever impoverished a Christian parish. But we have not yet forgotten the old hypocritical excuse, "Who is my neighbour?" and men turn aside from a perishing. heathen, priding themselves that, had he been their countryman, they would have relieved his wants. This is not expansive Christian charity; and it proceeds, we fear, upon a very defective view of our obligations, as Christians, to endeavour to preach the Gospel to every creature, with a tender and lively feeling of compassion for a world lying in wickedness and the shadow of death. We have said thus much, lest his Grace's words should be perverted; but, even as they stand, we sincerely think they had been better exchanged for a spirit-stirring appeal to the clergy to gird themselves to this great duty; for, as a body, with shame we say it, the clergy of the Church of England are the least zealous promoters of missionary labours of those of almost any Christian church. They need not an anodyne to their conscience, but a faithful and heart-searching address, as in the presence of God, to awaken them to a sense of their duty. Had they, as a body, been duly mindful of it, the whole world had long ago been dotted over with missionary stations, from which had spread
around on every side the glad tidings of the Gospel of peace. It is not, however, too late to repair in part the neglect; and may grace be given to us all to endeavour to do so. If any of the clergy do not approve of the Missionary Society in Salisbury Square, let them form another, or convert the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in the Colonies, into a general missionary society, throwing open its constitution, and placing it upon the vantage-ground of public confidence. We have spoken freely, but honestly. We heartily wish we could believe, with his Grace, that "there is no reason to accuse any class of the ministers of the Church of England of indifference to the spiritual welfare of the people at home, or the diffusion of the Gospel abroad." We thought there had at least been some reason to fear that all our clergy did not rise to the high measure of their duty in either of these matters.
After the appeal on behalf of the societies, his Grace proceeds to address the clergy of his cathedral; and here also he is abundantly satisfied; for though he mentions a variety of duties specially incumbent upon them, he does not mean to intimate that they required any exhortation on the subject. "Let it not be imagined that, in touching on these several heads, I mean to insinuate that any duty has been neglected, or that any admonition is necessary. I have mentioned them partly with a view of describing the benefits expected, and in great measure obtained, from these splendid establishments, and partly in compliance with the useful and laudable custom of calling our duties to remembrance on these solemn occasions." pp. 22, 23.
In all this we feel assured that his Grace speaks conscientiously; but we greatly doubt whether in regard to any body of men this style of address is the most profitable. Besides, what a cypher of a function is an episcopal visitation, if it is only to tell the clergy that all is well; and that though the bishop reminds them of their duties, it is merely for form's sake, "in compliance with a useful and laudable custom." If this be all, we might almost adopt the economical proposal of the radicals to have an assortment of cast-iron clergymen, and to work bishops by steam; devoting the money saved by the process towards paying the national debt. How different is the feeling after reading the earnest remonstrances of Latimer, or the tender beseechings of Leighton. An episcopal charge, as well as an ordinary sermon, that leaves the mass of hearers well satisfied both with themselves and the preacher, must be defective. Every faithful minister of Christ is ready to exclaim with the Apostle, "Who is sufficient for these things?" and though he would wish that his diocesan's address should comfort and encourage him in the discharge of his arduous duties, he would not desire that it should consign him to self-complacency. He would desire rather to come away smiting on his breast, with the humbling consciousness of his own sins, negligences, and ignorances, and feeling as though he had hitherto done nothing in comparison with what the solemnities of his holy office required. It may be flattering to a careless clergyman to return to his parish ruminating on an episcopal absolution; but it were more profitable if his first word, on entering his abode was, "While listening to the glowing exhortations of that man of God, I felt myself to have been an unprofitable servant, a very child and pigmy; I could have burned all my sermons, and wept over my best efforts. Yet there is encouragement-let me begin - begin to-day; to-morrow may not be afforded me."
The Archbishop is justly anxious to spare his venerable cathedral from the rude hand of spoliation; and for that end points out the various duties which are connected with that splendid ecclesiastical establishment. We fear, however, that the enumeration is not such as will be likely to effect his purpose. Thus runs the catalogue:
"I must not however forget that I am now speaking to those, who though in another
capacity they may be charged with the cure of souls, appear in this place not as parochial ministers, but as the members of an ecclesiastical body, which from its connection with a church, the highest in rank as it is the first in antiquity in this kingdom, is eminently distinguished among those corporations which add much to the dignity, and, I may venture to say, to the usefulness of our national establishment. Our forefathers, though they well understood the nature and value of a simple and spiritual worship, were of this opinion; and while they abolished useless foundations, and expelled from their churches the gaudy decorations and ceremonial pageantry, which diverted the attention of the people from the proper objects of devotion, they deemed it conducive to the honour of God, to preserve many cathedral and collegiate churches, with ample endowments, under the keeping of bodies of clergy, to whom, from their qualifications and circumstances, the due performance of the service, and the care of the fabric might be safely trusted." pp. 18, 19.
"The objects to which you are particularly bound to attend might be collected from the nature of the Establishment, if they were not specially determined by the Statutes. The general purpose is to exalt the honour of God, and show forth his majesty, with all the impressive solemnity which can be imparted to prayer and praise, by voices and instruments in sublime and harmonious unison, assisted by the effect of an architecture as far above ordinary buildings in style and dimensions, as the simple greatness of nature is beyond the works of art." pp. 20, 21.
His Grace proceeds to add :
"In the first place, then, it is required, that the service should answer in all points to the highest conceptions of a fervent devotion, that the incense of prayer, the sacrifice of thanksgiving, should daily be offered in the temple, that in the celebration of worship there should be nothing unsatisfactory to the eye or the ear of the most sensitive piety, and no lack of solid argument, of scriptural doctrine, or Christian morality, in the pulpit. The next point which requires your care, is the sustentation of the fabric." p. 21.
The remaining duties specified are the exercise of " charity, hospitality, and bounty." Now, we are no advocates for cathedral spoliation; cathedral service is to our minds one of the most elevated vehicles, if so we may speak, of devotion: and our readers will not have forgotten that in our proposed plan of cathedral reform this time last year, we implored, in opposition to the new school of reformers, the retention of the choral service; and that our cathedrals should be placed under a system of large utility, which would require a considerable portion of those revenues which seem likely, in the proposed schemes of church reform, to be devoted to the augmentation of small livings. Whether we were right or wrong in our conservative proposal, we at least proved that we are no enemies to cathedrals; but his Grace's defence of them, we confess, has a little weakened our confidence; for whatever may be the superior devotion of worshipping God" with voices and instruments, in sublime and harmonious unison, assisted by the effect of an architecture far above all ordinary buildings in style and dimensions," yet if considerable bodies of men "who in another capacity are charged with the cure of souls," are to neglect their parishes to look after "the sustentation of buildings," and to this object is to be devoted magnificent endowments, which might eke out many a starving incumbent's stipend, and spread religious fertility over vast tracts of country; we confess that we are sufficiently utilitarians to abate of our collegiate enthusiasm. The plain truth is-and why not avow it?—that our cathedrals were formerly wholesale purgatory shops; that they owed their best endowments to the gainful superstition which founded shrines and chantries; that when the Reformation abolished sacrificial and vicarious rites, which the Papists kept up with incessant labour, the monks of the Protestant cathedral had nothing to do but occasionally to shew their faces, receive their rents, and keep up good "hospitality," in which they certainly were not wanting. The chief and originally intended offices having thus ceased to exist, there is but one alternative; either to find new duties, or to send the money elsewhere where it will be useful. Our plan combined a part of both propositions, and was essentially conservative. His Grace does not speak of either adding to the duties or lessening the emolu
ments; but such a system will not last much longer. It is a known part of the forthcoming plans of church reform, that a large portion of cathedral property shall be devoted to bettering the condition of the poorer clergy. No man dreams, we presume, even at Canterbury, of matters continuing as they are.
His Grace, after this digression, returns to the parochial clergy, whose duties he points out in a very interesting and impressive sketch. We copy the following passages; after reading which, every clergyman may well apply the matter to his own heart, in the manner we have before mentioned.
"The relation in which the minister stands to his parish, is that of the head of a family, whom he is bound to instruct and fashion in faith and virtue, with a view to their eternal happiness. This duty he owes to the young and the old, the rich and the poor, the docile and the wayward, since the souls of all are equally precious in the sight of our common Redeemer. The difficulty of discharging this obligation effectively is great under any circumstances, but is felt more particularly in places where there are not schools for the children, nor accommodation in the churches for all the parishioners. It is early instruction that opens the understanding to the truths of religion, and engages the affections in its service. The full advantage of attendance at church is seldom obtained by persons not previously conversant with the doctrines and language of Scripture, nor accustomed in their infancy to prayer. To those on the other hand, who as they grow up are deprived of the blessings of public worship and instruction, the benefits of a pious education are frequently lost; the impressions which they received in their childhood are gradually effaced from their minds; the first sparks of devotion are quenched by neglect; and the small portion of knowledge, which is still retained by the memory, has no quickening influence on the heart. The minister, therefore, who is sincerely desirous of bringing his flock to the highest attainable perfection, will never be satisfied whilst his parish is destitute of schools, or insufficiently provided with church room." pp. 24, 25.
"There are certain points, by attention to which the man of the humblest attainments may compensate in a great measure for his deficiencies, as on the other hand, where these are neglected, superior talents will be of little use. In the first order of these are devoutness and seriousness, such as must be inspired by a lively persuasion of the Divine presence, in the performance of every portion of the church service. If the minister appears to be indifferent to the truths he delivers, or not to join from his heart in the supplications, thanksgivings, and praises which he addresses to the Throne of Grace, the congregation will be inattentive and listless: If he seems to be sincere and in earnest, the minds of the people will be touched with the feelings of devotion, which, with the aid of the ever-blessed Spirit, give weight to instruction, and efficacy to prayer. In respect to the duties of the pulpit, let your discourses be scriptural, illustrating the doctrines of the Gospel, and enforcing its precepts, from the sacred text, explaining the grounds of justification through the cross of Christ, of sanctification through the aid of the Holy Ghost, the true nature of Christian holiness, and its absolute necessity to salvation."-" In general, when the preacher has no object in view but the advancement of truth, and the improvement of his hearers in faith and holiness, the sermon will not fail to be effective." pp. 27-29.
"But the circle of the clergyman's duties is by no means complete without regular attention to his pastoral charge: His concern in the church is with the congregation at large: his reproofs and instructions, his exhortations and warnings, are addressed to them generally as a body, while the application to the cases of the several members must be left to their own judgment. But in his pastoral character, he appears in the midst of his parishioners, like an angel of God with a message of grace to each individual, administering commendation or censure, rebuke or encouragement, admonition or comfort, and adapting his language and manner, with parental consideration and tenderness, to every man's particular condition. On the temper and judgment with which he conducts this personal intercourse, his salutary influence, and the beneficial effect of his labours, must in a great measure depend. In the painful contingencies of misfortune, sickness, or sorrow, he will find effective auxiliaries, if he has skill to avail himself of these opportunities, when a look of compassion, an expression of sympathy, an affectionate warning will sometimes sink deep into hearts, which, in the hour of health and prosperity, have been closed against instruction. In conversing with his parishioners, whatever their faults may have been, the minister should be always on his guard against any indication, either in language or manner, of unkind feeling towards them; if he treats them with harshness, they will not regard him as a friend: the young and thoughtless in particular, who might perhaps be reclaimed by gentler methods, are estranged by austerity; and when they fly from the presence, or renounce the authority of their monitor, their