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Thirdly. As to objections to Church Establishments.

"I speak as unto wise men, judge ye what I say.'-There is no end of objections. In the corrupt state of man, and the imperfection of all he does, objections may be easily multiplied. If men of learning and experience weigh the whole question, they will see it beset with difficulties. All we need to contend for is, that the preponderance is in favour of Establishments, and yet more decidedly against dissolving them rashly, when already long settled.

"It may be sufficient to notice a very few.

"1. The objection that Christ's kingdom is not of this world' is as applicable to the use of any external means, however discreet, towards a spiritual end-the payment of a minister's support, the building of a church or chapel—as to a religious Establishment. A fence round a garden, says a good writer, may as well be objected to.

"2. The objection that a government may mistake what is true religion, does not alter the general duty. A father is bound to instruct his children; and it is no proof to the contrary that many fathers have instructed their children amiss.

"3. The objection that Mohammedanism, Hinduism, Popery, might be established, is answered by the preceding remark. Guilt is upon the heads of those who, placed in trust, seek not for the true religion in its purity. The objection is the same as one that should be drawn against all civil government, because many governments have mistaken what is justice, truth, equity in punishments, rewards, &c. &c. "4. The objection that many princes, under the pretext of maintaining religion, have persecuted those who refused to follow it, proceeds on a misunderstanding of the question before us, which is, not whether an exclusive religious form of worship should be imposed on a nation, with penalties on those who withhold obedience—but merely whether a connection ought to exist between the church and state on some convenient footing, and limited by reasonable conditions, sufficient to discharge a prince's duty to God, as the parent of his people, in offering means of religious instruction to all under his government; but by no means to the extent of compelling obedience on the contrary, a full liberty is supposed to be granted to those who may differ from the majority in the plan of worship and discipline; and no restraint imposed but on open immorality, blasphemy, and profaneness.

"The balance of arguments, therefore, is strongly in favour of Church Establishments, as best suited to such a creature as man, and in such a state of moral disorder as we confessedly find him. It is, we contend, the duty, under these circumstances, of the supreme power to consult the highest and most obvious good of the community, by making Christianity the basis of civil government, by taking care that proper places and persons be provided for the instruction of the people and the worship of God, by seeing that a due maintenance be allotted to the clergy, and by such other acts as may evince a reverence for religion and a desire to honour, in the administration of affairs, the authority of that Revelation, the evidences of which are so clear and abundant." pp. 45-50.

We now lay down his Lordship's discourse, which, being merely of an introductory character, does not disclose his intended measures for the benefit of his diocese, or of the natives of India: nor indeed, at so early a period of his acquaintance with India, could he have planned any fixed system of operation. We doubt not, however, that, should his valuable life be spared, his well-directed zeal and indefatigable industry will, by the blessing of God, devise and find means for carrying into effect measures of great moment in reference to an object so dear to his heart. At the same time, it is but just to remember the magnitude of the obstacles which surround his path; for we cannot conceive of a station more arduous than that of a prelate placed in a country like India-amidst a mere handful of Christians, many of them only nominally so; overwhelmed on every side by the grossest forms of heathen darkness, superstition, and idolatry; and finding perhaps the strongest opposition to his measures in the ignorance, the scepticism, the religious indifference, the hostility disguised or undisguised, the honest timidity, or the dishonest policy, of some of those who ought, from their station and responsibility before God, to be his most useful coadjutors.

Whether we look at the Heathen or the nominally Christian population, the field of exertion is almost inexhaustible. In reference to the latter, and to that portion of it which is connected with the pale of the Anglican Church, there is much to achieve: for the Church of England in India is

only of recent growth; and Christianity under any form is hitherto but as it were a feeble exotic, and needs pre-eminently the employment of every wise and salutary measure, under the blessing of its Divine Author, to protect its early shoots. Even as regards the ordinary business of a diocese, that of Calcutta might well demand the whole time and labour of the most laborious prelate, more especially when we consider its recent institution, and the many disorganizing vicissitudes to which it has been subject.

Then as regards the Heathen Natives: something has been effected by the Christian exertions of individuals and societies; but nothing in proportion to the greatness of the object, nothing upon a large and well-concocted system; and even the efforts which have been made have been conducted under far less favourable circumstances than those which are now opening upon India. The first missionaries sowed in tears, and, except in a few instances, with little apparent success; but their labours have opened a way to more enlarged measures; and at this moment India may be truly said to be one of the most promising fields of Christian exertion. At least, a hopeful beginning has been made—the word of God has been translated, printed, and widely circulated; religious books and tracts, and especially our own invaluable Liturgy, are following in its train; education, combined with more or less of religious instruction, is widely extending; prejudice is abating; and nothing seems wanting, so far as man can see into futurity, but enlarged and well-arranged measures, sanctified and rendered effectual by the grace of God's Holy Spirit, to render India ultimately, and we would trust rapidly, a Christian country; a portion of that universal dominion of the Saviour, of which it was predicted, "The heathen shall be given for His inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for His possession."


(Continued from page 567.)

Petition proposed to be presented respectively to the three Estates of the Legislature, on the Subject of Church Reform. By HENRY BUDD, M.A., Rector of White Roothing, Essex. With an Address to those Ministers and Members of our Established Church who value her blessings as the rich boon conferred by God in his grace, through the sufferings and blood of our martyred forefathers of the Reformation; and consider her, under God, as the fruitful parent of the personal enjoyment, the domestic happiness, the social courtesy, the civil tranquillity, the genuine English loyalty, the national prosperity, the spiritual blessedness, and the truly catholic spirit to bless the nations of the earth, which, even at this day, amidst all our corruptions, distinguish the people of this favoured land; and who desire to transmit the same preserved and improved to their children and their children's children.

MR. Budd's title-page explains the object of his address. His paragraphs on Church Reform are numbered to fifty-two; all grounded upon those views of the constitution of the Church of England, and of the whole of the Reformed Churches, which the much esteemed and pious author has embodied in his well-known work on Baptism; and which may be comprised in one principle-that of " open communion to every child presented to the Church for baptism, on the ground of God's promises made to the children of believing parents and his church; repentance and faith being promised in his name, which, by God's help, he shall exercise in due season." On this principle of assumed regeneration, on the ground of faith in the

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promise, all our formularies, from the Baptismal to the Burial Service, Mr. Budd considers are constructed.

The consideration of this question we resume not at present, our object being only to point out the chief practical features of the author's view of Church Reform grounded upon it. These are as follows:-The abolition of pluralities, and enforcing the residence of every clergyman on his benefice. An alteration in the system of patronage, by allowing the bishop a veto where he thinks the clergyman insufficient in character or knowledge; by vesting the Crown patronage in a commission, to be disposed of to the most deserving curates in each deanery; and by encouraging patrons to build churches and establish religious ministrations by giving them the right of presentation. The division of overgrown dioceses, the superadded bishops not having seats in the House of Lords, or only in rotation. Each bishop to be assisted by a council of presbyters. The bishops to retain their patronage, but to be recommended to bestow it upon deserving curates, and not upon their own relations, unless distinguished by special spiritual endowments. Translations to be forbidden; and bishops to keep up hospitality. The cathedral clergy to be much diminished, retaining only four or six for the bishop's council, and all having parochial cures. Archdeacons to be resident, hospitable, and attentive to their duties. Rural deans to be appointed in every archdeaconry. Rectors to be resident, and active in their ministrations, and not to have more than fifteen hundred souls under their care. Vicars the same; and lay rectors to be induced to give them better support. Diocesan offices to be opened for engaging curates, and the bishop to recommend the clergy to name deserving curates for the benefices in his patronage. Churchwardens and charitable persons to visit the poor. Diocesan seminaries to be opened for the suitable training of parish clerks; and every parish clerk to keep a day school and Sunday school. Tithes to continue, but the mode of payment to be modified; and a fund to be formed in every diocese for voluntary contributions for the benefit of the Church. A suitable mode of education for the Church to be adopted in the universities; the Fifth Book of Hooker being the class-book, and divinity lectures and the study of Hebrew being diligently attended to. Ministers to be ordained only in the Ember weeks. The Liturgy to be read once daily, or oftener, in every church, if a congregation can be obtained; and short expositions of Scripture to be encouraged at these services. The Liturgy to be revised-not to alter its doctrine or spirit, and least of all in what Mr. Budd denominates “the general principle of the Reformed Churches, that salvation is by promise, that the promise is sealed by baptism, and that the worshipping church, consisting of baptized members, is, in a judgment of charity and in the exercise of faith, a communion of saints and a portion of the holy universal church of Christ upon earth"-but only to remove "the reasonable objections of spiritual, conscientious seceders," by correcting some expres sions, and allowing the shortening of the service upon week-days, and the omission of a few ceremonies; always, however, leaving the clergyman at liberty to use the service as at present constructed. A more scriptural and spiritual version of the Psalms, and a selection of approved hymns. No invasion of the rights of present possessors of church property or station. A commission of clergymen and laymen to be appointed to carry the above reforms into effect, and that the members be persons "approved by God and man for such an undertaking."

Mr. Budd's Petition is partly a description of what the church ought to be, and partly a delineation of the measures to be pursued in order to render it so; but as a whole it carries-not to use the word offensively, but only descriptively-a Utopian air, on account of its presupposing those

very feelings and dispositions which, if they existed, would of themselves be a reform, or inevitably lead to one. It is easy to recommend to Parliament that bishops, and archdeacons, and private clergymen, and patrons, should be all that he describes; and that they should act upon holy and spiritual motives, for the glory of God and the salvation of the souls of men; but how is this to be practically secured? Our only hope, under God, is from the powerful, though often only silent and incidental, effect of those measures of reform which will render a ministration in the Church of England no enviable lot to an ignorant, a careless, or an irreligious clergyman; which will cut up the roots of corruption; which, beginning with a well-devised plan of theological and spiritual training for the candidate for Holy Orders, and pruning away whatever fosters pride, indolence, or secularity, makes spiritual duties the active business of professedly spiritual men, and prevents all others from coveting the priest's office. It is to little purpose to lay down rules as to what any body of men ought to be, if the practical tendency of the system is to contravene them.

Of Mr. Budd's practical suggestions we need only say, that the chief of them-such as the abolition of pluralities, the enforcement of clerical residence, an improved system of church patronage, the division of overgrown parishes and dioceses, the restriction (we would not say in every case the absolute prevention) of translations, theological education, and several others—appear to us of essential importance, and we have again and again urged them as the basis of all sound church reform. Of the good effect of some of Mr. Budd's suggestions we feel doubtful. And with regard, in particular, to his views of the character of the Church, we feel assured, that, if the Liturgy is to be altered at all, among the first alterations ought to be a few of the very passages which he is anxious to retain. When the corpse of a notoriously wicked man is brought to be buried, it may sound speciously, as a system, that he received in baptism all the blessings above mentioned, in virtue of the faith of his parents (who, perhaps, had no faith at all, but were "baptized infidels" like himself); and that, not being excommunicated, for want of godly discipline, he is still ecclesiastically a true disciple of Christ, and has been received into the kingdom of heaven; but in common sense and daily practice the minds of most conscientious clergymen are pained in reading over such a man some of those passages for which Mr. Budd, upon his system, must contend, as appropriate expressions of joy, and hope, and thanksgiving.


WILLIAM WILBERFORCE, Esq. In resuming our notice of the life and character of Mr. Wilberforce, we are happy to commence by laying before our readers the following particulars, extracted from a highly interesting discourse delivered on occasion of his death by the Rev. J. Scott, in Trinity Church, Hull, the place of our lamented friend's birth. Mr. Scott's sermon was preached on a week-day; the reason of which he has himself explained.

"In different parts, also, sermons have been preached, and public meetings are held, to do honour to his memory. And on all these occasions the principles which swaved him, and which he so unreservedly

avowed, are brought into notice, and placed
more or less distinctly in view. In par-
ticular, attention is called to what he him-
self has recorded so fully, so unequivo-
cally, and so luminously, upon the great
subject of religion. From all this, ex-
tensive good may be anticipated. It must
be hailed as adding another to the many
means by which Divine Providence causes
Christian truth to make its way and dif-
fuse its influence among us. Under such
circumstances, it would have been dis-
graceful to the native town of Mr. Wil-
berforce to have been silent. And such
has not been the case.
clergy, and other ministers, intended to
preach funeral sermons on the Sunday;
but a call arose for a common service, in

Some of the

which different denominations might unite, without deserting their own places of worship or their own ministers: and the Wednesday Morning Lecture in the principal church was considered as affording the most eligible opportunity, and was therefore fixed upon."

Mr. Scott describes as follows Mr. Wilberforce's general character and conduct.

"His great talents, his attractive manners, and his captivating eloquence, notwithstanding the disadvantages of a feeble person and delicate health, marked him out for public life, and caused his society to be courted, and his assistance to be solicited, by the most exalted and most eminent personages. For a short time, indeed, these flattering circumstances might produce upon him their ordinary effects; but very soon the religious impressions of his youth were revived: he gave to the great subject of religion that serious attention which its supreme importance most justly claims; he yielded himself unreservedly to the dictates of his judgment and his conscience. Whatever talents he possessed-however suited to command for him the admiration of men, and to secure him the honours and emoluments of the world-he felt to be then most duly, most worthily, and most happily employed, when they were consecrated to the Great Being who had bestowed them; devoted to the service of Him who had made him His own, not by creation only but by redemption. He did not desert public life-as some would have persuaded him to do-but abode therein with God.' He was never ashamed to avow his principles: by deliberate public writing, as well as by more transient word of mouth, he asserted the great principles of Christ's most holy religion, and exposed the wide-spread deviations from it, both doctrinal and practical, which deform the Christian world; and he silenced every gainsayer; extorted, where it was not more willingly yielded, a reverence for his principles; and gave force to every profession or avowal that he made, by a most pure, holy, benevolent, active, and preeminently useful life, during the lapse of nearly half a century. In the course of this time, it was his honour and privilege to originate, and with unexampled perseverance to urge forward to a happy conclusion, measures in Parliament, as well as through the channel of various religious and benevolent institutions, for which the remotest nations do at this day call him, and the remotest ages we doubt not will call him, blessed.'

"We say not that, in all this time, none ever found, or imagined that they found, occasion against him.' No: no human being can ever lead so busy a life without failing in any point; no one can take so decided a part, in this fallen world, in favour of righteousness and against un

righteousness, without passing through evil report' as well as 'good report — without being sneered at and reproached and calumniated, as our Blessed Master himself was. He, also, who moves over the debateable ground of a nation's politics will ever find persons to estimate very differently the course he takes. Accordingly, there was a period when our distinguished friend was bitterly reproached for supporting the then existing administration, and by consequence that longcontinued war in which they had thought it necessary to involve the nation and since that time, again, he gave dissatisfaction to others by too much countenancing, as they thought, an opposite party. We enter into none of these questions. Men must be allowed their different opinions upon them. But none, I think, will now pretend to call in question the uprightness, the independence, the conscientiousness of our friend throughout his course. Few will now think to find occasion against him, 'except it be concerning the law of his God-except his religion furnish it."

Mr. Scott furnishes many interesting particulars of Mr. Wilberforce's early history and the formation of his religious character, derived chiefly from his own lips, and noted down at the time by the Rev. Henry Venn. The following is the substance of his statements.

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'Mr. Wilberforce was born in the year 1759, and baptized in this church in the month of September. In early life be was a scholar in our grammar-school, under the superintendence of the revered Joseph Milner, whose preaching appears, even at that time, to have made a considerable impression on his mind. But at twelve years of age he attended a school in the neighbourhood of London, residing with a pious uncle and aunt; the latter of whom, on some occasion, introduced him to the notice of the venerable and beloved John Newton. When, nearly fifteen years after, altered views and revived religious impressions led him again to seek the acquaintance of that excellent man, Mr. Newton surprised and affected him much by telling him that, from the time of the early introduction just alluded to, he had not failed constantly to pray for him! We may well suppose that Mr. Newton discerned in the child somewhat striking, as well as felt interested for him on account of the respected relative who had introduced him. His abode in or near London appears to have been short; for early in the year 1772 we find him placed in the grammar school at Pocklington, where he appears to have continued till his removal to Cambridge in 1776 or 1777.

"I have been favoured with the sight of several letters written by him from this place; which, amidst all the vivacity and playfulness belonging to his years

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