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that of the Bourg de Four, whose ministers at present are Messrs. Empeytaz Guers, and Shuillier, and the Prè l'Evêque, under the direction of Mr. Malan. These two churches have laboured with much zeal, and still labour, to extend the knowledge of truth, though their separation from the national church has often lessened their usefulness. However, since 1814 a great change has taken place in the Established Church itself. On the one hand some individuals, both of the clergy and laity, have made a profession of orthodox sentiments on the other, the great body of the ministers and people have avowed their opposition to them. To the Divinity Professor who merely taught natural theology, has succeeded Mr. Chenevière, who lectures on Christian doctrines in order to attack them, endeavouring to prove that they are contrary to reason and Scripture.
In the church of Geneva, ministers are elected, not by their congregations, but by the Assembly of Pastors. The leaders of this body now resolved no longer to choose orthodox ministers, but Arians only. Hence, the young ministers who had been enlightened were obliged to seek for posts of duty in foreign churches: one only, Mr. Gaussen, had been elected pastor of a parish before the revival became conspicuous, and hence was a member of the Company.
Mr. Gaussen, with other friends of truth who had remained in the bosom of the church, laboured diligently in the cause of religion. Mr. Galland, who had first been pastor at Berne, and afterwards director of the Missionary Institution at Paris, joined them in 1827. The need
of a society was soon felt, which might be a centre of union to those members of the Established Church who had embraced orthodox opinions; and thus was formed at the close of 1830, the Evangelical Society. The first president of this body was Mr. G. Cramer, member of the sovereign council of Geneva, and its present president is Mr. H. Tronchin, lieutenant-colonel of artillery. This association is distinguished from the dissenting congregations of Mr. Malan and at Bourg du Four, by the circumstance that it is not a church, but a society; and that its object is to erect the standard of the truth in the interior of the fallen Presbyterian churches, not to form dissenting congregations.
As the Christians of other countries take a deep interest in Geneva and France, it is our intention to give them a general view of the Christian efforts employed by the Evangelical Society to extend Christian knowledge.
Society considered it its duty to establish a school of divinity in which the young students of these churches might be instructed in sacred and pious learning. They felt that to form the minds of Christian ministers was to attack the evil in the bud.
This institution was attended with considerable expense; but one of the members of the committee, convinced of the necessity of dispatch, immediately made an offer of ten thousand francs; and many other donations were soon presented. The blessing of God evidently attended the beginning of the undertaking. The committee requested Mr. Gaussen to take the professorship of Doctrinal Divinity. Mr. Merle d'Aubigné, pastor and president of the Consistory at Brussels, was invited to the same office in Church History. Mons. Steiger, author of an approved commentary on the First Epistle of St. Peter, was called to be lecturer on the Critical and Hermeneutical Divinity of the New Testament, and Mr. Havernick, author of a commentary historical and philological on the Book of Daniel, to the correspondent explanation on the Old Tesment. Mr. Galland was entreated to undertake the department of Practical Theology. These are the five professors who now direct the institution. It is their special object to promote a regular and profound study of the Scriptures, and to exhibit the doctrines of Christianity in all their purity.
To meet the exigences of many pious students, who might be destitute of the means of subsistence, the committee determined on the formation of exhibitions, or pensions, of six hundred francs per annum. These supplies are strictly limited to young men of decided piety, of the Established and Reformed Churches. But it has also been resolved that exhibitions designed for students of particular denominations shall be also appropriated, according to the intention of the founder. The number of students has constantly increased since the formation of the establishment; not, indeed, in a manner sudden or astonishing, but with regularity. The lectures in the winter of 1831 were attended by four regular students; those in the summer of 1832 by eleven; those of the winter of 1832 by thirteen; and those of last summer by seventeen. The committee does not despise this "day of small things;" it looks to the Divine blessing for the increase of students, and for the removal of numerous obstacles which oppose its labours.
One of those obstacles is the want of a preparatory institution, in which young men may obtain the instruction requisite to fit them for entrance into the school of theology. Various reasons, and princicipally the want of pecuniary resources, have hitherto prevented the formation of
such an establishment.-The major part of the students furnish the best hopes of future usefulness. It is agreed to assist none to enter the Christian ministry who do not appear qualified to become faithful servants of God.
The want of some degree of freedom in public instruction, and in the church at large, has hitherto proved another cause of difficulty to the school of theology. But we have reason to believe that such liberty will make progress both in France and Switzerland; and if Christians shall support this institution by their prayers and donations, justly may we expect that God will condescend to employ it as an important means of diffusing the knowledge of salvation amongst a population to whom it is highly needful.
Distribution of the Sacred Writings.
As the Scriptures have been widely circulated in Switzerland, whilst in France there are whole departments in which they are scarcely known, the committee deemed it proper to turn its attention to the latter country. They found before them a wide and barren field, in which they were called to labour. The first agents employed by the society in this work were simple Christians, who became travelling merchants, in order to render themselves more useful missionaries. They visit towns and villages, every where selling the Scriptures, and entering into conversation on religion with those whom they meet. The Evangelical Society employs these Bible Missionaries, as Peter Waldo and his associates employed in the twelfth century similar means in the same countries. Up to the month of May of the present year they had traversed ten departments, and visited about two thousand towns or villages. In the course of the year they had sold almost twelve thousand copies of the sacred writings, in places where they had hitherto been unknown. These Bible Missionaries meet with many difficulties, especially on the part of the Roman Catholic priests; but they proceed in their labours with faith, and in general they are protected by the government. Already, in almost every direction, there are persons decidedly converted, by God's blessing on the reading of these Bibles, and they appear here and there as luminous points in the midst of surrounding darkness. Some of these converts have been dragged before the magistrate, at the instigation of the priests; but they have taken advantage of the circumstance to confess the truth more loudly. They have even on some occasions been beaten, but this treatment has been a means of confirming their Christian character. Often, when the curés prohibited the purchase of the New Testament, persons who had previously been thoughtless on the subject now made it a point to procure them. Many, who had received the Bible agents very ill the first
time, on a second occasion received them with kindness. One of the agents in Dec. 1832 was received in a house at Lyons with insults and imprecations : he left the house, but soon returned; and, "with the Bible in my hand," he writes, "I informed them, their ruin was certain if they did not repent. I then read to them some passages in the Gospels; and I soon perceived that they were becoming serious. Before I left them, I had the great satisfaction to see these very people, who had received me with so much opposition, buy a New Testament, and beg me to return to visit them. This very house is now a house of prayer, where other Christians of the neighbourhood assemble to listen to the reading of the Bible."
The Evangelical Society has engaged in the public preaching of the Gospel both in France and Geneva, by means of clergymen regularly ordained.
In France. The distribution of Scripture by the Bible Missionaries rendered it necessary to send ministers, who were calculated to give religious instruction to those persons whose attention had been awakened, and to form them, when it should be proper, into churches. Whereever the Bible Missionaries had halted, they had been requested to explain the Scriptures, in assemblies more or less numerous. On some occasions no less than two or three hundred persons, all educated in the Church of Rome, have met together for this purpose. The Society has recently commenced the work of Evangelization in France, and only a few weeks ago sent the Rev. Mr. Hoffmann to Tournus, a town situated between Lyons and Chalons. May the prayers of Christians attend on this undertaking, so that not only the first efforts may become successful, but that speedily a large reinforcement of able ministers may be sent to these countries, at once so dark and so interesting.
In Geneva.-The Society has deeply felt the need of faithful preaching in Geneva. Hence from its very formation the Professors of Theology have delivered expositions of the Scriptures every Sunday and Thursday.
Besides these public services, two Sunday schools have been established: one of them has three hundred children enrolled on its lists; and there are one hundred in the school for younger children. Five of these young persons have been called away by death in the last year, and they have all given satisfactory proof of their love to the Bible, and of their simple faith in the blood of Jesus Christ. Some of these children have expressed a dying request that their little savings of money might be dedicated to the object of circulating the Scriptures.
In the absence of the Professors, during the vacation, Ministers of the Esta
blished Church in the Canton de Vaud have filled their place. The number of hearers having regularly increased, it was found necessary to obtain another situation; and though the purchase of the ground and the building of the chapel demanded considerable expenses, soon were the means provided in Geneva itself. A beautiful chapel, or oratoire, is already in progress in one of the best parts of the city, destined to be at the same time the chapel of the Theological Seminary, and a building similar to the chapel of ease in England and Scotland. There will be accommodation for upwards of a thousand persons, and it will be opened (God willing) in the month of December. May the Divine blessing rest on the proclamation of truth in the oratoire erected to the honour of the Redeemer where Calvin once preached Christ crucified.
Other Labours of the Evangelical Society. Besides these leading objects of the society, there are others which engage its
1. Missions to Heathen Nations.--Monthly meetings to implore the blessing of God on foreign missions are held; and pecuniary contributions are sent to the Missionary Academies of Lausanne, Bâsle, and Paris.
2. Religious Tracts.-The society prints tracts, and circulates tracts printed elsewhere. In the year past it has put in circulation about sixteen thousand publications of this description.
3. A Religious Library. This library, intended to furnish Christian reading to the inhabitants of Geneva, numbers 1172 volumes.
4. Weekly Schools. A school, entrusted to a pious mistress, and placed under the direction of a committee of ladies, contributes to the education of sixty girls.
The Evangelical Society of Geneva stands in need of assistance: it looks not to foreign aid in behalf of those objects which regard its own country; but it has not ventured to enter on undertakings so extensive in favour of France, without hopes of the co-operation of foreign churches it claims it especially for the support of the School of Theology, for the distribution of Scripture, and for the public preaching of the Gospel.
Recently the second Report of the Society has detailed its labours, and published the state of its funds. We trust that many Christians in Switzerland, in France, Great Britain, and America, will feel impelled to lend aid to an institution built upon the faith of the Son of God, confessing His Deity and His perfect grace, directing its endeavours to the promotion of His cause, and connected with so many recollections of interest and importance. The institution has been already greatly blessed; but it is weak and feeble in regard to the grand objects before it. May Christians of every clime strengthen it by their prayers, CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 384.
and by holding out the hand of fraternity; and perhaps the Lord will condescend to employ it for erecting his sanctuary in places where its courts have been profaned and laid desolate.
ST. DAVID'S COLLEGE.
We are much concerned to find that St. David's College, Lampeter, is far from being in a flourishing state as to its pecuniary resources and prospects. The deficiency is the more to be lamented, now that the institution has been in operation seven years, and its value has been abundantly proved. We heard lately that it contained only about thirty pupils, whereas it can accommodate nearly seventy. The chief obstacle is want of endowment. The only ground upon which the college can stand is the cheapness of the education afforded by it, compared with the universities, as it has no degrees, no fellowships to offer. An adequate endowment not having been secured, the professorships cannot be filled up, and candidates for holy orders cannot be educated at so low a rate as the exigencies of the country require. If only about 2000/. were raised, so as to devote the interest for exhibitions to deserving candidates, this would give a considerable impulse to the institution. This sum, and more if requisite, might easily be subscribed by the friends of the Church of England.
The college is well conducted, and bids fair, by the blessing of God, to be of great benefit to the principality. In addition to a suitable outline of classical and mathematical education, it affords, what our Universities greatly need, a regular course of sacred studies; the pupils in the divinity class employing a year and a half in theological reading and the study of Hebrew, preparatory to their immediate profession as candidates for Holy Orders. This feature alone of the system ought to commend it to all who wish to see our National Church supplied with teachers well instructed in the word of God and the duties of the sacred office. Judging of the character of the theological lectures from the published volume of sermons delivered in the college chapel by the Rev. A. Ollivant, of Trinity College, Cambridge, the pious, learned, and indefatigable Vice-principal of the institution; we bless God for so sound and judicious a series of instructions, and augur great benefits to the cause of pure and undefiled religion in the Principality from the future ministrations of young men thus scripturally instructed. Mr. Ollivant has, we understand, set an excellent example to his pupils, by studying the Welsh language, so as to read prayers and preach in it with cordial acceptance by the people. We have taken a warm interest in this college from its first projection, more than a quarter of a century since; and the 5 E
more we consider the whole of the circumstances of the case, the more highly we estimate its value; and we are persuaded that it can only be from its wants and claims not having been made exten
sively known, and in proper quarters, that its embarrassments have been suffered to continue. It is not yet too late to relieve them, and to render the institution fully adequate to its important object.
Ir is with extreme pain that we read the following advertisement in the American newspapers. It is thus that religion is wounded in the house of its friends. The Millennium is too serious and sacred a subject to be advertised in puffs of crockery, and made a pecuniaryspeculation: and what Iman who feels reverence for God could make even a picture of "the All-seeing Eye" a receptacle for the viands of an entertainment, and carve his food without revolting from such a representation.. "Millennium earthenware arrived.--The undersigned takes the liberty to solicit public patronage for a new and beautiful pattern of earthenware plates, of all sizes, made from designs prepared by himself, principally from Scripture illustrations. pattern is received from Staffordshire by this Spring's arrival, and far exceeds his expectation. The following is a brief description of it: On the top of the plate is the All-seeing Eye, shedding rays of light down upon the world; beneath, is the Bible opened to Isaiah 11th chapter 6th verse; next in order is a Dove descending with an olive branch, and the words Peace on Earth;' the centre is filled up with a landscape, and a group of figures spoken of in the verse representing the Millennium, or all nature harmonized and returned to its native innocence in which the Creator left it previous to the fall of man, in the garden of Eden; at the foot, is the figure of a suppliant, with the petition, Give us this day our
daily bread.' The whole surrounded with a border of wheat-sheaves, fruits, and flowers. Although a considerable extra expense has been incurred in getting up the pattern, it will be sold at the same prices as ordinary patterns of blue printed
Mr. Loudon says, in his Encyclopedia of Architecture, that the expense incurred in the fitting up of public-house bars in London is almost incredible; every one vying with its neighbour in convenient arrangements, general display, rich carving, brass-work, finely veined mahogany, and ornamental painting. The carving of the ornament alone, in that of "The Grapes" public-house, in Old Street Road, cost 100.; the workmanship being by one of the first carvers in London. Three gin-shops have been lately fitted up in Lamb's Conduit Street, at the expense, for the bar alone, of upwards of 20001. each. Such statements will scarcely be credited when Temperance Societies have banished, as we trust eventually they will, the curse of spirit-drinking.
Bishop Davenant, in his Determinationes Quæstionem, &c. has under Quæstio XI. a speech made by Archbishop Williams against a Bill introduced for the ejection of Bishops from the House of Lords. The arguments employed in this speech, and which turned the scale against the Bill, may be worth notice in the present day, when a similar proposal is popularly canvassed.
THE REV. GEORGE BURDER.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer. As your pages are sometimes enriched by notices of real excellence, though not exhibited within the limits of our own communion, allow me to draw your attention to the character of one (whom I had hoped to have seen noticed before this in your pages) whose catholic spirit, abundant labours, and extensively prolonged usefulness, eminently entitle his memory to the regard of all good men. I allude to the late Rev. GEORGE BURDER, one of the founders of the London Missionary, the Religious Tract, and the British and Foreign Bible Societies, and the gratuitous as well as laborious secretary of the first of these institutions for many years; the author of the "Village" and of two volumes of " Cottage Sermons," with
many other excellent works. This much
Among the many useful books published by Mr. Burder, the "Village Sermons are named, not merely on account of their peculiar excellence, but particularly in a communication to your miscellany, as a work well-known to many clergymen; several of whom at various periods addressed the author, acknowledging the great benefit which they themselves had derived from them, both personally and in their ministry. Few sermons, probably, have been more honoured in the conversion of souls, as delivered from the pulpit, or read in private assemblies and families, or perused in the closet. The first two volumes of the "Cottage Sermons," circulated by the Religious Tract Society (the third was not written by Mr. Burder), the "Ten
lamented individual was intimately known to the writer of these lines for more than eighteen years immediately preceding his death. So far, therefore, he is qualified to speak of his departed friend, for whom, during their long acquaintance and frequent intercourse, he entertained an increasing and unmixed respect.
Among the many excellent traits in Mr. Burder's character, the first which I would mention, as peculiarly claiming the notice of a Christian Observer, is the simple piety which marked his whole demeanour. Religion sat easy upon him: it had in him no appearance of stiffness and constraint; of an accoutrement in which he could not well go, because he had not proved it. It was associated with all his habits, whether of labour or of comparative recreation; it seemed to be the element in which he moved with pleasure, the healthful atmosphere which he loved to breathe.
With this was connected unaffected benevolence. A revered Clergyman, who has now finished his course with joy, was accustomed to say, "There is in some cases grace, that is, favour or a particular benefit from God, even in nature. The disposition of some minds is happily constituted." This was exemplified in Mr. Burder. He was naturally amiable but a sanctifying work in the heart had given a holy tone and tendency to that which otherwise would have been connected only, or for the most part, with splendid or specious sins. Benevolence in him was Christian love; that fruit of the Holy Spirit which is inseparable from the love of God shed abroad in the heart by the same blessed agency: and this benevolence, like all other graces of the new man (graces beautifully exemplified in the case before us), was joined with simplicity and godly sincerity. Here was nothing affected, put on for a particular purpose, or made up for the occasion. You saw what the man usually was when you marked his benevolence. To give one instance only: In a memoir of him, drawn up by his son, the Rev. Dr. Henry Burder (an excellent and interesting work, especially as exhibiting a striking portrait of one who, in a Christian life of long duration, was as unassuming as he was useful and eminent); his youngest son, Dr. T. H. Burder, remarks," My father was accustomed, in adverting to the characters of others, to notice excellencies much more than defects: seldom did he allude to the latter, except with some important design; and if the language of censure became necessary, it was employed
Sermons," and "Sermons to the Aged," deserve also especial notice: the last as being the latest production of the author, written under the pressure of much bodily infirmity, and just before he became totally blind.
with caution and reluctance." No one will wonder then, that a third feature, remarkable in this good man's character, was
Habitual cheerfulness, joined with becoming gravity. He was at once serious and cheerful, even playful at times, in a good sense, when conversing with those whom he intimately knew; but not forgetful of the great end of our being, and that by our words we shall be justified and by our words we shall be condemned. Persons who labour under the mistaken idea that religion makes men gloomy and unpleasant, would probably have been shaken in their opinion had they known Mr.
He united, in a measure not often seen, calmness with great activity, and firmness with gentleness. I have seen him in the midst of business connected with his numerous and arduous secretarial, editorial, and ministerial labours, and have admired, and much wished to partake, of his talent for redeeming time without hurry or apparent feeling of inconvenience. I need not say how valuable is such a quality, and how much it has contributed, under God, to form in many instances the useful and even the great man: surely it is a quality peculiarly necessary in such times as ours. Nor is the union of firmness and kindness less desirable. Pleasantness of manner, with determination of purpose and consistency in acting out important principles, has long been one of the most admired of human attainments.
Connected with this, in Mr. Burder was unfeigned humility. Sometimes, perhaps through an excess of modesty, he gave place without sufficient reason to men who were less retiring. I have thought that in this respect a due measure of attention was not always paid him; and that some, who ought to have said to him who in humility was taking the lowest place, "Friend, go up higher," were at times deficient in this act of Christian duty. In some instances, where he ought to have received this honour from those who sat with him, he, the man who had done the work, had not so much credit given him, as others who had borne less of the burden and heat of the day. In private also he was really humble: "swift to hear," and in a good sense "slow to speak;" content, as a man truly wise, to learn from all from whom any valuable information or useful suggestions might be obtained.
Mr. Burder was eminent in Scriptural Orthodoxy; in which respect he much resembled the late Rev. Thomas Scott. On all points of Christian doctrine he seemed to have a peculiar clearness and accuracy of discrimination. His views of Divine truth were not disproportionate : one part was not made prominent at the expense of another; or cast into the shade, or explained away, in obedience to the fiat of some human system with which it did not seem to tally, or because it was