Landscapes and Societies: Selected Cases

Couverture
I. Peter Martini, Ward Chesworth
Springer Science & Business Media, 9 nov. 2010 - 478 pages

This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history.

Comparisons and contrasts between the various cases can be made at various scales from global through inter-regional, to regional and smaller scales. At the global scale, all societies deal with major problems of climate change, sea-level rise, and with ubiquitous problems such as soil erosion and landscape degradation. Inter-regional differences bring out significant detail with one region suffering from drought when another suffers from widespread flooding. For example, desertification in North Africa and the Near East contrasts with the temperate countries of southern Europe where the landscape-effects of deforestation are more obvious. And China and Japan offer an interesting comparison from the standpoint of geological hazards to society - large, unpredictable and massively erosive rivers in the former case, volcanoes and accompanying earthquakes in the latter. Within the North African region localized climatic changes led to abandonment of some desertified areas with successful adjustments in others, with the ultimate evolution into the formative civilization of Egypt, the "Gift of the Nile". At a smaller scale it is instructive to compare the city-states of the Medieval and early Renaissance times that developed in the watershed of a single river, the Arno in Tuscany, and how Pisa, Siena and Florence developed and reached their golden periods at different times depending on their location with regard to proximity to the sea, to the main trunk of the river, or in the adjacent hills.

Also noteworthy is the role of technology in opening up opportunities for a society. Consider the Netherlands and how its history has been formed by the technical problem of a populous society dealing with too much water, as an inexorably rising sea threatens their landscape; or the case of communities in Colorado trying to deal with too little water for farmers and domestic users, by bringing their supply over a mountain chain.

These and others cases included in the book, provide evidence of the successes, near misses and outright failures that mark our ongoing relationship with landscape throughout the history of Homo sapiens. The hope is that compilations such as this will lead to a better understanding of the issue and provide us with knowledge valuable in planning a sustainable modus vivendi between humanity and landscape for as long as possible.

Audience: The book will interest geomorphologists, geologists, geographers, archaeologists, anthropologists, ecologists, environmentalists, historians and others in the academic world. Practically, planners and managers interested in landscape/environmental conditions will find interest in these pages, and more generally the increasingly large body of opinion in the general public, with concerns about Planet Earth, will find much to inform their opinions.

Extra material: The color plate section is available at http://extras.springer.com

 

Avis des internautes - Rédiger un commentaire

Aucun commentaire n'a été trouvé aux emplacements habituels.

Table des matières

145 Conclusion
230
References
231
Landscape Evolution and Hazard Responses in the Preindustrial Era
234
151 The Ugly Picture in the Frame of Gold
236
152 The Uniqueness of the Etna Region
239
Landscape and Hazard Response Today
250
References
251
Part IVThe Mediterranean and European WorldCoolTemperate European Lands
253

24 Determinism
xxviii
26 Sustainability
xxix
Womb belly and landscape in the Anthropocene
xxxi
Anthropic Change in the Landscape
xxxvi
The Human Ecological Footprint on the Land
xl
34 Conclusions
xliii
References
xliv
Part IIThe Mediterranean and European WorldArid Mediterranean Lands
ii
Learning from the Past and Planning for the Future
44
42 Linked Climatic and Environmental Change in the Middle Holocene
46
43 Human Responses to Climatic and Environmental Change in the Middle Holocene
52
Recurring Responses to RCC and Climatic Desiccation
60
45 Lessons from the 6th Millennium BP for the TwentyFirst Century
62
46 Conclusions
63
References
64
Holocene Climate Change and Cultural Response in the Central Sahara
68
53 Geological and Geomorphologic Background
69
Landscapes and Strategies
71
55 Drought at 5000 Years BP
82
56 Conclusions
87
References
88
The Desertification of the Egyptian Sahara during the Holocene the Last 10000 years and its influence on the Rise of Egyptian civilization
91
62 The Present Situation
93
63 Climatic Change
95
64 Societal Changes
96
65 Integration of Climatic and Societal Changes
104
66 Conclusions
106
Paleoenvironments and Prehistory in the Holocene of SE Arabia
109
73 Environmental and Societal Changes
113
74 Conclusions
117
References
118
Human Paleoecology in the Ancient MetalSmelting and Farming Complex in the Wadi Faynan SW Jordan at the Desert Margin in the Middle East
121
83 The Farmscape
123
84 MetalExtraction Sites
126
86 Discussion
127
87 Conclusions
132
References
133
Empire and Environment in the Northern Fertile Crescent
135
Settlement Dispersal and Soil Erosion
137
The Extension of Settlement into Climatically Marginal Areas
143
Water Supply and the Spread of Irrigation Technologies
145
95 Discussion
147
References
149
Part IIIThe Mediterranean and European WorldWarmTemperate Mediterranean Lands
152
The Interplay between Environment and People from Neolithic to Classical Times in Greece and Albania
153
103 The Coming of Agriculture and its Impact
156
104 Changes over the Last Millennium
158
105 Conclusion
163
Their Settlements Economic Activities and Use of the Land Sardinia Italy
165
113 The Nuragic Civilisation
166
114 Distribution of the Different Types of Settlements in the Various Landscapes
178
115 Case Studies
180
116 Discussion
182
117 Conclusions
183
References
184
Adaptation of EtruscanRoman Communities to Hydrogeological Hazards in the Arno River Catchment Tuscany Central Italy
185
122 Regional Setting
186
123 Methods
187
125 Community Adaptability
197
References
198
Landscape Influences on the Development of the MedievalEarly Renaissance Citystates of Pisa Florence and Siena Italy
200
132 The Overall Human Dimension
203
Pisa Florence Siena
204
134 Synthesis
218
References
220
A Geoarchaeological Approach
222
142 Rapid SeaLevel Rise and Paleohazards
226
143 Hypersedimentation and Coastal Deformation
227
144 Human Impacts
229
Romanian Carpathian Landscapes and Cultures
254
162 From Populated Lower Lands to the Conquest of the Mountains
255
163 Short History of Romanian Carpathian Civilization
259
164 Civilizations and Modifications to the Carpathian Landscapes
263
165 Conclusions
265
References
266
Adaptive Strategies Based on Geomorphologic Principles Give Sustainable Solutions
267
172 The Problems
269
173 The Answers
270
174 The Future
278
References
279
Perception of Volcanic Eruptions in Iceland
280
182 Volcanism in Historical Time
281
183 Imprint of Volcanism on Culture and Landscape
283
184 Discussion
287
185 Conclusions
289
References
290
Part VSouth and East Asia
292
Holocene Environmental Changes and the Evolution of the Neolithic Cultures in China
293
193 Relationship between Regional Environmental Changes and Evolution of the Neolithic Cultures in the Eastern and Central Parts of China
294
194 Summary
316
References
317
Landscape and Subsistence in Japanese History
320
202 Historical Context of Landscape Exploitation
321
203 Prehistoric Hunting and Gathering
324
204 Identity of the Agriculturalists
326
205 Plains Development and Paddy Field Landscapes
327
206 DryField Cultivation
331
207 Agriculture Past Present and Future
333
208 Conclusions
336
References
338
Evolution of Hydraulic Societies in the Ancient Anuradhapura Kingdom of Sri Lanka
340
212 Natural Setting
341
213 Historical Synopsis
344
214 The Water Resource
346
216 Discussion
349
217 Conclusions
350
Reference
351
The Case of the Austronesian Expansion in the Pacific
352
222 Malaria in the Western Pacific Islands
354
223 Glucose6Phosphate Dehydrogenase G6PD Deficiency
359
224 Conclusions
360
225 Future Research
362
Part VICentral and North America
366
Spatial and Temporal Perspectives on Ancient Maya Landscapes
368
233 Preclassic Landscapes
372
234 Early Classic
375
235 Late Classic
378
236 Terminal Classic
382
237 The Postclassic and Beyond
384
238 Discussion
385
References
386
Analysis of Water Use in the Western Great Plains and Rocky Mountains of Colorado USA
389
242 The Water Rush
391
Physical and Ecological Changes in Rivers
393
244 The Contemporary Situation in the Drylands of Colorado
397
245 The Future
400
246 Conclusions
402
Frozen Coasts and the Development of Inuit Culture in the North American Arctic
405
253 Archaeological Sequence
409
254 Cultures and the Landscape
410
255 Landscape and Ideology
416
257 Conclusion
418
References
422
Glossary
423
Index
441
Color Plate Section
467
Droits d'auteur

Autres éditions - Tout afficher

Expressions et termes fréquents

Informations bibliographiques