Gastrointestinal Regulatory Peptides

Couverture
David R. Brown
Springer Science & Business Media, 6 déc. 2012 - 446 pages
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Since the discovery of the pancreatic secretagogue secretin by W. M. BAYLISS and E. H. STARLING at the inception of the twentieth century, intense interest has focused on numerous, continually expanding classes of small peptides which appear to serve as regulatory molecules in the gastrointestinal tract, brain, and other organ systems. Initially, many of these substances were, like secretin, discovered in functional assays as "factors" or "activities" extractable in minute quantities from tissues or tissue fluids. By the middle of the century, advances in biochemical and immunological methods for the purification, characterization, and quantification of biologically active peptides in organ systems, tissues, and body fluids provided further impetus to this field. It was readily appreciated that small, biologically active peptides were particularly abundant in the digestive tract. Many peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, gastrin, and more recently peptide YY and galanin were in fact originally discovered in and isolated from gut tissue. Moreover, these peptides were found to have profound actions on the gastroenteropancreatic system in vivo and in vitro. During the past 2 decades, information on regulatory peptides has burgeoned as a result of technological refinements in the synthesis of peptides, improved methods for detecting and visualizing peptides and their precursors in cells and tissues from a variety of species, advances in the functional assessment of peptide activity, and the application of molecular biological techniques to the char acterization of peptide gene structure and expression.
 

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Table des matières

CHAPTER
1
Enteric Neurons
11
References
20
CHAPTER 2
29
E Analysis of Gene Expression
45
G Conclusion
61
CHAPTER 3
68
Intracellular Trafficking and Processing Pathways
80
Somatostatin Inhibits Calcium Currents
269
Neuropeptide Y
270
References
271
CHAPTER 9
277
Motilin
279
Neurotensin
280
Regulation of Smooth Muscle by Neural Peptides
281
CHAPTER 10
296

Processing Sites and General Mechanisms
81
F Processing of Specific Prohormones
91
CHAPTER 4
105
Nutrient Regulation of Peptide Release
120
CHAPTER 5
133
Signal Transduction by Receptors
140
E Conclusion and Perspectives
161
CHAPTER 6
177
Pathways of Proteolytic Inactivation of Some Gastrointestinal
189
CHAPTER 7
199
References
233
CHAPTER 8
253
Transduction Mechanism
262
Cholecystokinin
263
GastrinReleasing PeptideBombesin
264
Opioid Peptides Activate an Inwardly Rectifying GK
265
Opioid Receptors Coupled to Inhibition of Calcium Channels
266
Somatostatin
267
AGProtein Couples the Somatostatin Receptor to the Potassium Channel
268
Regulation of Intestinal Transport by Peptide Neurohormones
305
Concluding Remarks
315
Peptidergic Regulation of Gastrointestinal Blood Flow
325
CapsaicinSensitive Afferent Nerves
336
CHAPTER 12
343
Evidence for GrowthPromoting Effects of Neuropeptides
355
CHAPTER 13
363
Conclusion
378
CHAPTER 14
387
Duodenum
392
F Gallstones
401
H Colon
407
69
415
CHAPTER 15
417
Antagonists of Peptides in Therapy
424
72
428
E The Future
432
74
439
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