Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input-output Approach

Couverture
Resources for the Future, 2006 - 262 pages
Environmental life cycle assessment is often thought of as cradle to grave and therefore as the most complete accounting of the environmental costs and benefits of a product or service. However, as anyone who has done an environmental life cycle assessment knows, existing tools have many problems: data is difficult to assemble and life cycle studies take months of effort. A truly comprehensive analysis is prohibitive, so analysts are often forced to simply ignore many facets of life cycle impacts. But the focus on one aspect of a product or service can result in misleading indications if that aspect is benign while other aspects pollute or are otherwise unsustainable. This book summarizes the EIO-LCA method, explains its use in relation to other life cycle assessment models, and provides sample applications and extensions of the model into novel areas. A final chapter explains the free, easy-to-use software tool available on a companion website. (www.eiolca.net) The software tool provides a wealth of data, summarizing the current U.S. economy in 500 sectors with information on energy and materials use, pollution and greenhouse gas discharges, and other attributes like associated occupational deaths and injuries. The joint project of twelve faculty members and over 20 students working together over the past ten years at the Green Design Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, the EIO-LCA has been applied to a wide range of products and services. It will prove useful for research, industry, and in economics, engineering, or interdisciplinary classes in green design.
 

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Table des matières

Introduction to the EIOLCA Method 1 Exploring Environmental Impacts and Sustainability
3
Combining the EIOLCA Approach
21
Environmental Valuation for Life Cycle Assessment
29
Uncertainty in Estimating Impacts
42
Using the Economic InputOutput Life Cycle Assessment Model
49
Example Applications
63
A Life Cycle Analysis of a Midsize Passenger Car
65
Comparison of Steel and Plastic Fuel Tank Systems
76
Construction Materials for Roads and Bridges
103
Environmental Impacts of Services
109
Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation
118
Further Developments in theEIOLCA Method
149
A Canadian Economic InputOutput Life Cycle
169
Sectors and Outputs in the 1997 U S Benchmark
187
Disaggregation Options for Conducting Hybrid
207
Compliance of an LCA Study Conducted Using
226

Effects of Using Nanotechnology to Stabilize Platinum
86
Group Metal Particles in Automotive Catalysts
87
ECommerceBook Publishingand Retail Logistics
94
References
239
About the Authors
261
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À propos de l'auteur (2006)

Chris T. Hendrickson is the Duquesne Light Company Professor of Engineering, head of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Engineering and Research, and co-director of the Green Design Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Lester B. Lave is the Harry B. and James H. Higgins Professor of Economics in the Carnegie Mellon Tepper School of Business and co-director of both the Electricity Industry Center and the Green Design Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. H. Scott Matthews is the research director of the Green Design Institute and a faculty member in the departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University.

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